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1.
Vaccine: X ; JOUR: 100234,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105508

ABSTRACT

With a population of 1.3 billion people, of which 56% reside in rural settings, Africa seemed ill-prepared to handle the distribution of a COVID-19 vaccine. In addition, the capacity needed for a successful COVID-19 vaccination campaign in Africa surpassed the available resources in local and state health agencies. As a result, African governments were advised to coordinate resources, health officials, and vaccinators, including local health practitioners, medical technicians, and pharmacists for the largest-ever vaccination campaign in Africa. Although the rolling out of the SARS-COV-2 vaccine was, as expected, slow in many African countries, and not yet enough to cover the entire population in Africa, the mass vaccination campaign in Africa must continue to ensure that priority for vaccination is extended beyond front-liners (healthcare workers) and specific high-risk populations, which has largely been the case in some African countries. This article highlights the overarching areas that we believe need to be prioritized to enhance Africa’s effectiveness and coverage in the mass COVID-19 vaccination program.

2.
Memory ; : 1-12, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106943

ABSTRACT

Social media exposes people to selective information of what they have previously known. We conducted two laboratory studies to examine in a simulated online context the phenomenon of retrieval-induced forgetting, where information reposted on social media is likely to be later remembered and relevant but not reposted information may be forgotten. Specifically, we examined how exposure to selective information about the COVID-19 vaccine via tweets affected subsequent memory and whether people's attitudes towards vaccination played a role in their memory for the information. Young adults (N = 119; Study 1) and community members (N = 92; Study 2) were presented with information about the COVID-19 vaccine that included both pro- and anti-vaccine arguments, organised in four categories (i.e., science, children, religion, morality). They then read tweets that repeated half of the arguments from two of the categories. In a subsequent memory test, participants remembered best the statements repeated in the tweets and remembered worst the statements from the same category but not repeated in the tweets, thus exhibiting retrieval-induced forgetting. This pattern of results was similar across pro- and anti-vaccine arguments, regardless of the participants' level of support for vaccination. We discussed the findings in light of remembering and forgetting in the context of the pandemic and social media.

3.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6649-6657, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106118

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vaccine hesitancy in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic is a major public health concern in the US. Cancer patients are especially vulnerable to adverse COVID-19 outcomes and require targeted prevention efforts against COVID-19. METHODS: We used longitudinal survey data from patients seen at Moffitt Cancer Center to identify attitudes, beliefs, and sociodemographic factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination acceptance among cancer patients. Patients with confirmed invasive cancer diagnosis through Cancer Registry data were asked about vaccine acceptance through the question "Now that a COVID-19 vaccine is available, are you likely to get it?" and dichotomized into high accepters (already received it, would get it when available) and low accepters (waiting for a doctor to recommend it, waiting until more people received it, not likely to get it). RESULTS: Most patients (86.8% of 5,814) were high accepters of the COVID-19 vaccine. High accepters had more confidence in the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine than low accepters. Multivariable logistic regression showed older individuals (70-89 vs.18-49: OR:2.57, 95% CI:1.33-4.86), those with greater perceived severity of COVID-19 infection (very serious vs. not at all serious: OR:2.55, 95% CI:1.76-3.70), practicing more risk mitigation behaviors (per one standard deviation OR:1.75, 95% CI:1.57-1.95), and history of receiving the flu shot versus not (OR:6.56, 95% CI:5.25-8.20) had higher odds of vaccine acceptance. Individuals living with more than one other person (vs. alone: OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.79) and those who were more socioeconomically disadvantaged (per 10 percentile points: OR: 0.89, 95 %CI: 0.85, 0.93) had lower odds of reporting vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSION: Most patients with cancer have or would receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Those who are less likely to accept the vaccine have more concerns regarding effectiveness and side effects, are younger, more socioeconomically disadvantaged, and have lower perceptions of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination
4.
The Journal of Practical Pharmacy ; JOUR(7):2048-2053, 73.
Article in Japanese | Ichushi | ID: covidwho-2102050
5.
Masyarakat Kebudayaan Dan Politik ; JOUR(4):496-513, 35.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100631

