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1.
JTCVS Tech ; 2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2147955

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Proning patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been associated with increased survival, though little data exists evaluating the safety and feasibility of proning ARDS patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Methods: A single-institution retrospective review of all patients with ARDS placed on ECMO between March 1st-May 31st, 2020 was performed. All proning events were evaluated for complications, as well as change in compliance, sweep, oxygenation and flow. The primary outcome of this study was the rate major morbidity associated with proning while on ECMO. Results: 30 patients were placed on ECMO for ARDS, with 12 patients (40%) proned while on ECMO. 83 proning episodes occurred, with a median of 7 per patient (IQR 3-9). No ECMO cannula-associated bleeding, cannula displacement, or endotracheal tune dislodgements occurred (0%) . Oropharyngeal bleeding occurred twice (50%).Four patients were proned with chest tubes in place and none had complications (0%). Lung compliance improved after proning in 70 events (84%), from a mean of 15.4mL/mmHg pre to 20.6mL/mmHg post (p<0.0001). Sweep requirement decreased in 36 events (43%). Oxygenation improved in 63 events (76%), from a mean pO2 of 86 pre to 103 post (p<0.0001). Mean ECMO flow was unchanged. Conclusions: Proning in patients with ARDS on ECMO is safe with an associated improvement in lung mechanics. With careful planning and coordination, these data support the practice of appropriately proning patients with severe ARDS, even if they are on ECMO.

2.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13:4747-4762, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164831

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 virus causes a pneumonia that was identified through fever, dyspnea, and acute respiratory symptoms and named COVID-19. This disease exacerbates in a number of patients and causes pulmonary edema, multi-organ failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Concerning the new management modality of ARDS patients, prone position can be used as an adjuvant therapy for improving ventilation in these patients. Purpose(s): The study purposed to evaluate the effect of prone position on respiratory parameters and mortality rate among mechanical ventilated covid-19 patients Methods: Experimental prospective study including a convenience 50 patients were recruited from governmental hospital in Al-Jouf to evaluate the effect of prone position on oxygenation parameters in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Result(s): The results showed that PaO2 mm Hg is statistically significant higher in study group (average 86.48) compared to the control group average of PaO2 mm Hg (51.18). In addition, PaCO2 mm Hg level is seemed to be significantly higher in the control group which arrived 46.57. Conclusion(s): Prone position improve respiratory function in the vast majority of patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 which reducing the injurious effects of mechanical ventilation. In addition, improve oxygenation in patient with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and there is no effect of the prone position on the mortality rate. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

3.
Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference 2022, ADIPEC 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2162749

ABSTRACT

A novel solution was proposed in Ecuador to transition from reactive to a proactive way of working into a collaborative environment. This new workflow is supported by a portfolio of three production technologies that integrates live and historical information by combining the edge intelligence strength (for each production element connected to IoT platform) and the cloud insight to enhance the field operational efficiency. Technology that reduces carbon footprint and increases people's efficiency through automation of repetitive tasks. The main challenge that required an integrated and smart solution was the existence of silos, meaning that all production chain elements were disconnected. The solution consisted of a portfolio of three technologies. First, connecting all production chain elements to one unique gateway and Edge platform: all data were consolidated to perform asset surveillance, monitoring, and controlling of electrical submersible pump (ESP) parameters from any vendor. Second, creation of an autonomous system aiming to avoid gas blockage on ESPs. Third, deployment of Production Engineering Orchestrator, fully completed and in continuous improvement, easing collaborative, day-to-day analysis for production, operations, and exploitation engineers We achieved remarkable results with Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud insights implementation;for instance, travel reduction of 18%, personnel efficiency increase (production operations 7% and surveillance engineers 25%), 47% events detection increase, 32% well uptime increase, and 2.14 t carbon dioxide emissions reduction (22.6%). Because of the outstanding results achieved from IoT adoption, new applications were deployed in other projects. With automated annular gas handling, production challenges related to high gas/oil ratio wells were solved. Solution consisted in delivering an automated ESP gas-handling process by using a securely connected, solar-powered skid to optimize well performance, production was increased by 12%, field visits reduced by 94%, and valves manipulation decreased by 97%. Other applications are also running in parallel, to expand the concept of intelligent asset solution. For the production engineering workflows orchestrator, the native implementation is completed, where the highest business impact workflows are included, such as smart production surveillance, waterflooding optimization and ESP surveillance. Insights are shown in "production overview". It is also possible to follow up oil and water producing wells, task modules, customized maps and graphs, sanity check processes, and well model calibration (including the paraffin curves). The integration of these three digital production technologies to improve artificial lift surveillance, production surveillance, and waterflooding optimization workflows is already deployed and showing tangible benefits. Currently, a mature field project is currently working in a collaborative environment, promoting a new proactive operational philosophy that avoids early pump failures, reduces downtime, field trips, personnel exposure due to the COVID-19 pandemic and supports the environmental commitment towards the carbon footprint reduction. Copyright © 2022, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

