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1.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(9): 1805-1809, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spike protein antibodies against coronavirus disease-2019 in post-infection and post-vaccinated individuals. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from June, 1 to July 31, 2021 at the Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan, and comprised subjects of either gender in whom immunogenicity was checked 35 days post-vaccination and 90 days post-infection. Correlation with age and gender was checked. Specimens were collected and investigated for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spike protein antibodies by consuming electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Of the total 256 patients enrolled, 70(27.34%) were included; 49(69%) males and 21(29.6%) females. The overall mean age was 44±7.75 years. Among 30(42.8%) patients with positive polymerase chain reaction test, the mean time between the positive test and antibody screening was 90±30 days. Among the 40(57.2%) vaccinated individuals, the time between vaccination and antibody screening was 35±9.74 days. Overall, 68(97%) patients revealed robust positive findings to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spike proteins antibodies >50IU/mL. Male subjects had significantly higher immunogenic response compared to females (p=0.001), and immunogenicity decreased with advancing age (p<0.001). Also, post-vaccinated patients' antibody response was significant compared to post-infection patients' response (p=0.001). Conclusion: Majority of the patients had significantly higher antibody titers against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 post-infection and post-vaccination. Males and younger individuals developed a significant humoral immunity compared to females and the elderly.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , Age Factors , Sex Factors
2.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052268

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced COVID-19 is a complicated disease. Clinicians are continuously facing difficulties to treat infected patients using the principle of repurposing of drugs as no specific drugs are available to treat COVID-19. To minimize the severity and mortality, global vaccination is the only hope as a potential preventive measure. After a year-long global research and clinical struggle, 165 vaccine candidates have been developed and some are currently still in the pipeline. A total of 28 candidate vaccines have been approved for use and the remainder are in different phases of clinical trials. In this comprehensive report, the authors aim to demonstrate, classify and provide up-to-date clinical trial status of all the vaccines discovered to date and specifically focus on the approved candidates. Finally, the authors specifically focused on the vaccination of different types of medically distinct populations.

3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac479, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051517

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of a patient with AIDS who had persistent infection with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant for >80 days. The variant contained mutations that were not present in other Delta viruses in our hospital. Prolonged infection in immunosuppressed individuals may lead to evolution of SARS-CoV-2 lineages.

4.
Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess ; 36(10): 3239-3253, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048284

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 or Coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) is a pandemic calamity that has locked people in their own houses. The effect of SARS-COV-2 disease has caused a decrease in the economy as businesses, transportation, aviation, and industries have been halted. Many people have died, and many are trying to survive this pandemic. As we all know, the virus of SARS-COV-2 can be transmitted through physical contact, and the government has taken up specific measures like closing up schools and colleges, closing up malls/markets/public places, and imposing lockdown in cities. It is expected that these measures can result in a decreased infection rate. On the one hand, SARS-COV-2 Has halted economic or developmental growth, but on the other hand, our nature i. e. our earth, is being provided with such conditions that it can restore its losses. Air quality has been improved in the lock down time. The emission level of different gases and particulate matters have slowed down in the Covid period. Water bodies have been clean and more transparent and propagate wildlife and fisheries. Due to the SARS-COV-2 lockdown, businesses and industries have halted, impacting the financial needs of many people around the world. The worry about surviving this pandemic and the financial crisis leads them to mental and emotional distress. This review article summarized the emergence of SARS-COV-2 disease and its role on human physical and psychological health. We also described the positive and negative effects of SARS-COV-2 on climate, environmental, and air quality with upcoming challenges for governments and populations around the world.