ABSTRACT

The paper aims to examine how the Indonesian Ministry of Health utilizes Instagram for communicating the message regarding the COVID-19 vaccine. The widespread awareness, access, and acceptance in Indonesia of COVID-19 vaccines is a social and communication endeavor that is a highly essential consideration of spreading the messages to millions of people. The authors gathered data of Instagram posts from January 1 - May 31, 2021. The data were classified into three groups;risks and crisis information, self-efficiency and sense-making, campaign, events, and activities. The authors applied van Dijk's critical discourse analysis concept of macrostructure, superstructure, and microstructure. The results show that the Instagram posts of the Indonesian Ministry of Health regarding the COVID-19 vaccine are classified into several sub-themes of each group. The Indonesian Ministry of Health's Instagram account uses a public information model to disseminate COVID-19 vaccination information, according to the message dissemination strategy. It applies one-way communication and indicates that the use of Instagram as a communication channel for promoting COVID-19 vaccinations has not been optimized. Another developing discourse on the Instagram account is that health workers have been prioritized and portrayed as the pandemic's hero.

6.
Pharm Pat Anal ; 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100060

ABSTRACT

This research plans to explore the risks of the investment claims involved in the ongoing technology transfers to COVID-19 vaccine manufacturers based on the recently approved 'Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights' (TRIPS) waiver. These investment claims are based on the various intellectual property rights protected under international investment laws. The recently approved TRIPS waiver only deals with the patent rights involved in producing the COVID-19 vaccine but does not deal with the other related intellectual property rights such as trade secrets. This work sounds the alarmed of investment dispute for the mass-producing of vaccines based on the TRIPS waiver. The research suggests a plan by which the Indian government can address the global issue of COVID-19 technology transfer in India.

7.
South Afr J HIV Med ; 23(1): 1391, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100004

ABSTRACT

Background: Identifying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine acceptance and associated factors among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the Middle East and North Africa region is important to meet the need for broad-scale vaccination against COVID-19. Objectives: To investigate the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate and factors among PLHIV in the Middle East and North Africa region. Method: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among PLHIV currently living in Egypt, Tunisia and Saudi Arabia between March 2021 and August 2021. Results: Of the 540 respondents, 19.3% reported already being vaccinated against COVID-19 (n = 104), 32.0% responded 'definitely yes' (n = 173), and 13.3% responded 'probably yes' (n = 72) for intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, with an overall COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate of 64.6% among PLHIV in the region. The most significant predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance included feeling less worried about COVID-19 transmission post-vaccination (221.0% higher odds), and believing the disease is vaccine-preventable (160.0% higher odds). Reported barriers to COVID-19 vaccine acceptance include concerns about vaccine effectiveness and belief that HIV medications protect against COVID-19 transmission, living in a rural area and reporting less-frequent engagement with HIV care. Nine out of 10 participants reported that the chances of them getting COVID-19 vaccine would increase if given adequate information and if their doctor recommended it. Conclusion: Findings of the study can help researchers, health officials, and other health system actors understand the predictors and barriers to COVID-19 vaccine acceptance reported by PLHIV. This understanding could inform the future planning of interventions tailored to PLHIV.

8.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 44(10): 1083-1090, 2022 Oct 23.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099944

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus is still in the global pandemic stage. At present, the Delta strain and the Omicron strain are the main circulating strains. The mutant strain has stronger infectivity than the original virus. In the content of COVID-19 pandemic, social public resources and medical resources may be affected, which lead to the medical treatment being delayed or interrupted in some patients with malignant tumors. Based on relevant research and clinical practice at home and abroad, the Cancer Support Therapy Committee of China Anti-Cancer Association and the Cancer Clinical Chemotherapy Committee of China Anti-Cancer Association, in the light of China's national conditions and the availability of resources such as vaccines and antiviral drug, to formulate a consensus of Chinese experts on issues related to the prevention, treatment and management of patients with solid tumors. The main contents include the vaccination of cancer patients with COVID-19, the optimization of medical resources, and the timing of restarting anti-tumor therapy after COVID-19 infection. This article is aimed at providing reference for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Pandemics , Consensus , China
9.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(6): 2049-2055, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine has been administered to children and adolescents with cancer and hematologic diseases since they are at high risk of manifesting severe symptoms if they have COVID-19 infection but the adequate immune response after vaccination in these immunocompromised patients are questionable. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immune response of children and adolescents with cancer and hematologic diseases after receiving 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of patients with cancer and hematologic disease, who aged 12- 18 years old and received 2 doses the BNT162b2 vaccines at 4 weeks apart were enrolled. Immunogenicity was determined by measuring serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin antibodies directed against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of S1 domain of the spike protein (Anti S-RBD), surrogated viral neutralization test (sVNT) of SARS-CoV-2 and Delta strain. Blood samples were collected and analyzed at 4 and 12 weeks after vaccination. The seroprotective rate was defined as sVNT ≥ 68%. RESULTS: From Oct 2021 to Jan 2022, 43 children were enrolled, 21 were on-therapy and 22 were off-therapy. 25 were hematologic malignancy, 15 solid tumor and 3 hematologic diseases with immunosuppressive drugs. The GMT (95%CI) of a anti S-RBD IgG level at 4 weeks after vaccination were 56.05 (13.2,238.2) and 3633 (2689,4908) BAU/mL in on-therapy and off-therapy group, respectively, p<0.001. The sVNT (95%CI) of delta strain were 26% (5.85-73.55%) and 97.05% (96.0-97.4%) as the seroprotective level which were 33.3% in on-therapy group and 100% in off-therapy group (p<0.001). 14 children in on-therapy group need an additional dose. CONCLUSION: After complete vaccination, the seroprotective rate and antibody level in pediatric and adolescent patients with cancer and hematologic disease who receive immunosuppressive agents are quite low, compared with patients who had complete treatment. Additional dose of primary series should be offered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Neoplasms , Viral Vaccines , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Child , Humans , Immunity , Neoplasms/therapy , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/genetics
10.
Am J Health Promot ; : 8901171221136113, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098213

