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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838448, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742220

ABSTRACT

Basophils play a key role in the orientation of immune responses. Though the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with various immune cells has been relatively well studied, the response of basophils to this pandemic virus is not characterized yet. In this study, we report that SARS-CoV-2 induces cytokine responses and in particular IL-13, in both resting and IL-3 primed basophils. The response was prominent under IL-3 primed condition. However, either SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV-2-infected epithelial cells did not alter the expression of surface markers associated with the activation of basophils, such as CD69, CD13 and/or degranulation marker CD107a. We also validate that human basophils are not permissive to SARS-CoV-2 replication. Though increased expression of immune checkpoint molecule PD-L1 has been reported on the basophils from COVID-19 patients, we observed that SARS-CoV-2 does not induce PD-L1 on the basophils. Our data suggest that basophil cytokine responses to SARS-CoV-2 might help in reducing the inflammation and also to promote antibody responses to the virus.


Subject(s)
Basophils/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-13/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Interleukin-3/metabolism , Virus Replication
2.
Biomedicines ; 10(1)2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636497

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), several clinical aspects of the disease have come into attention. Besides its primary route of infection through the respiratory system, SARS-CoV-2 is known to have neuroinvasive capacity, causing multiple neurological symptoms with increased neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. The viral spike protein disseminates via circulation during infection, and when reaching the brain could possibly cross the BBB, which was demonstrated in mice. Therefore, its medical relevance is of high importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the barrier penetration of the S1 subunit of spike protein in model systems of human organs highly exposed to the infection. For this purpose, in vitro human BBB and intestinal barrier cell-culture systems were investigated by an optical biosensing method. We found that spike protein crossed the human brain endothelial cell barrier effectively. Additionally, spike protein passage was found in a lower amount for the intestinal barrier cell layer. These observations were corroborated with parallel specific ELISAs. The findings on the BBB model could provide a further basis for studies focusing on the mechanism and consequences of spike protein penetration across the BBB to the brain.

3.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580411

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) quickly spread worldwide following its emergence in Wuhan, China, and hit pandemic levels. Its tremendous incidence favoured the emergence of viral variants. The current genome diversity of SARS-CoV-2 has a clear impact on epidemiology and clinical practice, especially regarding transmission rates and the effectiveness of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the replication of different SARS-CoV-2 isolates representing different virus genotypes which have been isolated throughout the pandemic. We used three distinct cell lines, including Vero E6 cells originating from monkeys; Caco-2 cells, an intestinal epithelium cell line originating from humans; and Calu-3 cells, a pulmonary epithelium cell line also originating from humans. We used RT-qPCR to replicate different SARS-CoV-2 genotypes by quantifying the virus released in the culture supernatant of infected cells. We found that the different viral isolates replicate similarly in Caco-2 cells, but show very different replicative capacities in Calu-3 cells. This was especially highlighted for the lineages B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1, which are considered to be variants of concern. These results underscore the importance of the evaluation and characterisation of each SARS-CoV-2 isolate in order to establish the replication patterns before performing tests, and of the consideration of the ideal SARS-CoV-2 genotype-cell type pair for each assay.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genotype , Humans , Intestines/cytology , Lung/cytology , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Tropism/physiology
4.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512511

ABSTRACT

This work describes an untargeted analytical approach for the screening, identification, and characterization of the trans-epithelial transport of green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechin extracts with in vitro inhibitory effect against the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) activity. After specific catechin extraction, a chromatographic separation obtained six fractions were carried out. The fractions were assessed in vitro against the PLpro target. Fraction 5 showed the highest inhibitory activity against the SARS-CoV-2 PLpro (IC50 of 0.125 µg mL-1). The untargeted characterization revealed that (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) was the most abundant compound in the fraction and the primary molecule absorbed by differentiated Caco-2 cells. Results indicated that fraction 5 was approximately 10 times more active than ECG (IC50 value equal to 11.62 ± 0.47 µg mL-1) to inhibit the PLpro target. Overall, our findings highlight the synergistic effects of the various components of the crude extract compared to isolated ECG.


Subject(s)
Catechin/pharmacology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Tea/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Caco-2 Cells , Camellia sinensis/metabolism , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/chemistry , Catechin/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/drug effects , Epithelium/drug effects , Epithelium/metabolism , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tea/chemistry , Tea/physiology
5.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(10): e0115521, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416580

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV; GS-5734) is currently the only FDA-approved antiviral drug for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The drug is approved for use in adults or children 12 years or older who are hospitalized for the treatment of COVID-19 on the basis of an acceleration of clinical recovery for inpatients with this disease. Unfortunately, the drug must be administered intravenously, restricting its use to those requiring hospitalization for relatively advanced disease. RDV is also unstable in plasma and has a complex activation pathway which may contribute to its highly variable antiviral efficacy in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. Potent orally bioavailable antiviral drugs for early treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection are urgently needed, and several, including molnupiravir and PF-07321332, are currently in clinical development. We focused on making simple, orally bioavailable lipid analogs of remdesivir nucleoside (RVn; GS-441524) that are processed to RVn monophosphate, the precursor of the active RVn triphosphate, by a single-step intracellular cleavage. In addition to high oral bioavailability, stability in plasma, and simpler metabolic activation, new oral lipid prodrugs of RVn had submicromolar anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in a variety of cell types, including Vero E6, Calu-3, Caco-2, human pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived lung cells, and Huh7.5 cells. In Syrian hamsters, oral treatment with 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-benzyl-glycero-3-phosphate RVn (ODBG-P-RVn) was well tolerated and achieved therapeutic levels in plasma above the 90% effective concentration (EC90) for SARS-CoV-2. The results suggest further evaluation as an early oral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection to minimize severe disease and reduce hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prodrugs , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caco-2 Cells , Cricetinae , Humans , Lipids , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4454-4460, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263094