5.
J Nutr ; 152(10): 2218-2226, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is at the core of many chronic conditions and exacerbates infectious conditions, including the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the effects of a novel food supplement, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), specifically Levagen+, as compared with a placebo on proinflammatory biomarkers in adults recently diagnosed with COVID-19 who were unvaccinated and nonhospitalized. METHODS: This study was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted October 2020-March 2021 (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04912921). Participants aged 19-53 y were unvaccinated and recently infected with COVID-19 as indicated by a positive test result per RT-PCR or antigen test, and they reported to the test site following diagnosis as allowed by the CDC's return-to-work policy. Participants were stratified by age, sex, and BMI and randomly assigned by coin toss to receive 600 mg Levagen+ twice daily (LEV) or placebo tablets twice daily (CON) for 4 wk. At baseline and week 4, participants completed health histories, 24-h dietary recalls, anthropometrics, and nonfasting blood sampling. The primary outcomes were the 4-wk change between groups for IL-6, C-reactive protein, ferritin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. Multiple linear regression models were utilized to assess treatment effects on outcomes, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: A total of 60 participants completed the study (LEV: n = 30; CON: n = 30). After 4 wk of supplementation, sP-selectin (ß = -11.5; 95% CI: -19.8, -3.15; P = 0.0078), IL-1ß (ß = -22.9; 95% CI: -42.4, -3.40; P = 0.0222), and IL-2 (ß = -1.73; 95% CI: -3.45, -0.065; P = 0.0492) concentrations were significantly reduced in the LEV group compared with the CON group. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory mechanisms are crucial to optimal resolution of infectious conditions, yet unchecked secretion of inflammatory mediators can promote the dysregulated immune response implicated in COVID-19 complications. Overall, PEA supplementation produced anti-inflammatory effects in individuals recently diagnosed with COVID-19 who were nonhospitalized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Amides , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Double-Blind Method , Ethanolamines , Ferritins , Humans , Inflammation Mediators , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-6 , P-Selectin , Palmitic Acids , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Medica Jadertina ; 52(2):129-134, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2010867

ABSTRACT

Millions of people around the world were, or are still involved with COVID-19 due to infection with SARS-CoV-2. In addition to hallmark symptoms, thrombotic problems, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia have also been reported in COVID-19 patients, of which ITP is the most common and occurs in more than one-third of COVID-19 patients. Hyperinflammation, cytokine storms, and generally immune dysregulation in a percentage of patients develop the main consequences of diseases such as ALI, ARDS and multiple organ failure. Some of the important events in the immunopathogenesis of this disease are disruption of T-cell effector differentiation and the destructive role of Th17 lymphocytes, neutrophil function and inflammatory macrophages. NLRP3-inflammasome hyperactivity causes serious dysfunction of innate immune cells and, consequently, T lymphocytes in many inflammatory disorders, most notably in the COVID-19. A closer look at the immunopathogenesis of ITP and COVID-19 brings us to common ground. The purpose of this study was to review and summarize the findings of various studies on the immunopathogenesis of ITP and its possible causes in COVID-19. Finally, enhanced differentiation of Th17 and Th1, the cell death called as pyroptosis, hyperinflammation and dysfunction of inflammatory neutrophils and macrophages, and NLRP3-inflammasome hyperactivity are important factors in the development of thrombocytopenia in patients with COVID-19. Further studies are needed to better understand immunopathogenesis and effective treatments for ITP, especially in inflammatory disorders. © 2022, Opca Bolnica Zadar. All rights reserved.

7.
Trials ; 23(1): 728, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of May 2022, Ontario has seen more than 1.3 million cases of COVID-19. While the majority of individuals will recover from infection within 4 weeks, a significant subset experience persistent and often debilitating symptoms, known as "post-COVID syndrome" or "Long COVID." Those with Long COVID experience a wide array of symptoms, with variable severity, including fatigue, cognitive impairment, and shortness of breath. Further, the prevalence and duration of Long COVID is not clear, nor is there evidence on the best course of rehabilitation for individuals to return to their desired level of function. Previous work with chronic conditions has suggested that the addition of electronic case management (ECM) may help to improve outcomes. These platforms provide enhanced connection with care providers, detailed symptom tracking and goal setting, and access to relevant resources. In this study, our primary aim is to determine if the addition of ECM with health coaching improves Long COVID outcomes at 3 months compared to health coaching alone. METHODS: The trial is an open-label, single-site, randomized controlled trial of ECM with health coaching (ECM+) compared to health coaching alone (HC). Both groups will continue to receive usual care. Participants will be randomized equally to receive health coaching (± ECM) for a period of 8 weeks and a 12-week follow-up. Our primary outcome is the WHO Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS), 36-item self-report total score. Participants will also complete measures of cognition, fatigue, breathlessness, and mental health. Participants and care providers will be asked to complete a brief qualitative interview at the end of the study to evaluate acceptability and implementation of the intervention. DISCUSSION: There is currently little evidence about the optimal treatment of Long COVID patients or the use of digital health platforms in this population. The results of this trial could result in rapid, scalable, and personalized care for people with Long COVID which will decrease morbidity after an acute infection. Results from this study will also inform decision making in Long COVID and treatment guidelines at provincial and national levels. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05019963. Registered on 25 August 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Case Management , Electronics , Fatigue/chemically induced , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology , Treatment Outcome
8.
Acta Ortop Bras ; 30(4): e256089, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005784

