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1.
Toxicol Rep ; 9:541-548, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1829588

ABSTRACT

Paracetamol/Acetaminophen was widely used as a first-line antipyretic and analgesic for COVID-19 patients without giving any attention to the potential risk of related toxicities. A survey was conducted on 176 Egyptians using an online survey portal to assess their knowledge, and attitude regarding potential risk of paracetamol toxicities and whether COVID-19 pandemic affected their practices regarding safe use of paracetamol. The self-administered questionnaire was developed by the researchers and was validated by expert opinions. A pilot testing of the questionnaire was done. Alpha Cronbach test used to assess the internal consistency reliability of the survey revealed good reliability. Overall percent-score revealed that only 24.4% of participants had good knowledge about paracetamol and its related potential toxicities. 62.5% of participants considered paracetamol safer than other medications of the same indications. 42.6% of participants could advise others to use paracetamol without prescription. According to the participants' responses, physicians were less concerned to give instructions about possibility of overdosage. Our results also revealed that participants' administration of paracetamol without physician prescription was more during COVID-19. Practice of paracetamol administration more than the allowed number of tablets/day was significantly more evident during the pandemic. We concluded that the unsupervised use of paracetamol is an alarming sign that should be addressed as this could lead to a high rate of accidental paracetamol toxicity. A lesson learnt from COVID-19 pandemic is the need to implement behavior change measures to mitigate the risk of accidental paracetamol toxicity.

2.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 12(1): 69-72, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814845

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a pandemic and has caused damage to the lives of the people and economy of countries. However, the therapeutic reagents against SARS-CoV-2 remain unclear. The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 contains a cleavage motif at the S1/S2 boundary, known to be cleaved by furin. As cleavage is essential for S protein activation and viral entry, furin was selected as the target compound. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of two lignans (honokiol and magnolol) on furin-like enzymatic activity using a fluorogenic substrate with whole-cell lysates. Of two compounds tested, honokiol partially inhibited furin-like enzymatic activity. We further examined the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of honokiol using VeroE6 cell line, which is stably expressing a transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). It was shown that honokiol exhibited remarkable inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, honokiol and crude drugs which contain honokiol such as Magnolia species have a potential therapeutic reagents for SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Transl Res ; 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783792

ABSTRACT

Type I interferon (IFN) is critical in our defense against viral infections. Increased type I IFN pathway activation is a genetic risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and a number of common risk alleles contribute to the high IFN trait. We hypothesized that these common gain-of-function IFN pathway alleles may be associated with protection from mortality in acute COVID-19. We studied patients admitted with acute COVID-19 (756 European-American and 398 African-American ancestry). Ancestral backgrounds were analyzed separately, and mortality after acute COVID-19 was the primary outcome. In European-American ancestry, we found that a haplotype of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) and alleles of protein kinase cGMP-dependent 1 (PRKG1) were associated with mortality from COVID-19. Interestingly, these were much stronger risk factors in younger patients (OR = 29.2 for PRKG1 in ages 45-54). Variants in the IRF7 and IRF8 genes were associated with mortality from COVID-19 in African-American subjects, and these genetic effects were more pronounced in older subjects. Combining genetic information with blood biomarker data such as C-reactive protein, troponin, and D-dimer resulted in significantly improved predictive capacity, and in both ancestral backgrounds the risk genotypes were most relevant in those with positive biomarkers (OR for death between 14 and 111 in high risk genetic/biomarker groups). This study confirms the critical role of the IFN pathway in defense against COVID-19 and viral infections, and supports the idea that some common SLE risk alleles exert protective effects in antiviral immunity.

4.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 824-837, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778073

ABSTRACT

Since Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in late 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged public health around the world. Currently, there is an urgent need to explore antiviral therapeutic targets and effective clinical drugs. In this study, we systematically summarized two main therapeutic strategies against COVID-19, namely drugs targeting the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle and SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation in host cells. The development of above two strategies is implemented by repurposing drugs and exploring potential targets. A comprehensive summary of promising drugs, especially cytokine inhibitors, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), provides recommendations for clinicians as evidence-based medicine in the actual clinical COVID-19 treatment. Considering the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants greatly impact the effectiveness of drugs and vaccines, we reviewed the appearance and details of SARS-CoV-2 variants for further perspectives in drug design, which brings updating clues to develop therapeutical agents against the variants. Based on this, the development of broadly antiviral drugs, combined with immunomodulatory, or holistic therapy in the host, is prior to being considered for therapeutic interventions on mutant strains of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, it is highly acclaimed the requirements of the concerted efforts from multi-disciplinary basic studies and clinical trials, which improves the accurate treatment of COVID-19 and optimizes the contingency measures to emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

