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1.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 16(1): 17-25, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827073

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of the respiratory disease COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 (SCoV2) virus. SCoV2 is a member of the Betacoronavirus genus. The 30 kb positive sense, single stranded RNA genome of SCoV2 features 5'- and 3'-genomic ends that are highly conserved among Betacoronaviruses. These genomic ends contain structured cis-acting RNA elements, which are involved in the regulation of viral replication and translation. Structural information about these potential antiviral drug targets supports the development of novel classes of therapeutics against COVID-19. The highly conserved branched stem-loop 5 (SL5) found within the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) consists of a basal stem and three stem-loops, namely SL5a, SL5b and SL5c. Both, SL5a and SL5b feature a 5'-UUUCGU-3' hexaloop that is also found among Alphacoronaviruses. Here, we report the extensive 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignment of the 37 nucleotides (nts) long sequence spanning SL5b and SL5c (SL5b + c), as basis for further in-depth structural studies by solution NMR spectroscopy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , 5' Untranslated Regions , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular
2.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(2): 467-474, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442185

ABSTRACT

The stem-loop (SL1) is the 5'-terminal structural element within the single-stranded SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome. It is formed by nucleotides 7-33 and consists of two short helical segments interrupted by an asymmetric internal loop. This architecture is conserved among Betacoronaviruses. SL1 is present in genomic SARS-CoV-2 RNA as well as in all subgenomic mRNA species produced by the virus during replication, thus representing a ubiquitous cis-regulatory RNA with potential functions at all stages of the viral life cycle. We present here the 1H, 13C and 15N chemical shift assignment of the 29 nucleotides-RNA construct 5_SL1, which denotes the native 27mer SL1 stabilized by an additional terminal G-C base-pair.


Subject(s)
5' Untranslated Regions , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Spliced Leader
3.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(2): 335-340, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442184

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the cause of the respiratory disease COVID-19. As of today, therapeutic interventions in severe COVID-19 cases are still not available as no effective therapeutics have been developed so far. Despite the ongoing development of a number of effective vaccines, therapeutics to fight the disease once it has been contracted will still be required. Promising targets for the development of antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 can be found in the viral RNA genome. The 5'- and 3'-genomic ends of the 30 kb SCoV-2 genome are highly conserved among Betacoronaviruses and contain structured RNA elements involved in the translation and replication of the viral genome. The 40 nucleotides (nt) long highly conserved stem-loop 4 (5_SL4) is located within the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) important for viral replication. 5_SL4 features an extended stem structure disrupted by several pyrimidine mismatches and is capped by a pentaloop. Here, we report extensive 1H, 13C, 15N and 31P resonance assignments of 5_SL4 as the basis for in-depth structural and ligand screening studies by solution NMR spectroscopy.


Subject(s)
5' Untranslated Regions , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Inverted Repeat Sequences/genetics
4.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(1): 165-171, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384622

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 RNA, nsP3c (non-structural Protein3c) spans the sequence of the so-called SARS Unique Domains (SUDs), first observed in SARS-CoV. Although the function of this viral protein is not fully elucidated, it is believed that it is crucial for the formation of the replication/transcription viral complex (RTC) and of the interaction of various viral "components" with the host cell; thus, it is essential for the entire viral life cycle. The first two SUDs, the so-called SUD-N (the N-terminal domain) and SUD-M (domain following SUD-N) domains, exhibit topological and conformational features that resemble the nsP3b macro (or "X") domain. Indeed, they are all folded in a three-layer α/ß/α sandwich structure, as revealed through crystallographic structural investigation of SARS-CoV SUDs, and they have been attributed to different substrate selectivity as they selectively bind to oligonucleotides. On the other hand, the C-terminal SUD (SUD-C) exhibit much lower sequence similarities compared to the SUD-N & SUD-M, as reported in previous crystallographic and NMR studies of SARS-CoV. In the absence of the 3D structures of SARS-CoV-2, we report herein the almost complete NMR backbone and side-chain resonance assignment (1H,13C,15N) of SARS-CoV-2 SUD-M and SUD-C proteins, and the NMR chemical shift-based prediction of their secondary structure elements. These NMR data will set the base for further understanding at the atomic-level conformational dynamics of these proteins and will allow the effective screening of a large number of small molecules as binders with potential biological impact on their function.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Carbon Isotopes , Hydrogen , Nitrogen Isotopes , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Structure, Secondary
5.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(1): 85-89, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384621