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the impacts of measures to face COVID-19 on total knee arthroplasty procedures in the country, based on data provided by the SUS Information and Informatics Department (DATASUS). Methods: Cross-sectional study of secondary data in the public domain, available on the website of the Department of Information and Informatics of SUS (DATASUS), containing information about hospital admissions in the SUS. Results: Brazil suffered a 51.82% decrease, on average, in the performance of total knee arthroplasty by the Unified Health System (SUS) in 2020, due to measures to face COVID-19. The analysis by region offers more details on this reduction in the number of procedures. In the Northeast, the decrease was on average 48.02%, whereas in the Center-West it was 65.61%. Southeast, North, and South registered an average decrease of 49.38%, 51.81%, and 55.06%, respectively. Conclusion: COVID-19 impacted the realization of TKA in Brazil, with greater and lesser levels of decline observed in different Brazilian regions. In the Southeast region, for example, the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais were the most affected, mainly due to the large population concentration, as well as Paraná, which has high numbers of procedures and a sharp decrease in 2020. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Comparative Study.


Objetivo: Avaliar os impactos das medidas de combate à COVID-19 nos procedimentos de artroplastia total do joelho (ATJ) no país, com base nos dados fornecidos pelo Departamento de Informações e Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com dados secundários de domínio público, disponíveis no site do Departamento de Informações e Informática do SUS (DATASUS), contendo informações sobre as internações hospitalares realizadas no SUS. Resultados: O Brasil sofreu uma queda de 51,82%, em média, na realização da artroplastia total do joelho pelo SUS em 2020, decorrente das medidas de combate à COVID-19. A análise por região oferece mais detalhes dessa redução no número de procedimentos. Na região Nordeste, a queda foi, em média, de 48,02%, enquanto no Centro-Oeste foi de 65,61%. Sudeste, Norte e Sul registraram queda, em média, de 49,38%, 51,81% e 55,06%, respectivamente. Conclusão: A COVID-19 impactou a realização de ATJ no Brasil, com níveis de maior e menor declínio observados nas diferentes regiões brasileiras. Na região Sudeste, por exemplo, os estados de São Paulo e Minas Gerais foram os mais afetados, devido principalmente à grande concentração populacional, assim como o Paraná, que apresenta números altos de procedimentos realizados e forte queda em 2020. Nível de Evidência III, Estudo Retrospectivo Comparativo.

10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969525

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has severely impacted human health and the health management system globally. The ongoing pandemic has required the development of more effective diagnostic strategies for restricting deadly disease. For appropriate disease management, accurate and rapid screening and isolation of the affected population is an efficient means of containment and the decimation of the disease. Therefore, considerable efforts are being directed toward the development of rapid and robust diagnostic techniques for respiratory infections, including SARS-CoV-2. In this article, we have summarized the origin, transmission, and various diagnostic techniques utilized for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These higher-end techniques can also detect the virus copy number in asymptomatic samples. Furthermore, emerging rapid, cost-effective, and point-of-care diagnostic devices capable of large-scale population screening for COVID-19 are discussed. Finally, some breakthrough developments based on spectroscopic diagnosis that could revolutionize the field of rapid diagnosis are discussed.