4.
13th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence, ICTC 2022 ; 2022-October:2022-2025, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2161407

ABSTRACT

Early stage arrhythmia detection is very important to prevent progress. However, under COVID-19 hospital accessibility deeply decreased and the risk of arrhythmia raised. Thus, we attached our activity sensor and environmental sensor attached to commercial tonometry system: Daeyomedi lifeplus. Tonometry system is one of the most accurate cardiovascular diseases detection system but it is very hard to make it portable. Photoplethysmogram sensors are less accurate than tonometry system but they are very small and can fit into the watch size. Environmental sensors are collecting additional data, temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide level, micro dust and Volatile Organic Compounds. Our IoT sever system collects all data from DMP lifeplus, activity sensor and environmental sensor. Processing data with implemented algorithms for service was developed as well. We successfully attached DMP lifeplus to our activity and environmental sensor. This work shows that our activity and environmental sensors can be attached to other medical system and enlarge the medical service area. © 2022 IEEE.

5.
npj Urban Sustainability ; 2(1):33, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160337

ABSTRACT

How to control the global temperature rise within 1.5 °C in the post-COVID-19 era has attracted attention. Road transport accounts for nearly a quarter of global CO2 emissions, and the related sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions also trigger air pollution issues in population-intensive cities and areas. Many cities and states have announced a timetable for phasing out urban-based fossil fuel vehicles. By combining a Markov-chain model with a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model, the impacts of on-road energy structural change led by phasing out fossil fuel vehicles in the road transportation sector are evaluated. The impact of automobile emissions (both CO2 and SO2) on the environment is evaluated, taking into consideration of variation between cities, regions, and countries. Two other major driving forces in addition to CO2 emissions reduction in promoting fossil fuel vehicles' transition toward net-zero carbon are identified and analyzed with multiple different indicators. Under the framework of the DSGE model, climate policy instruments' effects on economic development, energy consumption, and their link to economic and environmental resilience are evaluated under exogenous shocks as well.

7.
World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development ; 19(1-2):40-54, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2154336

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has lead to societal transformation in terms of economic, social, and environmental behaviours. Like other countries, Turkey has suffered from the pandemic. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on the following major indicators: total hours worked by employees, number of employees, labour compensation, capital compensation, gross value added and nominal capital stock at current basic prices, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Throughout the study, an extended input-output (EIO) analysis was employed. The scope of the study was based on the decline in economic activities in the restricted sectors such as accommodation and food services, travel agencies, tour operators and other reservation and related services, air transport, land tourism, water transport, and leisure activities. Three main scenarios, i.e., fast recovery scenario, continuing slowdown scenario, and economic recession scenario, were set to analyse the effects of COVID-19 on the Turkish economy and CO2 emissions.

