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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e3336-e3345, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053027

ABSTRACT

Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis (Piana & Galli-Valerio, 1895) is emerging in new regions in Europe since its vector Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) is expanding its geographic range. In the Berlin/Brandenburg area in northeast Germany, D. reticulatus is highly abundant but in the past only one autochthonous B. canis infection was reported. Since 2015, autochthonous cases were occasionally diagnosed but numbers increased since autumn 2019. The aim of the study was to genotype autochthonous canine Babesia spp. infections from Berlin/Brandenburg. Between 04/2015 and 01/2022, 46 dogs with acute babesiosis were presented to the small animal clinic (one dog was infected twice resulting in 47 samples). There were 32 dogs that had never left Berlin/Brandenburg and 14 others that had not left the region in the 6 weeks prior to disease onset. PCRs targeting the 18S rRNA and the Bc28.1 merozoite surface antigen were positive in 47 and 42 samples, respectively. Sequencing of cloned PCR products identified all samples as B. canis with 17 18S rRNA and 12 Bc28.1 haplotypes. Based on network analysis for 18S rRNA sequences and a previously described polymorphic dinucleotide, samples were assigned to two distinct clusters. One contained 31 and the other 16 samples. Using network analysis, the Bc28.1 haplotypes could also be separated into two clusters differing by at least five polymorphisms. Analyses of sequences from multiple clones indicated the presence of up to five 18S rRNA and eight Bc28.1 haplotypes and thus high parasite variability in an individual host. The genetic diversity could suggest that the parasites in the region have multiple origins, but diversity in individual dogs and dog populations from endemic regions is unknown. The suitability of both markers for genotyping is questionable due to potential intragenomic diversity for the rRNA and high intergenomic variability for the Bc28.1 marker.


Subject(s)
Babesia , Babesiosis , Dermacentor , Dog Diseases , Animals , Antigens, Surface , Babesia/genetics , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Babesiosis/parasitology , Berlin , Dermacentor/parasitology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dogs , Germany/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Genetic , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
2.
Companion ; : 17-19, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046845
3.
Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis ; 45(2):75-76, 2020.
Article in Slovak | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034130

ABSTRACT

This article highlights information on the beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms of the oral cavity of dogs, effects of grass consumption, and the breeding and care of dogs.

4.
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences ; 7(2):145-155, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026648

ABSTRACT

Many pandemic diseases have emerged in the history and millions of people affected from these diseases. Among the marked pandemics in history, the plague, known as the black death, was recorded to cause the death of 17-54% of the world population. Similar to previous pandemics, as the SARS CoV-2, which emerged in 2019 and belonged to the coronavirus family, caused an epidemic and turned into a pandemic infection, positive cases were detected in more than 483 million people, and more than 6.1 million people died. While this emerging epidemic is still continuing its effects, it has been determined that there are positive cases in pets such as dogs and cats, especially in mink (Neovison vison). Especially in Denmark, Netherlands and Finland, positive animals for COVID-19 were accepted. Unlike the pandemic until today, the COVID-19 has spread to broader geographies and affected many animal species. With the reports that the SARS-CoV-2 - was first transmitted from bats to humans, this viral agent has been accepted as zoonotic, but a complete transmission route has not been shown for its transmission from other animals to humans except bats. It is reported that there is no significant risk of transmission of the virus, which is transmitted primarily by the respiratory route, from both pets and edible foods to humans. Although there are many reports in terrestrial animals, studies on the presence of SARS-CoV-2 - in aquatic animals or aquatic environments and COVID-19 transmission in aquatic animals have doubts. Here we reviewed the viability of the SARS-CoV-2 - in the aquatic environment, transmission to the aquatic ecosystem and aquatic animals, and therefore the risks to humans through water or aquatic products.

5.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023160

ABSTRACT

Dermatophytosis, an infectious disease caused by several fungi, can affect the hair, nails, and/or superficial layers of the skin and is of global significance. The most common dermatophytes in cats and dogs are Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Wood's lamp examination, microscopic identification, and fungal culture are the conventional clinical diagnostic methods, while PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and qPCR (Quantitative PCR) are playing an increasingly important role in the identification of dermatophytes. However, none of these methods could be applied to point-of-care testing (POCT). The recent development of the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) based diagnostic platform promises a rapid, accurate, and portable diagnostic tool. In this paper, we present a Cas12a-fluorescence assay to detect and differentiate the main dermatophytes in clinical samples with high specificity and sensitivity. The Cas12a-based assay was performed with a combination of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The results could be directly visualized by naked eyes under blue light, and all tested samples were consistent with fungal culture and sequencing results. Compared with traditional methods, the RPA-Cas12a-fluorescence assay requires less time (about 30 min) and less complicated equipment, and the visual changes can be clearly observed with naked eyes, which is suitable for on-site clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Arthrodermataceae , Dermatomycoses , Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Cats , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/veterinary , Dogs , Hair/microbiology , Recombinases
6.
Summa, Animali da Compagnia ; 39(6):19-25, 2022.
Article in Italian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1989439