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Drawing from the Health Belief Model, we explored how disadvantaged groups in the U.S., including Black, Hispanic, less educated and wealthy individuals, experienced perceived barriers and cues to action in the context of the COVID-19 vaccination. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey administered in March 2021. SETTING: USA. SUBJECTS: A national sample of U.S. residents (n = 795) recruited from Prolific. MEASURES: Perceived barriers (clinical, access, trust, religion/spiritual), cues to action (authorities, social circles), attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination. ANALYSIS: Factor analysis and Structural Equation Model (SEM) were performed in STATA 16. RESULTS: Black and less educated individuals experienced higher clinical barriers (CI [.012, .33]; CI [.027, .10]), trust barriers (CI [.49, .92]; CI [.057, .16]), and religious/spiritual barriers (CI [.28, .66]; CI [.026, .11]). Hispanics experienced lower levels of clinical barriers (CI [-.42, .0001]). Clinical, trust, and religious/spiritual barriers were negatively related to attitudes toward vaccination (CI [-.45, -.15]; CI [-.79, -.51]; CI [-.43, -.13]). Black and less educated individuals experienced fewer cues to action by authority (CI [-.47, -.083]; CI [-.093, -.002]) and social ties (CI [-.75, -.33]; CI [-.18, -.080]). Lower-income individuals experienced fewer cues to action by social ties (CI [-.097, -.032]). Cues from social ties were positively associated with vaccination attitudes (CI [.065, .26]). CONCLUSION: Communication should be personalized to address perceived barriers disadvantaged groups differentially experience and use sources who exert influences on these groups.

11.
Acad Emerg Med ; 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097677

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Efforts to promote COVID-19 vaccine acceptance must consider the critical role of the emergency department (ED) in providing healthcare to underserved patients. Focusing on patients who lacked primary care, we sought to elicit the perspectives of unvaccinated ED patients regarding COVID-19 vaccination concerns and potential approaches that might increase their vaccine acceptance. METHODS: We conducted this qualitative interview study from August to November 2021 at four urban EDs in San Francisco, California; Seattle, Washington; Durham, North Carolina; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We included ED patients who were ≥ 18 years old, fluent in English or Spanish, had not received a COVID-19 vaccine, and did not have primary care physicians or clinics. We excluded patients who were unable to complete an interview, in police custody, under suspicion of active COVID-19 illness, or presented with a psychiatric chief complaint. We enrolled until we reached thematic saturation in relevant domains. We analyzed interview transcripts with a content analysis approach focused on identifying concerns about COVID-19 vaccines and ideas regarding the promotion of vaccine acceptance and potential trusted messengers. RESULTS: Of 65 patients enrolled, 28 (43%) identified as female; their median age was 36 years (interquartile range 29, 49); and 12 (18%) interviews were conducted in Spanish. Primary concerns about COVID-19 vaccines included risk of complications, known and unknown side effects, and fear of contracting COVID-19 from vaccines. Trust played a major role for patients in deciding which sources to use for vaccine information and in engendering vaccine acceptance. Healthcare providers and family or friends were commonly cited as trusted messengers of information. CONCLUSIONS: We characterized concerns about COVID-19 vaccines, uncovered themes that may promote vaccine acceptance and identified trusted messengers - primarily healthcare professionals. These data may inform the development of nuanced COVID-19 vaccine messaging platforms to address COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among underserved ED populations.