8.
BMJ Open Ophthalmology ; 7(1) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2153004
9.
2nd International Conference on Energy Transition in the Mediterranean Area, SyNERGY MED 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2152542

ABSTRACT

After Covid-19 Pandemic, with an instable European geo-political context and a constant pressure to decrease the CO2 emissions, EU needs to implement explicite actions to limit its environmental impact. EU decarbonation is an ambitious proposal to make the bloc climate-neutral by 2050. This study aims to determine how can be improved the energy generation from RES considering important macroeconomic indicators. In the same time, the research shows the strong correlation between investments in research and development and decreasing of carbon emissions. One of the major conclusions of the research is that the best solution in increasing the production of energy that comes from RES, is the investment in R&D, especially in businesses and higher education sectors. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
Ieee Access ; 10:121204-121229, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2152418

ABSTRACT

In this paper, curve-fitting and an artificial neural network (ANN) model were developed to predict R-Event. Expected number of new infections that arise in any event occurring over a total time in any space is termed as R-Event. Real-time data for the office environment was gathered in the spring of 2022 in a naturally ventilated office room in Roorkee, India, under composite climatic conditions. To ascertain the merit of the proposed ANN and curve-fitting models, the performances of the ANN approach were compared against the curve fitting model regarding conventional statistical indicators, i.e., correlation coefficient, root mean square error, mean absolute error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index, mean absolute percentage error, and a20-index. Eleven input parameters namely indoor temperature ( $T_{In}$ ), indoor relative humidity ( $RH_{In}$ ), area of opening ( $A_{O}$ ), number of occupants ( $O$ ), area per person ( $A_{P}$ ), volume per person ( $V_{P}$ ), $CO_{2}$ concentration ( $CO_{2}$ ), air quality index ( $AQI$ ), outer wind speed ( $W_{S}$ ), outdoor temperature ( $T_{Out}$ ), outdoor humidity ( $RH_{Out}$ ) were used in this study to predict the R-Event value as an output. The primary goal of this research is to establish the link between $CO_{2}$ concentration and R-Event value;eventually providing a model for prediction purposes. In this case study, the correlation coefficient of the ANN model and curve-fitting model were 0.9992 and 0.9557, respectively. It shows the ANN model's higher accuracy than the curve-fitting model in R-Event prediction. Results indicate the proposed ANN prediction performance (R = 0.9992, RMSE = 0.0018708, MAE = 0.0006675, MAPE = 0.8643816, NS = 0.9984365, and a20-index = 0.9984300) is reliable and highly accurate to predict the R-event for offices.

11.
45th Mexican Conference on Biomedical Engineering, CNIB 2022 ; 86:843-850, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2148593

ABSTRACT

In this work, CO2 levels were estimated in the naso-buccal area due to the use of face masks. Tests were performed on a healthy volunteer subject sitting at rest and breathing regularly, who used five types of face masks in well-ventilated and poorly ventilated rooms. The ventilation conditions were determined by the natural ventilation of the room. Each of the tests lasted one hour. To estimate the CO2 level, a sensor based on the Non-dispersive Infrared (NDIR) principle was used. The results revealed that while wearing a face mask, the ventilation conditions affected the CO2 concentration levels in the naso-buccal area of the user, especially in those that offered a higher level of protection, and in those that best fit the face of the subject. A multiple comparison method (Tukey) revealed significant differences in the levels of CO2 between all the facemask tested (p < 0.0001). The CO2 levels were also compared with the exposure limits recommended by NIOSH, showing that the use of N95 for 1 h exceeded the recommended 5,000 ppm for an 8-h workday. None of the masks tested exceeded the NIOSH-recommended short-term limit in the first 15 min of use. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

12.
8th IEEE International Conference on Smart Instrumentation, Measurement and Applications, ICSIMA 2022 ; : 313-317, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2136332