5.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 766-778, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778071

ABSTRACT

The clinical manifestation of the recent pandemic COVID-19, caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, varies from mild to severe respiratory illness. Although environmental, demographic and co-morbidity factors have an impact on the severity of the disease, contribution of the mutations in each of the viral genes towards the degree of severity needs a deeper understanding for designing a better therapeutic approach against COVID-19. Open Reading Frame-3a (ORF3a) protein has been found to be mutated at several positions. In this work, we have studied the effect of one of the most frequently occurring mutants, D155Y of ORF3a protein, found in Indian COVID-19 patients. Using computational simulations we demonstrated that the substitution at 155th changed the amino acids involved in salt bridge formation, hydrogen-bond occupancy, interactome clusters, and the stability of the protein compared with the other substitutions found in Indian patients. Protein-protein docking using HADDOCK analysis revealed that substitution D155Y weakened the binding affinity of ORF3a with caveolin-1 compared with the other substitutions, suggesting its importance in the overall stability of ORF3a-caveolin-1 complex, which may modulate the virulence property of SARS-CoV-2.

6.
Build Environ ; 212: 108787, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773140

ABSTRACT

Working from home has drawn more attention with the development of information and communications technology and the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Although studies on working from home have been conducted in various academic fields, few have focused on residential environment and personality traits. In the present study, air temperature and humidity of the home workplace were measured and a questionnaire survey was conducted to understand the relationship between residential environment and personality traits and at-home work productivity. The results suggest that comprehensive productivity while working from home improved. However, when examining individual aspects of productivity, the productivity of information processing improved while that of knowledge processing and knowledge creation deteriorated. The results also suggest the importance of improving the residential environment when working from home because productivity while working from home rather than from the office improved with high evaluation of the residential environment. Moreover, productivity decreased for workers with high neuroticism and increased for those with high openness or perseverance and passion, suggesting that some personality traits are more or less suitable for working from home. To improve the productivity of all workers, these findings have practical implications for promoting appropriate maintenance of the residential environment and introducing flexible work styles that account for personality traits.

7.
Toxicol Rep ; 9: 541-548, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768569

ABSTRACT

Paracetamol/Acetaminophen was widely used as a first-line antipyretic and analgesic for COVID-19 patients without giving any attention to the potential risk of related toxicities. A survey was conducted on 176 Egyptians using an online survey portal to assess their knowledge, and attitude regarding potential risk of paracetamol toxicities and whether COVID-19 pandemic affected their practices regarding safe use of paracetamol. The self-administered questionnaire was developed by the researchers and was validated by expert opinions. A pilot testing of the questionnaire was done. Alpha Cronbach test used to assess the internal consistency reliability of the survey revealed good reliability. Overall percent-score revealed that only 24.4% of participants had good knowledge about paracetamol and its related potential toxicities. 62.5% of participants considered paracetamol safer than other medications of the same indications. 42.6% of participants could advise others to use paracetamol without prescription. According to the participants' responses, physicians were less concerned to give instructions about possibility of overdosage. Our results also revealed that participants' administration of paracetamol without physician prescription was more during COVID-19. Practice of paracetamol administration more than the allowed number of tablets/day was significantly more evident during the pandemic. We concluded that the unsupervised use of paracetamol is an alarming sign that should be addressed as this could lead to a high rate of accidental paracetamol toxicity. A lesson learnt from COVID-19 pandemic is the need to implement behavior change measures to mitigate the risk of accidental paracetamol toxicity.

8.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 37: 101644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768510

ABSTRACT

In this study, we reported a previously immunocompetent patient who developed cytomegalovirus-induced gastric ulcers after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A 33-year-old man was referred to our center with complaints of persistent dysphagia and odynophagia, and epigastric pain and discomfort after ingesting solids or liquids, a few days after his hospital discharge following admission to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Endoscopy revealed inflammation and a whitish exudate in the esophagus, and multiple large active ulcers in the stomach. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were strongly suggestive of cytomegalovirus infection.