12.
Epilepsy & Behavior ; JOUR: 108984,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2096165

ABSTRACT

Objective This study assesses the hesitancy and safety of vaccination administration for novel 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) among adult people with epilepsy (PWE). Methods We recruited adult PWE who visited the outpatient epilepsy clinic from Aug 2021 to Feb 2022. We administered a structured questionnaire and a face-to-face interview regarding demographic factors, epilepsy characteristics, and relevant vaccine issues to all patients. Factors related to receiving a vaccine and epilepsy-related events after vaccination were then analyzed. Results A total of 501 PWE were surveyed;288 were unvaccinated and 213 were vaccinated. Patients without jobs (OR: 0.59;95% CI: 0.37-0.95, p = 0.03) were less likely to receive the vaccine compared to students or those with jobs. Other factors associated with vaccination were a higher number of anti-seizure medications (OR: 0.72;95% CI: 0.55-0.95, p = 0.02) and a lower pre-vaccine seizure frequency (OR: 2.21;95% CI: 1.06-4.59, p = 0.03). Of the 213 vaccinated patients, 10 (4.70%) reported at least one local and/or systemic side effect. Most patients (92.50%) did not report worse seizures within one month of vaccination. Poor ASM adherence (OR: 15.06;95% CI: 1.75-129.87, p = 0.01) and fatigue/stimulant drinks such as caffeine (OR: 50.59;95% CI: 7.57-337.94, p < 0.01) were significantly associated with seizure worsening within one month of receiving the COVID-19 vaccination. Conclusion Almost two-fifths of patients with adult PWE have received a COVID-19 vaccine. Attention should be paid to educating epilepsy patients without jobs on the significance and safety of the vaccine. There was a low risk of seizure worsening in the short term after vaccination in PWE.

13.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine received emergency use authorization for persons ≥16 years in December 2020 and for adolescents 12-15 years in May 2021. Despite the clear benefits and favorable safety profile, vaccine uptake in adolescents has been suboptimal. We sought to assess factors associated with COVID-19 non-vaccination in adolescents 12-18 years of age. METHODS: Between June 1, 2021 and April 29, 2022, we assessed factors associated with COVID-19 non-vaccination in hospitalized adolescents ages 12-18 years enrolled in the Overcoming COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness network. Demographic characteristics and clinical information were captured through parent interview and/or electronic medical record abstraction; COVID-19 vaccination was assessed through documented sources. We assessed associations between receipt of COVID-19 vaccine and demographic and clinical factors using univariate and multivariable logistic regression and estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for each factor associated with non-vaccination. RESULTS: Among 1,665 hospitalized adolescents without COVID-19, 56% were unvaccinated. Unvaccinated adolescents were younger (median age 15.1 years vs. 15.4 years, p<0.01) and resided in areas with higher social vulnerability index (SVI) scores (median 0.6 vs 0.5, p<0.001) than vaccinated adolescents. Residence in the Midwest [aOR 2.60 (95% CI: 1.80, 3.79)] or South [aOR 2.49 (95% CI: 1.77, 3.54)] US census regions, rarely or never receiving influenza vaccine [aOR 5.31 (95% CI: 3.81, 7.47)], and rarely or never taking precautions against COVID-19 [aOR 3.17 (95% CI: 1.94, 5.31)] were associated with non-vaccination against COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to increase COVID-19 vaccination of adolescents should focus on persons with geographic, socioeconomic, and medical risk factors associated with non-vaccination.

14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2132752, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097210

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines have been developed and administered in the United States. Despite evidence from clinical trials for the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccines, many individuals are still hesitant or even unwilling to receive one. The purposes of this study are (1) to examine characteristics associated with those willing and unwilling to receive a COVID-19 vaccine and (2) to illuminate the reasons behind their willingness and unwillingness to receive the vaccine using both quantitative and qualitative data. Data collected from 505 US working adults showed that several demographic variables (i.e. education, the size of their organization, the number of dependents, political orientation, and religion) and influence sources (i.e. family members, workplace leaders, political leaders, social media influencers, and healthcare workers) significantly correlated with people's willingness/unwillingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Furthermore, protecting oneself was the most common reason cited by participants for willingness to get the vaccine, while being concerned about vaccine side effects was the most frequently given reason for being unwilling to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. This study expands our current understanding of the COVID-19 vaccine motivators and intention factors. Practically, the findings can help develop health campaign messages effectively target working adults who are unwilling to receive the COVID-19 vaccines and ultimately increase the vaccination rate in the United States.