11.
Front Surg ; 9: 854225, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933928

ABSTRACT

Absolute uterus factor infertility, whether congenital or acquired, renders the woman unable to carry a child. Although uterus transplantation (UTx) is being increasingly performed as a non-vital procedure to address this unfortunate condition, the immunosuppression required presents risks that are further compounded by pregnancy and during the puerperium period. These vulnerabilities require avoidance of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant UTx recipients especially during the third trimester, as accumulating evidence reveals increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Here we describe a successful UTx case with delivery of a healthy child, but in which both mother and neonate developed asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection seven days after RNA vaccination, on day 35 post-partum. Although the patient was successfully treated with a combination therapy comprised of two monoclonal antibodies, this case highlights the challenges associated with performing UTx in the era of Covid-19. More broadly, the risks of performing non-vital organ transplantation during a pandemic should be discussed among team members and prospective patients, weighing the risks against the benefits in improving the quality of life, which were considerable for our patient who achieved motherhood with the birth of a healthy child.

12.
JMIR mHealth and uHealth ; 2021:1-23, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1918840

ABSTRACT

Background: Digital contact tracing apps have the potential to augment contact tracing systems and disrupt COVID-19 transmission by rapidly identifying secondary cases prior to the onset of infectiousness and linking them into a system of quarantine, testing, and health care worker case management. The international experience of digital contact tracing apps during the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates how challenging their design and deployment are. Objective: This study aims to derive and summarize best practice guidance for the design of the ideal digital contact tracing app. Methods: A collaborative cross-disciplinary approach was used to derive best practice guidance for designing the ideal digital contact tracing app. A search of the indexed and gray literature was conducted to identify articles describing or evaluating digital contact tracing apps. MEDLINE was searched using a combination of free-text terms and Medical Subject Headings search terms. Gray literature sources searched were the World Health Organization Institutional Repository for Information Sharing, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control publications library, and Google, including the websites of many health protection authorities. Articles that were acceptable for inclusion in this evidence synthesis were peer-reviewed publications, cohort studies, randomized trials, modeling studies, technical reports, white papers, and media reports related to digital contact tracing. Results: Ethical, user experience, privacy and data protection, technical, clinical and societal, and evaluation considerations were identified from the literature. The ideal digital contact tracing app should be voluntary and should be equitably available and accessible. User engagement could be enhanced by small financial incentives, enabling users to tailor aspects of the app to their particular needs and integrating digital contact tracing apps into the wider public health information campaign. Adherence to the principles of good data protection and privacy by design is important to convince target populations to download and use digital contact tracing apps. Bluetooth Low Energy is recommended for a digital contact tracing app's contact event detection, but combining it with ultrasound technology may improve a digital contact tracing app's accuracy. A decentralized privacy-preserving protocol should be followed to enable digital contact tracing app users to exchange and record temporary contact numbers during contact events. The ideal digital contact tracing app should define and risk-stratify contact events according to proximity, duration of contact, and the infectiousness of the case at the time of contact. Evaluating digital contact tracing apps requires data to quantify app downloads, use among COVID-19 cases, successful contact alert generation, contact alert receivers, contact alert receivers that adhere to quarantine and testing recommendations, and the number of contact alert receivers who subsequently are tested positive for COVID-19. The outcomes of digital contact tracing apps' evaluations should be openly reported to allow for the wider public to review the evaluation of the app. Conclusions: In conclusion, key considerations and best practice guidance for the design of the ideal digital contact tracing app were derived from the literature. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 120: 217-227, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of favipiravir in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Our protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020206305). Fourteen databases were searched until February 8th, 2021. An update search for new RCTs was done on March 2nd, 2022. Meta-analysis was done for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs. RESULTS: Overall, 157 studies (24 RCTs, 1 non-RCT, 21 observational studies, 2 case series, and 106 case reports) were included. On hospitalized patients, in comparison to standard of care, favipiravir showed a higher rate of viral clearance at day 5 (RR = 1.60, p = 0.02), defervescence at day 3-4 (RR = 1.99, p <0.01), chest radiological improvement (RR = 1.33, p <0.01), hospital discharge at day 10-11 (RR = 1.19, p <0.01), and shorter clinical improvement time (MD = -1.18, p = 0.05). Regarding adverse events, favipiravir groups had higher rates of hyperuricemia (RR = 9.42, p <0.01), increased alanine aminotransferase (RR = 1.35, p <0.01) but lower rates of nausea (RR = 0.42, p <0.01) and vomiting (R R= 0.19, p=0.02). There were no differences regarding mortality (RR=1.19, p=0.32), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (RR = 1.11, p = 0.25). On nonhospitalized patients, no significant differences were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Adding favipiravir to the standard of care provides better outcomes for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Pregnant, lactating women, and patients with a history of hyperuricemia should avoid using favipiravir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hyperuricemia , Amides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Pyrazines , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(6): 1166-1174, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885004