9.
Matrix Biol Plus ; 14: 100106, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768400

ABSTRACT

The vascular endothelium is the interface between circulating blood and end organs and thus has a critical role in preserving organ function. The endothelium is lined by a glycan-rich glycocalyx that uniquely contributes to endothelial function through its regulation of leukocyte and platelet interactions with the vessel wall, vascular permeability, coagulation, and vasoreactivity. Degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx can thus promote vascular dysfunction, inflammation propagation, and organ injury. The endothelial glycocalyx and its role in vascular pathophysiology has gained increasing attention over the last decade. While studies characterizing vascular glycocalyx injury and its downstream consequences in a host of adult human diseases and in animal models has burgeoned, studies evaluating glycocalyx damage in pediatric diseases are relatively few. As children have unique physiology that differs from adults, significant knowledge gaps remain in our understanding of the causes and effects of endothelial glycocalyx disintegrity in pediatric critical illness. In this narrative literature overview, we offer a unique perspective on the role of the endothelial glycocalyx in pediatric critical illness, drawing from adult and preclinical data in addition to pediatric clinical experience to elucidate how marked derangement of the endothelial surface layer may contribute to aberrant vascular biology in children. By calling attention to this nascent field, we hope to increase research efforts to address important knowledge gaps in pediatric vascular biology that may inform the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

10.
CJEM ; 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) evolved between pandemic waves. Our objective was to compare treatments, acute care utilization, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) across pandemic waves. METHODS: This observational study enrolled consecutive eligible COVID-19 patients presenting to 46 EDs participating in the Canadian COVID-19 ED Rapid Response Network (CCEDRRN) between March 1 and December 31, 2020. We collected data by retrospective chart review. Our primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included treatments, hospital and ICU admissions, ED revisits and readmissions. Logistic regression modeling assessed the impact of pandemic wave on outcomes. RESULTS: We enrolled 9,967 patients in 8 provinces, 3,336 from the first and 6,631 from the second wave. Patients in the second wave were younger, fewer met criteria for severe COVID-19, and more were discharged from the ED. Adjusted for patient characteristics and disease severity, steroid use increased (odds ratio [OR] 7.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2-8.9), and invasive mechanical ventilation decreased (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.4-0.7) in the second wave compared to the first. After adjusting for differences in patient characteristics and disease severity, the odds of hospitalization (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.6-0.8) and critical care admission (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.6-0.9) decreased, while mortality remained unchanged (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-1.1). INTERPRETATION: In patients presenting to cute care facilities, we observed rapid uptake of evidence-based therapies and less use of experimental therapies in the second wave. We observed increased rates of ED discharges and lower hospital and critical care resource use over time. Substantial reductions in mechanical ventilation were not associated with increasing mortality. Advances in treatment strategies created health system efficiencies without compromising patient outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04702945.