15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2127561, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097207

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of maternal and newborn morbidity and maternal death. In Kenya, pregnant and lactating women (PLW) were ineligible to receive COVID-19 vaccines until August 2021. How shifts in policy influence vaccine behaviors, such as health worker recommendations and vaccine uptake, is not well documented. We conducted qualitative interviews with PLW, health workers, and policymakers in Kenya to understand how different stakeholders' perceptions of national policy regarding COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy shaped vaccine behaviors and decision-making. Policymakers and health workers described pervasive uncertainty and lack of communication about the national policy, cited vaccine safety as their primary concern for administering COVID-19 vaccines to PLW, and expressed that PLW were inadequately prioritized in the COVID-19 vaccine program. PLW perceived the restrictive policy as indicative of a safety risk, resulting in vaccine hesitancy and potentially exacerbated inequities in vaccine access. These findings support the need for the development and dissemination of effective vaccine communication guidelines and the prioritization of PLW in COVID-19 vaccination policies and campaigns. To ensure PLW do not face the same inequities in future epidemics, data on infectious disease burdens and vaccine uptake should be collected systematically among pregnant women, and PLW should be included in future vaccine trials.

16.
Vaccine ; 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There have been concerns about COVID-19 vaccination safety among frail older individuals. We investigated the relationship between COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and mortality among individuals aged ≥ 70 years and whether mortality varies across four groups of health services used. METHODS: In this nationwide cohort study, we included 688,152 individuals aged ≥ 70 years at the start of the Norwegian vaccination campaign (December 27, 2020). We collected individual-level data from theNorwegian Emergency Preparedness Register for COVID-19. Vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals were matched (1:1 ratio) on the date of vaccination based on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The main outcome was all-cause mortality during 21 days after first dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Kaplan-Meier survival functions were estimated for the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of death between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs), overall and by use of health services (none, home-based, short- and long-term nursing homes) and age group. RESULTS: Between December 27, 2020, and March 31, 2021, 420,771 older individuals (61.1%) were vaccinated against COVID-19. The Kaplan-Meier estimates based on the matched study sample showed a small absolute risk difference in all-cause mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, with a lower mortality in the vaccinated group (overall HR 0.28 [95% CI: 0.24-0.31]). Similar results were obtained in analyses stratified by use of health services and age group. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of increased short-term mortality among vaccinated individuals in the older population after matching on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics affecting vaccination and mortality.

17.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 vaccination booster can effectively protect the elderly from infection while also lowering the risk of serious illness and death. However, barriers remain in willingness of the elderly to boost vaccination. OBJECTIVE: Using the protection motivation theory (PMT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB), to study the factors that influence willingness of the elderly to get the COVID-19 vaccine booster. METHODS: The elderly who visited three randomly selected medical institutions in Nanjing's core urban region between March and April 2022 were chosen as study participants. A face-to-face survey was conducted using purposeful sampling and a self-designed questionnaire. The questionnaire contained sociodemographic characteristics, the elderly's willingness to obtain a COVID-19 vaccine booster, and psychosocial cognitive components based on the PMT and TPB. SmartPLS 3.0 was used to conduct structural equation modeling. RESULTS: 214 participants were included in the analysis. The combined model of the two behavioral theories explained the willingness to accept COVID-19 vaccine booster well with R2 of 0.490. Self-efficacy (ß = 0.315) was the strongest predictor of vaccine booster willingness. Subjective norms (ß = 0.160), perceived severity (ß = 0.157), and perceived vulnerability (ß = 0.159) also showed positive effects on vaccine booster willingness, while response cost (ß = -0.143) had a negative effect on the willingness. No significant association between attitudes, response efficacy and the willingness was discovered. CONCLUSION: The willingness of the elderly to receive the COVID-19 vaccine booster was affected by psychosocial cognitive factors. This study supports the applicability of the PMT and TPB models to interpret the willingness of the elderly in such areas.