ABSTRACT

Since the appearance of COVID-19 in humans, there have been numerous reports of dogs and cats being infected with SARSCoV- 2, with cats appearing to be particularly susceptible. The portal of entry of the virus into the body's cells is a membrane receptor called ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) belonging to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The ACE2 receptor is expressed in airway epithelial cells, myocardium, venous and arterial endothelial cells, kidney, liver, oral cavity, intestine and also adipose tissue, explaining the diversity of clinical expression of the disease, with respiratory manifestations predominating. SARS-CoV-2 causes an imbalance in the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system. In addition, the virus has a direct action combined with an immune reaction, that is sometimes intense, causing a cascade of lesions, mainly in the lungs but also in the heart. The clinical expression of SARS-CoV-2 infection remains rare in dogs and cats and mainly includes fever, depression, anorexia, digestive, respiratory or ocular disorders. As in humans, various cardiovascular clinical signs are less frequently seen. Several cases of myocarditis, correlated with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (PCR or serology), have been identified in England and at least one in France. In the latter case, further investigation led to a strong suspicion of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy complicated by myocarditis. It is highly likely that obesity (with significant fat deposition in the pleural and pericardial spaces, tissues with high expression of the ACE2 receptor) may have favoured these complications. SARS-CoV-2 infection should therefore now be included in the differential diagnosis of agents causing myocarditis and pneumonia in both cats and dogs.

7.
Veterinary Ireland Journal ; 10(9):487-490, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1989213
8.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; 36(2):170-175, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1975403

ABSTRACT

2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a new strain of coronavirus that has never been found in humans. SARS-CoV-2 is a beta coronavirus. whereas the coronaviruses infecting pet dogs and cats arise mainly from a-coronaviruses. Whether SARS-CoV-2 infects cats, dogs and other pets is an important public-health issue during this time. In the present study, respiratory-tract symptoms in 20 pet cats and 4 pet dogs (especially with obvious fever and cough symptoms) in Beijing, China, were detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of SARS-CoV-2 and established diagnostic methods. Throat swabs were collected to detect the nucleic acids of SARS-CoV-2 using fluorescence quantitative PCR and to detect other pathogens. The nucleic acids of SARS-CoV-2 were not present in the 24 pets that we evaluated.

9.
Biomedica ; 42(Suppl. 2), 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957852

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The severe acute respiratory syndrome of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is the causal agent of the health emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although humans are the main susceptible host, experimental studies and reported cases of natural infection have evidenced scenarios of SARS-CoV-2 reverse zoonosis in animals.

10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(9): 1852-1855, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933543

ABSTRACT

We assessed 2 wild canid species, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans), for susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. After experimental inoculation, red foxes became infected and shed infectious virus. Conversely, experimentally challenged coyotes did not become infected; therefore, coyotes are unlikely to be competent hosts for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coyotes , Animals , Foxes , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Veteriner Hekimler Dernegi Dergisi / Journal of the Turkish Veterinary Medical Society ; 93(2):124-132, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924975

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses in the family Coronaviridae cause digestive and respiratory system infections in humans and animals. There are two subtypes of canine coronaviruses (CCoV), which are included in the alfacoronavirus, as CCoV I and CCoV II. CCoV-II is divided into two genotypes, CCoV-IIa and IIb. Although CCoV affects dogs of all ages and all diets, newborn puppies can be particularly susceptible and severely affected. According to the literature research, no molecular studies have been found in our country for the detection of canine coronavirus, especially in lower respiratory tract infections. In this study, it was aimed to detect and molecular characterization of CCoV un shelter dogs with lower respiratory tract infection. For this purpose, Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) fluids taken from 40 shelter dogs with lower respiratory tract infections were examined. CCoV was detected in 3 of the BAL fluids of 40 dogs tested. A phylogenetic tree was constructed with the sequences obtained after the sequence analysis. It was determined that 2 of the 3 positive samples in the phylogenetic tree were CCoV-I and one sample was CCoV-II. In conclusion, this study revealed that CCoV-I and CCoV-II may play a role in lower respiratory system disorders of shelter dogs. In addition, the detection of two different CCoVs in different animals in the same shelter has been considered as an important data, and the detection of both types in dogs housed in crowded environments such as shelter conditions shows that the possibility of new variants or subtypes that may occur in the future should not be ignored.

12.
Infectious disease management in animal shelters ; 2(656), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1918436

ABSTRACT

This second edition contains 24 new and updated chapters on aetiology, epidemiology, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical signs, treatment, prevention and control of infectious diseases in cats, dogs and exotic small companion mammals in animal shelters. These include an introduction to infectious disease management in animal shelters, wellness, data surveillance, diagnostic testing, necropsy techniques, outbreak management, pharmacology, sanitation, canine and feline vaccinations and immunology, canine infectious respiratory disease, canine distemper virus, canine influenza, feline infectious respiratory disease, canine parvovirus and other canine enteropathogens, feline panleukopenia, feline coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis, internal parasites, heartworm disease, external parasites, dermatophytoses, zoonoses, rabies, feline leukaemia and feline immunodeficiency viruses and conditions in exotic companion mammals (ferrets, rabbits, guineapigs and rodents). It is intended for shelter veterinarians, managers and workers.