RéSUMé: CONTEXTE: Le traitement de la maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) a évolué entre les vagues pandémiques. Notre objectif était de comparer les traitements, l'utilisation des soins aigus et les résultats des patients atteints de la maladie COVID-19 se présentant aux urgences à travers les vagues de pandémie. MéTHODES: Cette étude observationnelle a recruté des patients COVID-19 éligibles consécutifs se présentant à 46 services d'urgence participant au Réseau canadien de réponse rapide aux services d'urgence COVID-19 (CCEDRRN) entre le 1er mars et le 31 décembre 2020. Nous avons recueilli des données au moyen d'un examen rétrospectif des dossiers. Notre principal résultat a été la mortalité à l'hôpital. Les résultats secondaires incluaient les traitements, les admissions à l'hôpital et aux soins intensifs, les revisites aux urgences et les réadmissions. La modélisation par régression logistique a évalué l'impact de la vague de pandémie sur les résultats. RéSULTATS: Nous avons recruté 9 967 patients dans 8 provinces, 3 336 de la première vague et 6 631 de la deuxième vague. Les patients de la deuxième vague étaient plus jeunes, moins nombreux à répondre aux critères de gravité de la COVID-19 et plus nombreux à quitter les urgences. Après ajustement en fonction des caractéristiques des patients et de la gravité de la maladie, le recours aux stéroïdes a augmenté (rapport de cotes [RC] 7.4 ; intervalle de confiance à 95 % [IC] 6.2­8.9) et la ventilation mécanique invasive a diminué (RC 0.5 ; IC à 95 % 0.4­0.7) lors de la deuxième vague par rapport à la première. Après ajustement pour tenir compte des différences dans les caractéristiques des patients et la gravité de la maladie, les probabilités d'hospitalisation (RC 0.7 ; IC à 95 % 0.6­0.8) et d'admission en soins intensifs (RC 0.7 ; IC à 95 % 0.6­0.9) ont diminué, tandis que la mortalité est restée inchangée (RC 0.7 ; IC à 95 % 0.5­1.1). INTERPRéTATION: Chez les patients se présentant dans les établissements de soins de santé, nous avons observé une adoption rapide des thérapies fondées sur des données probantes et un moindre recours aux thérapies expérimentales lors de la deuxième vague. Nous avons observé une augmentation des taux de sortie des services d'urgence et une diminution de l'utilisation des ressources hospitalières et des soins intensifs au fil du temps. Les réductions substantielles de la ventilation mécanique n'étaient pas associées à une augmentation de la mortalité. Les progrès réalisés dans les stratégies de traitement ont permis d'améliorer l'efficacité des systèmes de santé sans compromettre les résultats pour les patients.

11.
Med Hypotheses ; 161: 110798, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763894

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have received worldwide attention following several severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemics. In 2019, the first case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-coronavirus 2 [CoV-2]) was reported. SARS-CoV-2 employs RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for genome replication and gene transcription. Recent studies have identified a sulfur (S) metal-binding site in the zinc center structures of the RdRp complex. This metal-binding site is essential for the proper functioning of the viral helicase. We hypothesize that the use of essential nutrients can permeabilize the cell membranes. The oxidation of the metal-binding site occurs via analogs of the essential S-containing amino acid, l-Methionine. l-Methionine can operate as a carrier, and its binding would cause the potential disassembly of RdRp via the S complex and drive methyl donors via a possible countercurrent exchange mechanism and electrical-chemical gradient leading to SARS-CoV-2 replication failure. Our previously published hypothesis on the control of cancer cell proliferation suggests that the presence of a novel disulfide/methyl- adenosine triphosphate pump as an energy source would allow this process. The S binding site in l-Methionine serves as a potential target cofactor for SARS-CoV RdRp, thus providing a possible avenue for the future development of vaccines and antiviral therapeutic strategies to combat COVID-19.

12.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 40: 101012, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763750

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV 2) or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) initially surfaced in December 2019 from Wuhan, China, sweeping the world with various strains, forcing the WHO to declare a pandemic epidemic in March 2020. Furthermore, COVID-19 manifests with a wide array of presentations from fever and fatigue to severe respiratory and cardiovascular complications. Post-COVID-19 syndrome is poorly understood affecting COVID-19 survivors at all levels of disease severity. The disease is most associated with post-discharge dyspnea and fatigue. However, other persistent symptoms as chest pains, palpitations, smell, and taste dysfunctions. Patients with high concentrations of CRP and creatinine in the acute phase of Covid-19 are more prone to cardiac sequelae. Therefore, high levels of cardiac-sensitive troponin and hypokalaemia can also be used for risk stratification. Furthermore, Cardiac damage can manifest as myocarditis, pericarditis, rhythm abnormalities. The use of different diagnostic modalities like electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)(CMR) to evaluate the myocardial damage were studied. However, Cardiovascular complications are a common manifestation of PASC, classification of severity of cardiac symptoms and the emergence of CMR as a diagnostic tool needs more evidence.

