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1.
Nova Religio ; 25(4):88-101, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1833749

ABSTRACT

A connection and a yearning towards a communal and primarily agrarian existence connects the Rastafari the world over. Many Rastafari yearn for a life in direct communication with the earth through agricultural labor in a space created for and by the community, a space “up in the hills” away from the pollutants of a contaminated, corrupting Babylonian society. This was no less the case amongst those in Saint Lucia with whom I conducted recent fieldwork. Different from previous conversations on this topic however, was a new context defined by a global pandemic and a subsequent widely mandated social withdrawal. This engendered a dual response of envisioning rural flight as now more urgent and, in some cases, as a necessary response to COVID-19.

2.
Age and Ageing ; 51(SUPPL 1):i19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1815978

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Whilst most patients during the COVID pandemic made an uneventful recovery, there was a significant minority in whom the disease was severe and unfortunately fatal. This survey aims to evaluate independent risk factors for those who died of COVID compared to survivors and to identify any markers for improvement in future management. Methods: Medical records of all COVID patients admitted to two multi-ethnic, inner city acute district general hospitals over a 6-week period in 2020 were examined. Data collected included demographic details, medical comorbidities, and type of ward where they received care. Multivariable analysis using stepwise backward logistic regression was conducted to examine independent risk factors for those who died from COVID compared to survivors. Results: Of 951 patients admitted with COVID, 284 died[30%]. Compared to survivors(n=667), univariate analyses revealed COVID deaths were associated with increasing age[mean(CI): 79.3(77.9-80.7)vs64.7(63.4-66.0);P<0.001], Black African [16.2%vs11.7%;p<0.001] & South-Asian [12%vs9.1%;p<0.001] ethnicity, Hypertension [64.4%vs49.5%;p<0.001],ChronicHeartDisease(CHD)[40.1%vs20.7%;p<0.001], Chronic Respiratory Disease [17.6%vs12.0%;p=0.02] Chronic Kidney Disease [18%vs11.1%;p=0.004], Chronic Neurological Disease 43.3%vs23.7%;p<0.001]. Gender, Diabetes, asthma, obesity, Chronic Liver Disease and immunosuppression (disease or treatment related) were not associated with increasing mortality. Death rates between those in general wards vs intensive care were comparable[4.7%vs2.5%;p=0.1]. Multivariable analyses showed age 60-70 [OR 2.3], age>70 [OR 6.5], Black Caribbean [OR 1.6], and CHD [1.5] were independent risk factors for COVID deaths. Discussion: This large multi-ethnic study showed that age>60, Black Caribbean, and chronic heart disease were independent risk factors for COVID deaths. This study provides valuable information on independent prognostic implications for COVID, which can be used in future interventional studies aiming to improve COVID outcomes or in audits of clinical practice.

3.
Neuroepidemiology ; 56(SUPPL 1):78, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1812974

ABSTRACT

The worldwide incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is estimated at 0.5-10 cases per 100.000 personyears and is probably increasing. Incidence in Uruguay was estimated in 1.2 cases per 100.000 personyears in a 2015 study. Following the EMELAC protocol (MS in Latin America and Caribbean region), we conducted an observational, prospective, population-based study to determine MS incidence in Uruguay. The population under study included people living in Uruguay between 7-1-2019 and 6-30- 2021, with18 years and above. The diagnosis was based on the 2017 McDonald criteria. Multiple data sources were employed. All possible cases of MS were reviewed by the research team. Cases with diagnostic uncertainty were re-reviewed by an outside co-author (D.O.). Results: 155 new MS cases were confirmed after review including 111 females (71.6 %). 99 of them were examined directly by the research team (63.9 %). The sex ratio was 2.5:1 female/male. Age range was 18 to 62. Median age was 33 years and the standard deviation 11.4 years. 111 (71.6 %) cases were relapsing-remitting MS, 9 (5.8 %) primary progressive MS and 2 secondary progressive MS. We have no data in 33 cases (21 %). Global incidence rate was 2.88 cases per 100.000 person-years, 3.95 in females and 1.72 in males. The highest incidence was observed in the group with 35-39 years (5.28 cases per 100.000 personyears). Discussion: According to MS Atlas, Uruguay has a low incidence rate (2.0-3.99). Despite this, the MS incidence in Uruguay is one of the highest in Latin America. Age and gender distribution were similar to other studies. We found a lower proportion of primary progressive MS. COVID19 pandemic raised methodological problems which could have led to an underestimation of the incidence.