ABSTRACT

Although vaccination campaigns are currently being rolled out to prevent coronavirus disease (COVID-19), antivirals will remain an important adjunct to vaccination. Antivirals against coronaviruses do not exist, hence global drug repurposing efforts have been carried out to identify agents that may provide clinical benefit to patients with COVID-19. Itraconazole, an antifungal agent, has been reported to have activity against animal coronaviruses. Using cell-based phenotypic assays, the in vitro antiviral activity of itraconazole and 17-OH itraconazole was assessed against clinical isolates from a German and Belgian patient infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Itraconazole demonstrated antiviral activity in human Caco-2 cells (EC50 = 2.3 µM; 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay). Similarly, its primary metabolite, 17-OH itraconazole, showed inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 activity (EC50 = 3.6 µM). Remdesivir inhibited viral replication with an EC50 = 0.4 µM. Itraconazole and 17-OH itraconazole resulted in a viral yield reduction in vitro of approximately 2-log10 and approximately 1-log10 , as measured in both Caco-2 cells and VeroE6-eGFP cells, respectively. The viral yield reduction brought about by remdesivir or GS-441524 (parent nucleoside of the antiviral prodrug remdesivir; positive control) was more pronounced, with an approximately 3-log10 drop and >4-log10 drop in Caco-2 cells and VeroE6-eGFP cells, respectively. Itraconazole and 17-OH itraconazole exert in vitro low micromolar activity against SARS-CoV-2. Despite the in vitro antiviral activity, itraconazole did not result in a beneficial effect in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a clinical study (EudraCT Number: 2020-001243-15).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Furans/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Triazines/pharmacology , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4454-4460, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118165

ABSTRACT

Although vaccination campaigns are currently being rolled out to prevent coronavirus disease (COVID-19), antivirals will remain an important adjunct to vaccination. Antivirals against coronaviruses do not exist, hence global drug repurposing efforts have been carried out to identify agents that may provide clinical benefit to patients with COVID-19. Itraconazole, an antifungal agent, has been reported to have activity against animal coronaviruses. Using cell-based phenotypic assays, the in vitro antiviral activity of itraconazole and 17-OH itraconazole was assessed against clinical isolates from a German and Belgian patient infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Itraconazole demonstrated antiviral activity in human Caco-2 cells (EC50 = 2.3 µM; 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay). Similarly, its primary metabolite, 17-OH itraconazole, showed inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 activity (EC50 = 3.6 µM). Remdesivir inhibited viral replication with an EC50 = 0.4 µM. Itraconazole and 17-OH itraconazole resulted in a viral yield reduction in vitro of approximately 2-log10 and approximately 1-log10 , as measured in both Caco-2 cells and VeroE6-eGFP cells, respectively. The viral yield reduction brought about by remdesivir or GS-441524 (parent nucleoside of the antiviral prodrug remdesivir; positive control) was more pronounced, with an approximately 3-log10 drop and >4-log10 drop in Caco-2 cells and VeroE6-eGFP cells, respectively. Itraconazole and 17-OH itraconazole exert in vitro low micromolar activity against SARS-CoV-2. Despite the in vitro antiviral activity, itraconazole did not result in a beneficial effect in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a clinical study (EudraCT Number: 2020-001243-15).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Furans/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Triazines/pharmacology , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
J Virol Methods ; 293: 114120, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary rhesus monkey kidney cells (RhMK) can be used for the detection of respiratory viruses, including influenza and parainfluenza. The human colon adeno-carcinoma cell line, CACO-2, has been previously used for the growth of multiple influenza viruses, including seasonal, novel and avian lineages. OBJECTIVE: We compared CACO-2, Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), and RhMK cells for the isolation of viruses from patients presenting with influenza like-illness (ILI). STUDY DESIGN: Nasopharyngeal specimens from patients with ILI in primary care settings were processed for conventional viral culture in MDCK, RhMK, and CACO-2. Cells were examined microscopically for cytopathic effect (CPE) and confirmatory testing included immunofluorescent antigen (IFA) detection and real-time RT-PCR. Additionally, 16 specimens positive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by PCR were inoculated on CACO-2 cells. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test with IBM Statistical Program. RESULTS: Of 1031 respiratory specimens inoculated, viruses were isolated and confirmed from 331 (32.1 %) in MDCK cells, 304 (29.5 %) in RhMk cells, and 433 (42.0 %) in CACO-2 cells. These included influenza A/(H1N1)pdm09, influenza A(H3N2), influenza B, parainfluenza virus (PIV) types 1, 2, and 3, human coronavirus 229E (CoV-229E), human adenovirus (HAdV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1), and enterovirus (EV). Influenza A viruses grew best in the CACO-2 cell line. Time to observation of CPE was similar for all three cell types but unlike RhMK and MDCK cells, virus-specific morphological changes were indistinguishable in CACO-2 cells. None of the 16 specimens positive for RSV by PCR grew on CACO-2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The overall respiratory virus culture isolation rate in CACO-2 cells was significantly higher than that in RhMK or MDCK cells (p < 0.05). CACO-2 cells also supported the growth of some viruses that did not grow in either RhMK or MDCK cells. Except for RSV, CACO-2 cells provide a worthwhile addition to culture algorithms for respiratory specimens.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Adenoviruses, Human/growth & development , Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Child , Child, Preschool , Dogs , Female , Humans , Infant , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Male , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae/growth & development , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/growth & development , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Young Adult
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