13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(4): 1415-1417, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760978

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC) has led to an increase in the incidence of large vessel stroke and cryptogenic shock. We present a case of a 30-year-old COVID-19-positive patient who developed an internal carotid artery (ICA) thrombosis, which led to ischemic stroke, aphasia, and unilateral blindness. Ophthalmic artery occlusion (OAO) was found to be the cause of vision loss. We thereby aim to highlight the detailed ophthalmic manifestations of OAO with features of posterior ciliary artery occlusion (PCAO) in this patient with proven ICA thrombosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Retinal Artery Occlusion , Stroke , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ophthalmic Artery , Retinal Artery Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Artery Occlusion/etiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology
14.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 362: 131765, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757833

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is one of the greatest threats to global human health. Point-of-care diagnostic tools for SARS-CoV-2 could facilitate rapid therapeutic intervention and mitigate transmission. In this work, we report CRISPR-Cas13a cascade-based viral RNA (Cas13C) assay for label-free and isothermal determination of SARS-CoV-2 and its mutations in clinical samples. Cas13a/crRNA was utilized to directly recognize the target of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and the recognition events sequentially initiate the transcription amplification to produce light-up RNA aptamers for output fluorescence signal. The recognition of viral RNA via Cas13a-guide RNA ensures a high specificity to distinguish SARS-CoV-2 from MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, as well as viral mutations. A post transcription amplification strategy was triggered after CRISPR-Cas13a recognition contributes to an amplification cascade that achieves high sensitivity for detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA, with a limit of detection of 0.216 fM. In addition, the Cas13C assay could be able to discriminate single-nucleotide mutation, which was proven with N501Y in SARS-Cov-2 variant. This method was validated by a 100% agreement with RT-qPCR results from 12 clinical throat swab specimens. The Cas13C assay has the potential to be used as a routine nucleic acid test of SARS-CoV-2 virus in resource-limited regions.

15.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 7(3): 294-308, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757448

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-related myocardial injury comprise both direct viral invasion and indirect (hypercoagulability and immune-mediated) cellular injuries. Some patients with COVID-19 cardiac involvement have poor clinical outcomes, with preliminary data suggesting long-term structural and functional changes. These include persistent myocardial fibrosis, edema, and intraventricular thrombi with embolic events, while functionally, the left ventricle is enlarged, with a reduced ejection fraction and new-onset arrhythmias reported in a number of patients. Myocarditis post-COVID-19 vaccination is rare but more common among young male patients. Larger studies, including prospective data from biobanks, will be useful in expanding these early findings and determining their validity.

16.
Kidney Int Rep ; 2022 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757313

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are prone to develop severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and are less well protected by vaccine than immunocompetent subjects. Thus, the use of neutralizing monoclonal anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody (MoAb) to confer a passive immunity appears attractive in KTRs. METHODS: We performed a French nation-wide study to compare Covid-19-related hospitalization, 30-days-admission to intensive care unit (ICU) and 30-days-death between KTRs who received an early infusion of MoAb (MoAb group) and KTRs who did not (control group). Controls were identified from the COVID-SFT registry (NCT04360707) using a propensity score matching with the following covariates: age, sex, delay between transplantation and infection, induction and maintenance immunosuppressive therapy, initial symptoms and comorbidities. RESULTS: Eighty KTRs received MoAb between February and June 2021. They were matched to 155 controls. Covid-19-related hospitalization, 30-days-admission to intensive care unit (ICU) and 30-days-death were less frequently observed in MoAb group (35.0% vs 49.7%, p=0.032; 2.5% vs 15.5%, p=0.002, 1.25% vs 11.6%, p=0.005, respectively). No patients required mechanical ventilation in MoAb group. The number of patients to treat to prevent one death was 9.7. CONCLUSION: The early use of MoAb in KTRs with a mild form of Covid-19 largely improved outcomes in KTRs.

17.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 12(2): 390-397, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751085

ABSTRACT

AIM: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 outbreak resulted in severe health impact with the loss of many lives across the world. Pulmonary parenchyma suffers the most from the brunt of the infection. However, evidence suggested a systemic involvement during the course of illness. Information on morphological changes of the liver is sparse in the literature. We aimed to evaluate the pathological findings in the liver by minimally invasive autopsies. METHODS: Postmortem core biopsies of the liver obtained from patients who succumbed to coronavirus disease 2019 disease were studied. Demographic findings, comorbidities, and relevant laboratory tests were collected. Detailed histopathological changes were assessed. RESULTS: Liver function tests were available in 40 cases, and it was deranged in 80% cases. A spectrum of histological changes was observed. Macrovesicular steatosis and nonspecific portal inflammation of mild degree were the common morphological changes. Features suggestive of vascular alteration were noted in more than half of the cases. These included increased portal vein branches, irregular luminal dilation, and herniation of portal veins into the periportal hepatocytes. In addition, we observed morphological changes attributed to terminal shock-related changes. CONCLUSION: The present study results highlight that liver parenchyma changes may be related to multiple pathogenic mechanisms. The presence of vascular alteration in portal tracts suggests derangement of hepatic vasculature related to systemic hypercoagulable state induced by the viral infection. It remains to be established if the histological changes are related to direct viral insult or to the systemic response caused by the viral attack.