4.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(5):12841-12851, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812856

ABSTRACT

The international community is striving very hard to come back to normalcy from COVID-19 pandemic. Even after the advent of vaccines, the mutating strains have kept the world states under threat. Most of the world states learnt lockdowns are not the ultimate solution to survive pandemics. Lockdowns shook the economy. But the irresistible travel situations led to the beginning of the second wave which took many lives and exposed the situation that global medical care is at its worst stage. Most of the countries are on vaccination drive. People get vaccinated free of cost. Cuba is the only country in the world to vaccinate its population above 2 years. This is a concern and most of the medical experts say the third wave would most likely affect the children below 18. Pharma companies are planning to initiate research to develop vaccines for children under 18. The pharmacy industry is forced to tackle the issues of compulsory licensing and patent waivers. This article would be a critical study of how Covid-19 has made an impact on the Intellectual Property Rights of the Pharmacy industry.

5.
Journal of Tourism Futures ; 7(3):278-405, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1812554

ABSTRACT

This special issue summarizes the crises in sustainable tourism and provides solutions that can mitigate crises. Containing 13 articles, topics in this issue include: a context and viewpoint on the possible implications of post COVID 19 reflection for wildlife tourism operations in the future;the role of service robots in gastronomic and dining experiences in a post coronavirus disease (COVID) world;the conflict of logics between private sector interests and public initiatives related to crisis management in tourism;the stringency of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) countermeasures in Japan;the perception of tourists as actors disconnected from citizens' necessities, safety and wellbeing;Twitter content analysis of the Australian bushfires disaster 2019 to 2020 relative to the country's tourism industry;the relevance of Cuba's medical system, its health tourism and related diplomacy in the context of the recent COVID 19 pandemic;post crisis (COVID) futures for live entertainment and tourism dependent destinations;antagonistic coexistence of different tourism imaginaries in global postviral social landscapes;how Fukushima's sake breweries challenged negative stereotypes and rebuilt its regional brand;and three book reviews on "Wildlife Tourism Futures: Encounters with Wild, Captive and Artificial Animals", "Tourismus NEXT (German)" and " Sustainable and Collaborative Tourism in a Digital World".

6.
Sustainability ; 14(8):4693, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810155

ABSTRACT

There is beyond any doubt that Latin America is one of the most important emerging markets in the world, which has increased its importance in the last decades. In effect, the issues of green, social, and sustainability (GSS) bonds are gaining more and more importance in the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) financial markets. They are specifically focused on raising funding for public expenditure programs that contribute to achieving several objectives, such as climate and environmental projects, energy efficiency, pollution prevention, sustainable agriculture, fishery and forestry, etc. The main objective of this paper is to provide a literature revision of the evolution of the issuance of GSS bonds in the LAC region and to analyze the economic growth of the countries which issue this type of bond. We will apply multiple linear regression to relate the economic growth of some countries of the LAC region with the variables proposed by the IFC Emerging Market Green Bonds Report (2019). It has been shown that the economic growth of the countries in the LAC region that are issuing GSS bonds is significantly related to the Sovereign Green Issuance (Total Planned), the ratio of Private Credit/GDP, and the Rule of Law Index. However, this research has had the limitation of the scarcity of available data in the LAC markets.