ABSTRACT

The risk of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was reported to be higher in the indoor environment due to poor ventilation systems. A good and efficient ventilation system in enclosed spaces can help reduce the risk of infection. Thus, it is important to monitor the efficiency of the ventilation system. Therefore, this research aims to develop an indoor air quality (IAQ) monitoring and control system using the fuzzy logic controller (FLC). Three IAQ parameters were selected in this study (temperature, relative humidity (RH), and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration). In addition, benchmark testing was done to test the efficiency of the IAQ monitoring and control system. The system's engine is a microcontroller, which collects data on IAQ parameters, and is equipped with an exhaust fan as the ventilation strategy. The device aids in monitoring IAQ parameters and is equipped with an exhaust fan as the ventilation strategy. The device, which aids in monitoring IAQ, was created using a machine learning technique, fuzzy logic controller. The performance of the proposed air quality monitoring and control system was also investigated and validated through several experiments. The system was tested by modifying each parameter individually while keeping the controlled parameters safe. In addition, the tests were changed to include the existence of a controller in the system to see how ventilation affects the measured metrics. The test revealed that without the controller, the parameters take a long time to return to their initial values, however with the controller, the readings return to their original values faster than normal. The system also demonstrated that by following the fuzzy rules set, it is capable of handling two parameters at the same time. © 2022 IEEE.

13.
IOP Conference Series Materials Science and Engineering ; 1265(1):012008, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2134678

ABSTRACT

Many aspects of the world population’s daily life have been recently changed by the events following the SARS-COV-2 pandemic outbreak. Among all the consequences, wearing face masks has become a common routine to protect from virus transmission risks. This work presents a simple colorimetric system able to detect the carbon dioxide (CO2) saturation inside a disposable face mask, which is useful to determine the level of wear and degradation and to visually provide indications on its disposal time. The experiments were carried out by wearing a FFP2 face mask externally treated with a phenolphthalein solution and including in its breathing zone a CO2 sensor. Changes in face mask color were recorded by a camera and analyzed with ImageJ. A strong correspondence was found between the high values of CO2 detected by the sensor and the analyzed data. The results are promising and suggest further efforts in developing easy-to-use colorimetric methods as a visual indicator of the life cycle of a disposable face mask.

14.
Science of the Total Environment ; 856(Pt 2):159088, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132313

ABSTRACT

In the developed world, individuals spend most of their time indoors. Poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has a wide range of effects on human health. The burden of disease associated with indoor air accounts for millions of premature deaths related to exposure to Indoor Air Pollutants (IAPs). Among them, CO2 is the most common one, and is commonly used as a metric of IAQ. Indoor CO2 concentrations can be significantly higher than outdoors due to human metabolism and activities. Even in presence of ventilation, controlling the CO2 concentration below the Indoor Air Guideline Values (IAGVs) is a challenge, and many indoor environments including schools, offices and transportation exceed the recommended value of 1000 ppmv. This is often accompanied by high concentration of other pollutants, including bio-effluents such as viruses, and the importance of mitigating the transmission of airborne diseases has been highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic. On the other hand, the relatively high CO2 concentration of indoor environments presents a thermodynamic advantage for direct air capture (DAC) in comparison to atmospheric CO2 concentration. This review aims to describe the issues associated with poor IAQ, and to demonstrate the potential of indoor CO2 DAC to purify indoor air while generating a renewable carbon stream that can replace conventional carbon sources as a building block for chemical production, contributing to the circular economy.

15.
Egyptian Journal of Soil Science ; 61(4):445-457, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2124174

ABSTRACT

Upon the outbreak and spreading of COVID-19, several reduction measures have been implemented throughout the world to avert the COVID-19 pandemic risks such as entire lockdowns, social distancing, extensive travel bans, mass quarantines, etc. Many positive and negative indicators of this pandemic on the whole environmental compartments have been reported worldwide. These indicators may include promoting the air quality through a reduction in anthropogenic-based emissions (e.g., CO2 and N2O) and increase ozone concentration in addition to energy, water and wastewater, deforestation, and natural resources. This is the difficult equation concerningthe COVID-19 pandemic outbreak and its health, societal, economic, and environmental risks and how is the recovery of the environment? Is this recovery will be permanent or temporary? The answer to this question may be emphasized during the outcoming days or months. What will increase this global pandemic aggravation if the COVID-19 has appeared in many types, which enforce us to re-think again concerning the task?