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection has emerged as an unparalleled pandemic with morbidity and mortality tolls challenging diagnostic approaches and therapeutic interventions, and raising serious questions for healthcare policy-makers. From the diagnostic perspective, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction remains the gold standard. However, issues associated with gene primer variation in different countries, low analytical sensitivity, cross-reactivity with certain human coronaviruses have raised serious concerns within the scientific community. Alongside longer turnaround times, requirements of sophisticated equipment and trained technicians are the other challenges for conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing. The recent biotechnological boom has now allowed newer nucleic acid testing options for diagnosing severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronovairus 2 (SARS-CoV2) with much better diagnostic efficiency, reduced turnaround times and possible benefit for use as a point-of-care test. Isothermal techniques with simple equipment requirements along with uniform temperature for analysis have emerged to be more sensitive and specific with turnaround times as low as 10-15 minutes. Similarly, Cluster Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats have also been seen to play a very decisive role in COVID-19 diagnostics with much superior diagnostic efficiency and feasibility as a point-of-care test and its possible use for sequencing. The current narrative review was planned to consolidate data for all possible nucleic acid testing options under research/clinical use, and to provide a comparative assessment from the perspective of both the clinician and the laboratory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uronic Acids
15.
J Voice ; 2022 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867444

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate results of telerehabilitation (TR) during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic for the treatment of dysphonia caused by permanent post-thyroidectomy unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). METHODS: Forty subjects with post-thyroidectomy UVFP (onset <1 month) underwent TR. Videostrobolaryngoscopy, acoustic and perceptual voice analysis and patient self-assessment were carried out in person before, at the end of TR and 6 months later. RESULTS: Twenty-five subjects spontaneously recovered full vocal fold motility at some time during follow-up, whereas 15 had a permanent UVFP at the end of the follow-up period. These subjects constituted our study group. At the early posttherapy control 10/15 subjects (66.6%) showed a complete glottal closure, while in 5/15 (33.3%) a glottal gap remained (P = 0.03). These results did not change 6 months after TR. At the late posttherapy control the maximum phonation time improved significantly (P = 0.02). Both post-therapy Voice Handicap Index scores were significantly lower than the pre-therapy ones (P = 0.04). Grade, Breathiness, and Asthenia parameters of the Grade-Roughness-Breathiness-Asthenia-Strain scale improved 6 months after TR (P < 0.05). The number of voice signals suitable for acoustic analysis increased significantly after therapy. Finally, 87% of patients were satisfied with TR. CONCLUSIONS: With careful patient selection, TR may be considered as a promising method for voice therapy in postthyroidectomy UVFP.