13.
The Veterinary Nurse ; 13(4):194-199, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903912

ABSTRACT

The clinical environment of a veterinary practice relies on personal protective equipment (PPE) for infection and biosecurity control, especially in areas such as the operating theatre room, dental suites and isolation wards. PPE places a barrier between staff and exposure risk and helps prevent the spread of pathogens between animals and staff. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, face masks were mainly required in clinical areas that posed the highest risk. However, as a result of SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19, being spread by airborne transmission, face masks have been worn throughout all areas of practice, reducing the emission of the virus carrying particles when worn by an infected person. This article discusses the evidence-based research for the effectiveness of face coverings in the control of the spread of COVID-19. It also considers the social and psychological impacts to veterinary staff, clients and patients with doing so. Information on COVID-19 was gathered from government and scientific studies and research conducted by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) and Dogs Trust relating to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on animals and veterinary nurses.

14.
Veterinarski Zurnal Republike Srpske ; 21(1/2):94-106, 2021.
Article in English, Serbian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903815

ABSTRACT

Today, pets are the source of numerous infectious diseases that can be transmitted to humans, as a result of their increasingly frequent contact. The most important viruses with zoonotic potential include rabies and influenza viruses as well as rotaviruses and noroviruses. However, the importance of individual viruses varies depending on the climate and infectious disease control systems in certain countries. Dogs, cats, and other increasingly popular types of pets can transmit bacterial zoonotic agents to humans in various ways. In addition to known pathogens such as the bacteria causing leptospirosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, or brucellosis, the bacteria Pasteurella multocida and Bartonella henselae transmitted by bites or scratches are also significant in human pathology. There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus in isolates originating from pets and the transmission of these strains between humans and animals requires special attention. Furthermore, fungi causing diseases such as sporotrichosis or dermatophytosis are linked to long-term and persistent infections in humans. The epidemiological situation caused by SARS-CoV-2, and the assumption of an interspecies jump of this virus from animals to humans, including its documented presence in domestic cats, dogs, tigers, and martens, have raised the question of the possibility of virus transmission from pets to humans. However, the current pandemic is caused exclusively by SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the human population, and these animals are not a source of infection for humans. A significant number of zoonoses originating from pets is a threat to public health, thus requiring the "One Health" approach through close cooperation between human and veterinary medicine to develop and implement effective health measures for both humans and animals. As part of responsible ownership, pet owners must be informed by veterinarians about measures to prevent infectious diseases and certain risks that are related to keeping certain species of animals.

15.
NAVC Clinician's Brief ; 29, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1898327
16.
China Tropical Medicine ; 22(3):284-288, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1893398

ABSTRACT

Objective: To comprehensively analyze the epidemiological characteristics and emergency treatment of a case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), analyze the suspected sources of infection, and provide a basis for the development of emergency treatment measures and prevention and control strategies of SFTS.

17.
Veterinary Practice News ; 34(5):22-23, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1888194
18.
Surveillance ; 48(4):10-24, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887621

ABSTRACT

Exotic pest and disease investigations are managed and reported by the Ministry for Primary Industries' (MPI's) Diagnostic and Surveillance Directorate. This article presents a summary of investigations of suspect exotic and emerging pests and diseases in New Zealand during the period from July to September 2021.

19.
Saglik Bilimlerinde Ileri Arastirmalar Dergisi / Journal of Advanced Research in Health Sciences ; 4(1 Suppl):S75-S82, 2021.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876452

ABSTRACT

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic process on animals, animal caregiver, and veterinary students, clinical academicians and self-employed veterinarians in our country were evaluated in this study. By examining the available resources on the subject, the situation in our country and in the world has been revealed. In addition, information is given on the characteristics of the COVID-19 agent and the differences between animal species. New studies in dogs and especially cats, in which coronavirus infection is common, will help us to provide information concerning the effects of COVID-19 in these animals and the contamination patterns and course of the disease.

20.
Veterinar ; 59(1):14-23, 2021.
Article in Croatian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837993

ABSTRACT

The first cases of human disease from COVID-19 were recorded in December 2019 in China, from where it spread rapidly around the world. COVID-19, the third emerging coronavirus infection in humans, is caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can cause a severe acute respiratory syndrome in some infected individuals. Previous research has revealed the possible animal origin of SARS-CoV-2, with bats considered as natural reservoirs and pangolins as intermediate hosts. To better understand COVID-19 and more successfully control the spread, domestic and wild animals have been infected in experimental conditions. On the other hand, in some species, infections have been recorded in field conditions. Natural infections have been reported in dogs, cats, tigers, lions, and minks, who have been in contact with SARS-CoV-2 positive humans. The reverse transmission of the pathogen, from infected animals to humans, has only been recorded on intensive mink farms. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease's causative agent, drugs and vaccine trials, some experimental infections were performed on animal models, of which ferrets, rhesus macaques, and hamsters proved to be the most suitable. This article aimed to consolidate known data on the potential origin of SARS-CoV-2, its transmission to humans, infections in animals, and their significance in the epidemiology of COVID-19.

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