16.
Facilities ; 40(15/16):125-140, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2123147

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis paper aims to study employee mental health in relation to workplace design and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) when working from home, which has received little attention. The trend toward hybrid working urges for more knowledge. Design/methodology/approachThrough a mixed data collection method, this study analyzed potential relationships (between mental health, workplace design and IEQ) from information obtained through a cross-sectional survey, repeated point-in-time surveys and desk-based IEQ sensors at home. Data were collected in April 2020 during a national COVID-19 lockdown in The Netherlands amongst 36 subjects. They all worked full time from home in this period and together completed 321 point-in-time surveys. The three data sets were combined and analyzed using bivariate and path analysis. FindingsOutcomes indicate that subjective and objective IEQ conditions, workplace suitability and distraction affect employee mental health in the home workplace in a similar way as in the office. Being satisfied with the noise level increases concentration, self-reported well-being and engagement. High sound pressure levels (>58 dB) increased tension or nervous feelings. Originality/valueTo the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is one of the first to explore employee mental health in relation to simultaneously assessed (perceived and measured) multiple IEQ parameters in the home workplace.

17.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115958

ABSTRACT

Many factors may influence the risk of being infected by SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Exposure to the virus cannot explain the variety of an individual's responses to the virus and the high differences of effect that the virus may cause to some. While a person's preexisting condition and their immune defenses have been confirmed to play a major role in the disease progression, there is still much to learn about hosts' genetic makeup towards COVID-19 susceptibility and risk. The host genetic makeup may have direct influence on the grade of predisposition and outcomes of COVID-19. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of relevant genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the peripheral blood level of IL6, vitamin D and arterial blood gas (ABG) markers (pH, oxygen-SpO2 and carbon dioxide-SpCO2) on two groups, COVID-19 (n = 41, study), and the healthy (n = 43, control). We analyzed cytokine and interleukin genes in charge of both pro-inflammatory and immune-modulating responses and those genes that are considered involved in the COVID-19 progression and complications. Thus, we selected major genes, such as IL1ß, IL1RN (IL-1 ß and α receptor) IL6, IL6R (IL-6 receptor), IL10, IFNγ (interferon gamma), TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha), ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme), SERPINA3 (Alpha-1-Antiproteinase, Antitrypsin member of Serpin 3 family), VDR (vitamin D receptor Tak1, Bsm1 and Fok1), and CRP (c-reactive protein). Though more research is needed, these findings may give a better representation of virus pleiotropic activity and its relation to the immune system.

18.
Tecnologia En Marcha ; 35:74-83, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121173

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic facing the world, it became necessary to search for low-cost strategies to guarantee people's health;while economic, educational, and social activities that were seriously affected are being reactivated. As research on the virus progresses, the relationship between the probability of transmission of COVID-19 and indoor air quality has been discovered, indicating that virus particles can accumulate easier in spaces where ventilation and air quality are deficient. This article describes the methodologies implemented from different disciplines for the design of a system, which is made up of a circuit, a casing, and a desktop application. The design of this system will allow the monitoring of air quality variables in the classrooms and laboratories of the Tecnologico de Costa Rica, by warning when spaces have poor air quality, and therefore the place must be ventilated.