17.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(6): 401-407, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847499

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare seroconversion for SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) specific IgG positivity against two doses of the CoronaVac vaccine in breast and lung cancer patients receiving systemic therapy, to determine the factors affecting seropositivity, and to observe long-term results up to a secondary booster vaccine. RESULTS: The analysis included 201 cancer patients (99 breasts, 102 lungs; median age: 59 years (range: 28-92), 42.3 % men) and 97 controls (median age: 62 years (range: 24-87), 38.1 % men). The seropositivity rate for RBD IgG after 2 doses of vaccine in the cancer group was 81.6 % (n=164) and 93.8 % (n=91) in the control group (p=0.005). The median IgG titer of cancer patients was significantly lower than in the control group (338 (IQR, 95-933) AU/mL vs 676 (IQR, 389-1270) AU/mL; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis of all the patients determined that having cancer (OR: 0.303, 95%CI: 0.123-0.750, p=0.010) and being over 60 years of age (OR: 0.447, 95%CI: 0.218-0.917, p=0.028) was associated with a reduced vaccine response. A subgroup analysis of cancer patients revealed that seroconversion was lower in men than in women (75.3 % vs 86.2 %, p=0.049) and lower in ≥60 patients than in <60 patients (75.9 % vs 89.4 %, p=0.014). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Cancer patients receiving an active systemic therapy with two doses of the CoronaVac vaccine had a lower antibody response than the non-cancer population, and deaths due to COVID-19 may occur in these patients despite the vaccine. Therefore, extensive protective measures should be taken to protect against COVID-19 in cancer patients aged 60 years and older, who have received two doses of the CoronaVac vaccine (Tab. 4, Fig. 4, Ref. 27).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(2): 360-363, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1848216

ABSTRACT

The workup of corona virus disease (COVID-19) involves analyzing samples for acute or past presence of SARS-CoV-2 (virus). A detection of 2019 novel Corona virus (2019-nCov) by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indicates current infection and positive IgG antibody level implies a prior infection. Imaging techniques like high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest and Xray chest helps in diagnosing and monitoring the disease. Most cases of 2019-nCov are mild and range from asymptomatic carriers to critical illness leading to acute respiratory distress, septic shock and multiorgan failure. We report two cases of COVID-19 who manifested with high grade fever, myalgias, cough and shortness of breath on minimal exertion. All baseline laboratory findings were normal. Initial RT-PCR was negative for oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs. CT Chest showing typical peripheral patchy and ground glass opacities bilaterally, other markers of infectivity followed by antibody titer confirms the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
19.
Hong Kong Journal of Paediatrics ; 27(2):118-125, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1843202

ABSTRACT

Since the first report of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, the disease has rapidly spread to many countries worldwide. The initial reports showed that the incidence rate in adults was higher, while children and adolescents had fewer cases of infection. However, the number of COVID-19 cases has gradually increased in children and adolescents. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the percentage of children and/or adolescents of the total patients diagnosed with COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched to find relevant studies. All statistical analyses were conducted using StataMP 14 software. A total of 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. The final results showed that the percentage of children and/or adolescents of all COVID-19 cases was 0.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.04-0.07], which meant an average of 6 cases in children per 10,000 COVID-19 cases. The percentage of children and/or adolescents with COVID-19 was 0.03 (95% CI, 0.01-0.05), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.08-0.09), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.03-0.16) and 0.04 (95% CI, 0.00-0.10) in Asia, South America, North America and Europe, respectively. The present study showed a low percentage of COVID-19 cases of children and/or adolescents, but not without infection risk. Therefore, we should pay attention to the cases of children and/or adolescents during the COVID-19 period and raise our vigilance. © 2022, Medcom Limited. All rights reserved.

20.
Health, Risk & Society ; 23(7-8):289-303, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1806078

ABSTRACT

On 30 December 2019, Dr Marjorie Pollack, deputy editor of ProMed, received information about a SARS-like disease in the Chinese city of Wuhan. Having checked the facts, she issued an alert to the worldwide network signalling the start of an outbreak of a highly infectious and dangerous disease. The new virus, SARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly from Wuhan causing a global pandemic of COVID-19. In this review, I examine the ways in which risk can provide insights into and an understanding of the social and cultural responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. I draw on three major theories that highlight the role of risk in contemporary societies: Beck and Giddens's analysis of late modern society as risk society;Douglas's analysis of the continuing significance of cultural theory in understanding the construction and use of risk to address social tensions and challenges;and Foucault's analysis of governmentality and the use of discourses such as risk as a form of power and control. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

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