18.
JTCVS Open ; 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751234

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the delivery of care for thoracic surgical patients at an urban medical center. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all thoracic surgical cases from 5/1/2019 to 12/31/2020 was conducted. Demographics, pre-operative surgical indications, procedures, final pathologic diagnoses, and perioperative outcomes were recorded. A census of operative cases, relevant ancillary services, and outpatient thoracic clinics were obtained from our institutional database. Results: 619 cases were included in this study (329 pre-COVID-19 and 290 COVID-19, representing an 11.8% reduction). There were no differences in type of thoracic procedures or peri-operative outcomes between the two cohorts. Prolonged reduction of thoracic surgical cases (50% of baseline) during the first half of the COVID-19 period was followed by a resurgence of surgical volumes to 110% of baseline in the second half. Similar incidence of cases were performed for oncologic indications during the first half while more benign cases were performed in the second half coinciding with the launch of our robotic foregut surgery program. After undergoing surgery during the pandemic, none of our patients reported COVID-19 symptoms within 14 days of discharge. Conclusion: During the initial surge of COVID-19, while there was temporary closure of operative services, our healthcare system continued to provide safe care for thoracic surgery patients, particularly those with oncologic indications. Since phased reopening, we have experienced a rebound of surgical volume and case mix, ultimately mitigating the initial negative impact of the pandemic on delivery of thoracic surgical care.

19.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 5(6): 1128-1137, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747695

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on obstetricians/gynecologists (OB/GYNs). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A 49-item survey was distributed to OB/GYNs through the websites and electronic mailing lists of professional OB/GYN organizations. The survey was open from June 22, 2020, through November 22, 2020. Of the 122 initiated surveys, 89 were completed (73.0% completion rate); 72 respondents answered at least one open-ended question and were included for qualitative analysis. RESULTS: Respondents reported policy changes, limited personal protective equipment availability, patient compliance with safety protocols and personal protective equipment use, staff shortages, and concerns about COVID-19 exposure as primary stressors related to the pandemic. Respondents felt that the pandemic had a negative professional impact on their relationships with patients and colleagues. Workplace and pandemic stressors resulted in feelings of anxiety and frustration; physical effects were also reported. Some respondents indicated that they were considering early retirement or leaving the profession as a result of the pandemic, which suggests that OB/GYNs may be at increased risk for burnout. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic will have important long-term effects on OB/GYN well-being and workforce retention. Proactive support for OB/GYNs is needed to combat burnout and counteract workforce attrition. Implementing peer support programs that promote healthy emotional processing following adverse events may mitigate these feelings and reduce OB/GYN burnout.

20.
JTCVS Open ; 7: 63-71, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to model the short term and 2-year overall survival (OS) for intermediate-risk and low-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing timely or delayed transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: We developed a decision analysis model to evaluate 2 treatment strategies for both low-risk and intermediate-risk patients with AS during the COVID-19 novel coronavirus pandemic. RESULTS: Prompt TAVR resulted in improved 2-year OS compared with delayed intervention for intermediate-risk patients (0.81 vs 0.67) and low-risk patients (0.95 vs 0.85), owing to the risk of death or the need for urgent/emergent TAVR in the waiting period. However, if the probability of acquiring COVID-19 novel coronavirus is >55% (intermediate-risk patients) or 47% (low-risk patients), delayed TAVR is favored over prompt intervention (0.66 vs 0.67 for intermediate risk; 0.84 vs 0.85 for low risk). CONCLUSIONS: Prompt transcatheter aortic valve replacement for both intermediate-risk and low-risk patients with symptomatic severe AS results in improved 2-year survival when local healthcare system resources are not significantly constrained by the COVID-19.

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