19.
Frontline Gastroenterology ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2118615

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThe National Health Service (NHS) produces more carbon emissions than any public sector organisation in England. In 2020, it became the first health service worldwide to commit to becoming carbon net zero, the same year as the COVID-19 pandemic forced healthcare systems globally to rapidly adapt service delivery. As part of this, outpatient appointments became largely remote. Although the environmental benefit of this change may seem intuitive the impact on patient outcomes must remain a priority. Previous studies have evaluated the impact of telemedicine on emission reduction and patient outcomes but never before in the gastroenterology outpatient setting.Method2140 appointments from general gastroenterology clinics across 11 Trusts were retrospectively analysed prior to and during the pandemic. 100 consecutive appointments during two periods of time, from 1 June 2019 (prepandemic) to 1 June 2020 (during the pandemic), were used. Patients were telephoned to confirm the mode of transport used to attend their appointment and electronic patient records reviewed to assess did-not-attend (DNA) rates, 90-day admission rates and 90-day mortality rates.ResultsRemote consultations greatly reduced the carbon emissions associated with each appointment. Although more patients DNA their remote consultations and doctors more frequently requested follow-up blood tests when reviewing patients face-to-face, there was no significant difference in patient 90-day admissions or mortality when consultations were remote.ConclusionTeleconsultations can provide patients with a flexible and safe means of being reviewed in outpatient clinics while simultaneously having a major impact on the reduction of carbon emissions created by the NHS.

20.
United European Gastroenterology Journal ; 10(Supplement 8):268, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2115266

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic led to the suspension of all faceto- face teaching for gastroenterology trainees in the UK. From June 2020, we organised and delivered a weekly webinar, mapped to the UK higher speciality training (HST) gastroenterology curriculum, comprising a 40-minute lecture, delivered by an international multi-disciplinary faculty, followed by 10-20 minutes of moderated discussion via Microsoft Teams. Webinars were coordinated and moderated live by East Midlands Gastroenterology trainees and made available on demand for attendees to view in between commitments. Any professional in Gastroenterology, including trainees, consultants and allied health professionals, not limited to geographical location, was allowed to request access to the platform. Aims & Methods: We aimed to perform a multi-modal evaluation of the webinar series. First, we reviewed participants' demographics and weekly webinar attendance data. Second, we conducted a curriculum-mapping exercise of the programme to identify the breadth of topics covered. Third, we conducted two web-based feedback surveys in June 2021 and April 2022 to assess participants' satisfaction with the webinar series. Finally, since the webinar series has substituted face-to-face training for East Midlands trainees, we performed a projected calculation of CO2 emission saving based on the cessation of face-to-face teaching within the East Midlands region. Result(s): Between June 2020 and April 2022, a total of 84 webinars were delivered by 68 consultants, 13 senior trainees and two allied health care professionals. 47.6% of the speakers were from outside East Midlands. A total of 746 participants were registered on the online platform, of whom 85.6% were from the UK and 14.4% were from abroad. Live attendance data were available for 33 sessions (mean 55 +/- 13 attendees). The webinar series has, so far, covered over 80% of the UK HST gastroenterology curriculum. Fifty-nine participants and 20 participants completed the first and second feedback surveys, respectively. 98% of the first survey respondents felt that the webinars fulfilled their educational goals and 100% rated the programme's quality as good/very good. This positive feedback was sustained during the second survey with 100% reporting that the webinars fulfilled their educational goals and 90% rating the programme's quality as good/very good. 97% of the first survey respondents and 100% of the second survey respondents wanted the webinar series to continue, even when face-to-face teaching resumes. Using the East Midlands region as an example, we estimate a saving of >2.9 metric tons in CO2 emission/region, equivalent to the recycling of one ton of waste/year from the replacement of face-to-face with web-based teaching. Conclusion(s): We have demonstrated that the East Midlands Gastroenterology webinar series is a greener, highly valued, and sustainable trainee-led innovation, bringing together an international community of gastroenterology practitioners. A significant proportion of the UK HST curriculum can be delivered online. Future evaluations should aim to evaluate the scalability of such innovation across different programmes in different settings.

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