ABSTRACT

Among the proteins encoded by the SARS-CoV-2 RNA, nsP3 (non-structural Protein3) is the largest multi-domain protein. Its role is multifaceted and important for the viral life cycle. Nonetheless, regarding the specific role of each domain there are many aspects of their function that have to be investigated. SARS Unique Domains (SUDs), constitute the nsP3c region of the nsP3, and were observed for the first time in SARS-CoV. Two of them, namely SUD-N (the first SUD) and the SUD-M (sequential to SUD-N), exhibit structural homology with nsP3b ("X" or macro domain); indeed all of them are folded in a three-layer α/ß/α sandwich. On the contrary, they do not exhibit functional similarities, like ADP-ribose binding properties and ADP-ribose hydrolase activity. There are reports that suggest that these two SUDs may exhibit a binding selectivity towards G-oligonucleotides, a feature which may contribute to the characterization of their role in the formation of the replication/transcription viral complex (RTC) and of the interaction of various viral "components" with the host cell. While the structures of these domains of SARS-CoV-2 have not been determined yet, SUDs interaction with oligonucleotides and/or RNA molecules may provide a platform for drug discovery. Here, we report the almost complete NMR backbone and side-chain resonance assignment (1H,13C,15N) of SARS-CoV-2 SUD-N protein, and the NMR chemical shift-based prediction of the secondary structure elements. These data may be exploited for its 3D structure determination and the screening of chemical compounds libraries, which may alter SUD-N function.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Carbon Isotopes , Drug Design , Hydrogen , Nitrogen Isotopes , Oligonucleotides/chemistry , Protein Domains , Protein Structure, Secondary , Virus Replication
6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(35): 19191-19200, 2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279344

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 contains a positive single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 30 000 nucleotides. Within this genome, 15 RNA elements were identified as conserved between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. By nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we previously determined that these elements fold independently, in line with data from in vivo and ex-vivo structural probing experiments. These elements contain non-base-paired regions that potentially harbor ligand-binding pockets. Here, we performed an NMR-based screening of a poised fragment library of 768 compounds for binding to these RNAs, employing three different 1 H-based 1D NMR binding assays. The screening identified common as well as RNA-element specific hits. The results allow selection of the most promising of the 15 RNA elements as putative drug targets. Based on the identified hits, we derive key functional units and groups in ligands for effective targeting of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Genome , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Small Molecule Libraries/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Ligands , Molecular Structure , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , RNA, Viral/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry
7.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(1): 65-71, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184741

ABSTRACT

The international Covid19-NMR consortium aims at the comprehensive spectroscopic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 RNA elements and proteins and will provide NMR chemical shift assignments of the molecular components of this virus. The SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes approximately 30 different proteins. Four of these proteins are involved in forming the viral envelope or in the packaging of the RNA genome and are therefore called structural proteins. The other proteins fulfill a variety of functions during the viral life cycle and comprise the so-called non-structural proteins (nsps). Here, we report the near-complete NMR resonance assignment for the backbone chemical shifts of the non-structural protein 10 (nsp10). Nsp10 is part of the viral replication-transcription complex (RTC). It aids in synthesizing and modifying the genomic and subgenomic RNAs. Via its interaction with nsp14, it ensures transcriptional fidelity of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and through its stimulation of the methyltransferase activity of nsp16, it aids in synthesizing the RNA cap structures which protect the viral RNAs from being recognized by the innate immune system. Both of these functions can be potentially targeted by drugs. Our data will aid in performing additional NMR-based characterizations, and provide a basis for the identification of possible small molecule ligands interfering with nsp10 exerting its essential role in viral replication.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Amino Acid Motifs , Carbon Isotopes , Exoribonucleases/chemistry , Hydrogen , Hydrogen Bonding , Ligands , Methyltransferases , Nitrogen Isotopes , Protein Structure, Secondary , RNA, Viral , Viral Envelope , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Virus Replication , Zinc Fingers
8.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(2): 235-241, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146127

ABSTRACT

As part of an International consortium aiming at the characterization by NMR of the proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, we have obtained the virtually complete assignment of the backbone atoms of the non-structural protein nsp9. This small (12 kDa) protein is encoded by ORF1a, binds to RNA and seems to be essential for viral RNA synthesis. The crystal structures of the SARS-CoV-2 protein and other homologues suggest that the protein is dimeric as also confirmed by analytical ultracentrifugation and dynamic light scattering. Our data constitute the prerequisite for further NMR-based characterization, and provide the starting point for the identification of small molecule lead compounds that could interfere with RNA binding and prevent viral replication.