7.
J Community Health ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1803007

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus with data suggesting a more serious clinical course in pregnancy. We aimed to assess changes in knowledge, behaviors, and intentions of pregnant women regarding COVID-19. This was a cross-sectional survey study of 58 and 77 predominantly African-American and Afro-Caribbean pregnant patients presenting for prenatal care in Brooklyn, NY in 2020 (during the first surge of the pandemic) and 2021, respectively. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Many beliefs and intentions were unchanged between 2020 and 2021 (e.g. believing pregnant women were at higher risk of COVID-19 infection and subsequent ICU admission due to pregnancy, having the desire to breastfeed, among others). Other beliefs and behaviors changed between 2020 and 2021 (fewer women believed they received information from their provider regarding COVID-19 and fewer would miss a prenatal visit for fear of COVID-19 contagion). Patients' behaviors and intended behaviors in both 2020 and 2021 were directly influenced by their beliefs, many of which were based on unsupported data regarding COVID-19 and pregnancy (ie: babies were at increased risk of being born with congenital malformation following a mother's COVID-19 infection). Patients who held these beliefs were more likely to say that they did not attend prenatal visits and did not receive information from their provider regarding COVID-19. Knowledge of patient beliefs is useful for structuring care as the pandemic evolves. This study demonstrates that pregnant patients make decisions regarding behaviors based on beliefs grounded in misinformation. Accordingly, it is the provider's responsibility to ensure that beliefs regarding COVID-19 are based in fact, so patients can make informed decisions.

8.
8th International Conference on Social Network Analysis, Management and Security, SNAMS 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1788772

ABSTRACT

In today's world, millions of people use social networking and microblogging sites every day to share their views, opinions, and emotions in their daily lives. These sites can become an invaluable source for data mining and can be used effectively to evaluate people's opinion on a product, an entity or perhaps topics of interest. Sentiment Analysis, as it is called, allows us to determine whether the opinions, mood, views, or attitude in a text is either 'positive', 'negative', or 'neutral'. The focus of this study was to analyze the tweets of the top ten English-speaking Caribbean Prime Ministers on Twitter to determine how effective they were in reducing the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak in their territories. The research results provided clear evidence that the negative sentiment towards the virus by the Caribbean leaders was a contributing factor in reducing the number of cases and deaths during the first five months of COVID-19 in the region. The results also found that a correlation exists between the prime ministers' social network and their effectiveness in managing the virus. In addition, the words expressed by the prime ministers in reference to COVID-19 were clear and practical therefore making it easier for the prime ministers to implement strict measures to control the spread of the virus in the region. © 2021 IEEE.

9.
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes ; 14(2):193-198, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1779058

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of the theme issue was to enable cruise ship owners and destination governments to critically assess the viability, vulnerability and responsiveness of Caribbean cruise tourism in the context of the pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: This concluding article uses content analysis to re-visit the contributions made to assessing the impact of the pandemic and the implications for Caribbean cruise tourism. Findings: Governments across the Caribbean will need to re-think how they work with the cruise industry in a more cohesive and integrated way. This initiative is likely to result in the Caribbean having greater latitude in negotiations with the major cruise conglomerates that control over 80% of the industry in the region. Close attention must also be paid to improving local infrastructure and to facilitating the involvement of local people in providing tourists with an authentic Caribbean experience. Practical implications: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on the Caribbean region. In common with the rest of the world, island destinations had to close their borders to mitigate the impact of the virus and as tourism-dependent locations, this has had financial consequences. At present, there is no end in sight, and it is difficult to predict when Caribbean cruise tourism will ever return to pre-pandemic levels. Social implications: COVID-19 has shown the world that we are all dependent on each other and that greater collaboration is needed to re-open the cruise industry. The pandemic has also shown that rapid technological development is needed to drive change. Further, it can be argued that technology will enable all stakeholders to coordinate their responses, together with support from governments across the Caribbean. Originality/value: This theme issue explored the impact of COVID-19 on cruise tourism in the Caribbean and it proposes factors to mitigate re-occurrence. The proposals contained in this theme issue provide a guide to help enable governments in the Caribbean region to re-position their respective countries in response to the pandemic and related socio-economic impacts.