18.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; : 100630, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095737

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 vaccines are important for patients with heart failure (HF) to prevent severe outcomes but the safety concerns could lead to vaccine hesitancy. This study aimed to investigate the safety of two COVID-19 vaccines, BNT162b2 and CoronaVac, in patients with HF. Methods: We conducted a self-controlled case series analysis using the data from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority and the Department of Health. The primary outcome was hospitalization for HF and the secondary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and all hospitalization. We identified patients with a history of HF before February 23, 2021 and developed the outcome event between February 23, 2021 and March 31, 2022 in Hong Kong. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using conditional Poisson regression to evaluate the risks following the first three doses of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac. Findings: We identified 32,490 patients with HF, of which 3035 were vaccinated and had a hospitalization for HF during the observation period (BNT162b2 = 755; CoronaVac = 2280). There were no increased risks during the 0-13 days (IRR 0.64 [95% confidence interval 0.33-1.26]; 0.94 [0.50-1.78]; 0.82 [0.17-3.98]) and 14-27 days (0.73 [0.35-1.52]; 0.95 [0.49-1.84]; 0.60 [0.06-5.76]) after the first, second and third doses of BNT162b2. No increased risks were observed for CoronaVac during the 0-13 days (IRR 0.60 [0.41-0.88]; 0.71 [0.45-1.12]; 1.64 [0.40-6.77]) and 14-27 days (0.91 [0.63-1.32]; 0.79 [0.46-1.35]; 1.71 [0.44-6.62]) after the first, second and third doses. We also found no increased risk of MACE or all hospitalization after vaccination. Interpretation: Our results showed no increased risk of hospitalization for HF, MACE or all hospitalization after receiving BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccines in patients with HF. Funding: The project was funded by a Research Grant from the Food and Health Bureau, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Ref. No. COVID19F01). F.T.T.L. (Francisco T.T. Lai) and I.C.K.W. (Ian C.K. Wong)'s posts were partly funded by the D24H; hence this work was partly supported by AIR@InnoHK administered by Innovation and Technology Commission.

19.
Revista Espanola De Salud Publica ; JOUR, 96.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2092165

ABSTRACT

After about a year and a half (at the moment these lines are being written) since the start of the massive vaccination campaign in which, thanks to the high coverage achieved in all groups eligible for vaccination, it has been possible to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19, it is important to review the scientific basics that have supported the recommendations implemented to date and those that could be adopted in the near future taking into consideration the epidemiological situation. The objective of this article is, therefore, to address the foundations of some of the technical decisions proposed by the Committee on Programme and Registry of Vaccinations (National Immunization Technical Advisory Group in Spain) and the Technical Working Group on Vaccination against COVID-19. Throughout the eleven updates of the Vaccination Strategy against COVID-19 in Spain, several issues pose intense debate as the vaccination intervals between doses, the convenience of using different types of vaccines, the use of heterologous schemes of vaccination, the benefits of hybrid immunity and the use of a fourth dose (second booster dose) for se-lected populations. All this without forgetting essential aspects of safety of vaccines. This article is divided into the following sections: Vaccination intervals;Heterologous or mixed scheme;Hybrid immunity (vaccination after infection and infection after vaccination [breakthrough]);Second booster dose.

20.
Ethn Dis ; 32(4): 305-314, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091256

ABSTRACT

Background: Rural communities have lower COVID-19 vaccine uptake and poorer health outcomes compared to non-rural communities, including in rural, northern/central Illinois. Understanding community perceptions about vaccination is critical for developing targeted responses to improve vaccine uptake in rural communities and meet global vaccination targets. Purpose: This study examines COVID-19 vaccine attitudes and barriers as well as the impact of COVID-19 on specific health behaviors of residents in rural northern/central Illinois to inform efforts to increase vaccine uptake. Methods: In collaboration with community partners and local health departments, we conducted a 54-item, English-language, online questionnaire from Feb 11 to March 22, 2021; the questionnaire included the COVID behavioral questionnaire scale (CoBQ), as well as questions on intention to vaccinate, vaccination attitudes, and barriers to vaccine access. Descriptive and bivariate analyses assessed participant differences based on intention to vaccinate. Results: Most unvaccinated survey respondents (n = 121) were White (89.3%) and female (78.5%), with an average age of 52.3±14.1 years. Lack of intention to vaccinate was negatively associated with trust in the science behind vaccine development (P = .040), belief in the safety of the vaccine (P = .005) and belief that the vaccine was needed (P=.050). CoBQ scores of respondents who intended to get vaccinated differed significantly from those who did not (P<.001), showing a greater negative impact of COVID-19 on engaging in health behaviors for vaccine-hesitant participants. Conclusion: Study findings show mistrust of science and lack of confidence in vaccine safety are barriers to vaccination in rural northern Illinois residents. Similar results have been reported in low- and middle-income countries.

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