Subject(s)
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Models, Molecular , Protein Structure, Secondary
9.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(1): 129-135, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141504

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of the highly infectious COVID-19 respiratory disease is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2). To fight the pandemic, the search for promising viral drug targets has become a cross-border common goal of the international biomedical research community. Within the international Covid19-NMR consortium, scientists support drug development against SARS-CoV-2 by providing publicly available NMR data on viral proteins and RNAs. The coronavirus nucleocapsid protein (N protein) is an RNA-binding protein involved in viral transcription and replication. Its primary function is the packaging of the viral RNA genome. The highly conserved architecture of the coronavirus N protein consists of an N-terminal RNA-binding domain (NTD), followed by an intrinsically disordered Serine/Arginine (SR)-rich linker and a C-terminal dimerization domain (CTD). Besides its involvement in oligomerization, the CTD of the N protein (N-CTD) is also able to bind to nucleic acids by itself, independent of the NTD. Here, we report the near-complete NMR backbone chemical shift assignments of the SARS-CoV-2 N-CTD to provide the basis for downstream applications, in particular site-resolved drug binding studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Carbon Isotopes , Crystallography, X-Ray , Dimerization , Drug Design , Hydrogen , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nitrogen Isotopes , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Mapping , Protein Structure, Secondary
10.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(1): 73-77, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141500

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes for approximately 30 proteins. Within the international project covid19-nmr, we distribute the spectroscopic analysis of the viral proteins and RNA. Here, we report NMR chemical shift assignments for the protein nsp7. The 83 amino acid nsp7 protein is an essential cofactor in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The polymerase activity and processivity of nsp12 are greatly enhanced by binding 1 copy of nsp7 and 2 copies of nsp8 to form a 160 kD complex. A separate hexadecameric complex of nsp7 and nsp8 (8 copies of each) forms a large ring-like structure. Thus, nsp7 is an important component of several large protein complexes that are required for replication of the large and complex coronavirus genome. We here report the near-complete NMR backbone and sidechain resonance assignment (1H,13C,15N) of isolated nsp7 from SARS-CoV-2 in solution. Further, we derive the secondary structure and compare it to the previously reported assignments and structure of the SARS-CoV nsp7.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Carbon Isotopes , Genome, Viral , Hydrogen , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nitrogen Isotopes , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Structure, Secondary
11.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(1): 203-211, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046684

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 (SCoV-2) virus is the causative agent of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. It contains a positive sense single-stranded RNA genome and belongs to the genus of Betacoronaviruses. The 5'- and 3'-genomic ends of the 30 kb SCoV-2 genome are potential antiviral drug targets. Major parts of these sequences are highly conserved among Betacoronaviruses and contain cis-acting RNA elements that affect RNA translation and replication. The 31 nucleotide (nt) long highly conserved stem-loop 5a (SL5a) is located within the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) important for viral replication. SL5a features a U-rich asymmetric bulge and is capped with a 5'-UUUCGU-3' hexaloop, which is also found in stem-loop 5b (SL5b). We herein report the extensive 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignment of SL5a as basis for in-depth structural studies by solution NMR spectroscopy.


Subject(s)
5' Untranslated Regions , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Carbon Isotopes , Genes, Viral , Hydrogen , Nitrogen Isotopes , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Structure, Secondary
12.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(1): 85-89, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938616

ABSTRACT

Among the proteins encoded by the SARS-CoV-2 RNA, nsP3 (non-structural Protein3) is the largest multi-domain protein. Its role is multifaceted and important for the viral life cycle. Nonetheless, regarding the specific role of each domain there are many aspects of their function that have to be investigated. SARS Unique Domains (SUDs), constitute the nsP3c region of the nsP3, and were observed for the first time in SARS-CoV. Two of them, namely SUD-N (the first SUD) and the SUD-M (sequential to SUD-N), exhibit structural homology with nsP3b ("X" or macro domain); indeed all of them are folded in a three-layer α/ß/α sandwich. On the contrary, they do not exhibit functional similarities, like ADP-ribose binding properties and ADP-ribose hydrolase activity. There are reports that suggest that these two SUDs may exhibit a binding selectivity towards G-oligonucleotides, a feature which may contribute to the characterization of their role in the formation of the replication/transcription viral complex (RTC) and of the interaction of various viral "components" with the host cell. While the structures of these domains of SARS-CoV-2 have not been determined yet, SUDs interaction with oligonucleotides and/or RNA molecules may provide a platform for drug discovery. Here, we report the almost complete NMR backbone and side-chain resonance assignment (1H,13C,15N) of SARS-CoV-2 SUD-N protein, and the NMR chemical shift-based prediction of the secondary structure elements. These data may be exploited for its 3D structure determination and the screening of chemical compounds libraries, which may alter SUD-N function.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Carbon Isotopes , Drug Design , Hydrogen , Nitrogen Isotopes , Oligonucleotides/chemistry , Protein Domains , Protein Structure, Secondary , Virus Replication
13.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(1): 65-71, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915245

