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1.
Energies ; 15(16):5908, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023306

ABSTRACT

If global energy consumption returns to its pre-pandemic growth rate, it will be almost impossible to transition to a zero-emission or net-zero-emission energy system by 2050 in the absence of large-scale CO2 removal. Since relying on unproven technologies for CO2 removal is speculative and risky, this paper considers an energy descent scenario for reaching zero greenhouse gas emissions from energy by 2050. To drive the rapid transition from fossil fuels to carbon-free energy sources and ensure demand reduction, funding is needed urgently in order to implement four strategies: (i) technology change, i.e., implementing the growth of zero-carbon energy production, end-use energy efficiency and ‘green’ energy carriers, together with ongoing R&D on CO2 removal;(ii) reducing climate impacts;(iii) reducing energy consumption by social and behavioural changes;and (iv) improving human wellbeing while increasing social justice. Modern monetary theory explains how monetary sovereign governments, with their own fiat currencies, can create the necessary funding without financial constraints, although constraints do result from the productive capacities of their economies. The energy transition could be part-funded by a significant transfer of resources from monetary sovereign countries of the global North to the global South, financed by currency issuance.

2.
Energies ; 15(15):5493, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1993963

ABSTRACT

Undoubtedly, the development of the renewable energy sector is linked to the goals of sustainable development [16,17,18,19], where the greatest emphasis is placed on caring for the environment and transitioning from classical energy sources to renewable and non-carbon sources. The authors emphasize the importance of a harmonized energy transition process, noting that the suspension of energy transformation processes may move from one region to the entire member state, or that it is possible for the economy of one of the countries, or a group of countries, to undergo a serious economic crisis. [...]eventualities would bring some countries back to the starting point and jeopardize the future of the entire EU energy project [24]. In [28], the authors focus on energy consumption in health care facilities, trying to set the determinants of electricity and thermal energy costs in relation to the size and intensity of work in Polish clinics. The authors of [29] deal with factors determining the demand for energy consumption from renewable sources in European countries.

3.
Journal of Earth System Science ; 131(2), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1877958

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic-led lockdown (LD) from March 25 to May 31, 2020, had a different level of impact on air quality in the ecologically sensitive region of northeast India, even though the restriction on main anthropogenic activities was expected to reduce particulate matter concentration. The daily average black carbon concentration measured at 880 nm (BC880) was 1.5–15.6 μg m−3 (mean: 5.75±4.24 μg m−3) during the measurement period. It was 9.29±4.11 μg m−3 during pre-LD (February 12–March 21), 4.70±0.95 μg m−3 during LD1 (March 25–April 14), 3.41±0.56 μg m−3 during LD2 (April 15–May 3), 3.69±1.50 μg m−3 during LD3 (May 4–17), 2.94±0.93 μg m−3 during LD4 (May 18–31), and 6.56±5.35 μg m−3 during the Post-LD (June 6–July 3) of 2020. It decreased up to 68% during the lockdowns. The source apportionment based on an improved method showed a significant improvement in the contribution of BC880 sources. The radiation effect determined by Angstrom Absorption Exponent showed that brown carbon accounted for 25% of the aerosol light absorption at 370 nm during the lockdown period. Relative humidity correlates substantially with BC880, while rainfall, temperature, and solar radiation were negatively correlated. The bivariate analysis showed the dominance of local emissions in the BC880 concentrations.Research highlightsBlack carbon concentration decreased up to 68% during the different phases of lockdown.BC associated with fossil fuel was 51–78%, and biomass burning was 22–49%.The fraction of fossil fuel and biomass burning in whole BC fallen to 0.73 and 0.65 during the lockdowns.Air quality improved by about 47–58% on the 4th and 7th day of lockdown.Brown carbon and meteorological parameters significantly impacted aerosol light absorption in this region.

4.
Energies ; 15(5):1825, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1736865

ABSTRACT

This article highlights the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by reducing energy consumption. Of course, this can be achieved in various ways, but inter alia, through the practical implementation of the assumptions contained in the CSR programs of individual companies, which include a component on environmental protection and counteracting global warming. The authors also describe a proposal to reduce CO2 emissions by using coke oven gas (if necessary) in exchange for natural gas. Currently, the largest sources of carbon dioxide emissions are the combustion of fossil fuels in power plants, transport—cars and planes, processes related to the production of industrial goods, and deforestation. In the preparation of the article, the analysis of the literature on the subject, analysis of documents, desk research, and two case studies were used. The main goal of the article is to present the possibilities of reducing CO2 emissions by implementing the assumptions of the CSR policy on the example of a selected company (models of such activities are also given). Therefore, the aim of the article is to present selected activities that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in enterprises;of course, this is specific each time and should be individually selected for each enterprise depending on financial, environmental, and any other conditions. This means that almost all enterprises, organizations, and all other institutions should be obliged to implement an individual environmental policy related to the possibility of reducing carbon dioxide emissions worldwide, and the effects of implementing the assumptions of this policy should be regularly, at least once a year, presented in the CSR reports of a given organization. However, each organization should provide its own examples of how it reduces carbon dioxide emissions. For this reason, this article presents an example of the Marcel CHP plant, which, due to its capabilities, also uses coke oven gas, the use of which results in lower emissions of carbon dioxide than natural gas. Additionally, the article presents a comparative analysis of the use of coke oven gas instead of natural gas. The obtained results show the significant and real possibilities of reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

5.
Sustainability ; 13(23):13061, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1559984

ABSTRACT

The rising concentration of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has severely affected our planet’s homeostasis. Efforts are being made worldwide to curb carbon dioxide emissions, but there is still no strategy or technology available to date that is widely accepted. Two basic strategies are employed for reducing CO2 emissions, viz. (i) a decrease in fossil fuel use, and increased use of renewable energy sources;and (ii) carbon sequestration by various biological, chemical, or physical methods. This review has explored microalgae’s role in carbon sequestration, the physiological apparatus, with special emphasis on the carbon concentration mechanism (CCM). A CCM is a specialized mechanism of microalgae. In this process, a sub-cellular organelle known as pyrenoid, containing a high concentration of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), helps in the fixation of CO2. One type of carbon concentration mechanism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the association of pyrenoid tubules with thylakoids membrane is represented through a typical graphical model. Various environmental factors influencing carbon sequestration in microalgae and associated techno-economic challenges are analyzed critically.

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