ABSTRACT

The international Covid19-NMR consortium aims at the comprehensive spectroscopic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 RNA elements and proteins and will provide NMR chemical shift assignments of the molecular components of this virus. The SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes approximately 30 different proteins. Four of these proteins are involved in forming the viral envelope or in the packaging of the RNA genome and are therefore called structural proteins. The other proteins fulfill a variety of functions during the viral life cycle and comprise the so-called non-structural proteins (nsps). Here, we report the near-complete NMR resonance assignment for the backbone chemical shifts of the non-structural protein 10 (nsp10). Nsp10 is part of the viral replication-transcription complex (RTC). It aids in synthesizing and modifying the genomic and subgenomic RNAs. Via its interaction with nsp14, it ensures transcriptional fidelity of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and through its stimulation of the methyltransferase activity of nsp16, it aids in synthesizing the RNA cap structures which protect the viral RNAs from being recognized by the innate immune system. Both of these functions can be potentially targeted by drugs. Our data will aid in performing additional NMR-based characterizations, and provide a basis for the identification of possible small molecule ligands interfering with nsp10 exerting its essential role in viral replication.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Amino Acid Motifs , Carbon Isotopes , Exoribonucleases/chemistry , Hydrogen , Hydrogen Bonding , Ligands , Methyltransferases , Nitrogen Isotopes , Protein Structure, Secondary , RNA, Viral , Viral Envelope , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Virus Replication , Zinc Fingers
14.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 14(2): 329-333, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-774089

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic caused by the Betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) demonstrates the urgent need of coordinated and rapid research towards inhibitors of the COVID-19 lung disease. The covid19-nmr consortium seeks to support drug development by providing publicly accessible NMR data on the viral RNA elements and proteins. The SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes for approximately 30 proteins, among them are the 16 so-called non-structural proteins (Nsps) of the replication/transcription complex. The 217-kDa large Nsp3 spans one polypeptide chain, but comprises multiple independent, yet functionally related domains including the viral papain-like protease. The Nsp3e sub-moiety contains a putative nucleic acid-binding domain (NAB) with so far unknown function and consensus target sequences, which are conceived to be both viral and host RNAs and DNAs, as well as protein-protein interactions. Its NMR-suitable size renders it an attractive object to study, both for understanding the SARS-CoV-2 architecture and drugability besides the classical virus' proteases. We here report the near-complete NMR backbone chemical shifts of the putative Nsp3e NAB that reveal the secondary structure and compactness of the domain, and provide a basis for NMR-based investigations towards understanding and interfering with RNA- and small-molecule-binding by Nsp3e.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Nitrogen Isotopes/chemistry , Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 14(2): 339-346, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716391

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes for approximately 30 proteins. Within the international project COVID19-NMR, we distribute the spectroscopic analysis of the viral proteins and RNA. Here, we report NMR chemical shift assignments for the protein Nsp3b, a domain of Nsp3. The 217-kDa large Nsp3 protein contains multiple structurally independent, yet functionally related domains including the viral papain-like protease and Nsp3b, a macrodomain (MD). In general, the MDs of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were suggested to play a key role in viral replication by modulating the immune response of the host. The MDs are structurally conserved. They most likely remove ADP-ribose, a common posttranslational modification, from protein side chains. This de-ADP ribosylating function has potentially evolved to protect the virus from the anti-viral ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs), which in turn are triggered by pathogen-associated sensing of the host immune system. This renders the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3b a highly relevant drug target in the viral replication process. We here report the near-complete NMR backbone resonance assignment (1H, 13C, 15N) of the putative Nsp3b MD in its apo form and in complex with ADP-ribose. Furthermore, we derive the secondary structure of Nsp3b in solution. In addition, 15N-relaxation data suggest an ordered, rigid core of the MD structure. These data will provide a basis for NMR investigations targeted at obtaining small-molecule inhibitors interfering with the catalytic activity of Nsp3b.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose/metabolism , Apoproteins/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Nitrogen Isotopes/chemistry , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Apoproteins/metabolism , Protein Domains , Protein Structure, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
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