10.
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes ; 14(2):91-98, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1779056

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The cruise industry has been significantly impacted as a result of Covid-19. Some cruise lines have downsized, and many have cancelled ship orders while some vessels have been put on retainers. It is still uncertain how long this situation will continue. Even when cruise lines resume their services, the uptake is likely to be gradual because many traditional and potential cruisers may still be reluctant to travel because of the fear of contracting the disease. In addition, an enormous amount of money and time will be required to overhaul ships, re-plan service processes, re-certify crew and develop a new normal for how cruise businesses operate. An analysis of these issues forms the primary purpose of this study. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative approach was used to gather data and this was augmented by the personal industry experiences of the authors. Findings: Steady growth in the cruise industry came to an end during the last two years due to the unanticipated impact of the pandemic. SARS, Ebola and other diseases were much less significant in comparison. Many Caribbean islands have recently upgraded their ports to accommodate mega cruise ships as tourism is the main source of income for these islands. These investments run to millions of US dollars and as yet, there are no indications as to when the industry will recover. Research limitations/implications: Access to industry experts was not as broad-ranging as anticipated due to time pressures and the fact that it is difficult to schedule interviews by telephone or webinar with busy practitioners. Social implications: The pandemic will continue to impact the people of the Caribbean economically and socially, because of their dependence on tourism and especially cruise businesses. Originality/value: The gradual re-entry of cruise operations represents a fourth phase in the development of the industry. This juncture is the most critical phase because of the many opinions surrounding vaccination. Cruising is unlike land-based tourism assets where a rapid reactive response is easier to facilitate. A health crisis at sea can have disastrous consequences, especially for small islands with limited facilities to deal with critical Covid-19 infections.

11.
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes ; 14(2):162-168, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1779055

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to examine the impacts of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the Caribbean cruise industry and assess the post-pandemic prospects for recovery. Design/methodology/approach: The study used a qualitative approach applied through personal interviews as well as data from secondary sources. Findings: The prospects for the post-pandemic cruise industry reveal the need for long-term plans and strategies from Caribbean countries if the countries are to remain viable. Research limitations/implications: The research was limited to Jamaica, St. Lucia and Antigua and Barbuda. The scope could have been broadened to include other Caribbean islands such as Barbados. Practical implications: The study is practical and useful to tourism practitioners and governments seeking to create a balance between reaping the benefits of cruise tourism and safeguarding its citizens. Social implications: The pandemic has caused a re-examination of how people interact. Originality/value: The study adds to the body of literature on the post-pandemic survival of the Caribbean cruise industry and provides a useful briefing for practitioners.

12.
Revista Cubana de Salud Publica ; 47(3), 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1777205

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The spread of the new coronavirus responsible for COVID-19 threatens the lives of millions of infants, for which, in most countries, children have been confined to their homes, which proportionally favors their protection. In general terms, the family has not shown preparation to handle with quality the permanent coexistence of the children at home and there are violations of the physical isolation of the minors.

13.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-332398

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with its numerous variants of concerns has shown the need to have a robust and complete global infectious diseases genomic surveillance network worldwide. Various clinical and research institutes have stepped up to perform SARS-CoV-2 sequencing thus illuminating the understanding of viral global evolution. However, given that genomic sequencing capabilities are not available to the same level in every region or country, significant gaps persist leading to geographic blind spots. One such region is the Caribbean. This paper measures the Caribbean region’s SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing output and highlights the need for improving regional genomics surveillance capabilities and capacities required for efficient health interventions for infectious diseases. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 genomic data, epidemiological and populational data were obtained from GISAID, John Hopkins, the United Nations and the World Bank. A map showing SARS-CoV-2 sequences available from each Caribbean Island was constructed. We then analysed number of reported SARS-CoV-2 cases and the proportion of cases sequenced against each Caribbean island’s population, Gross Domestic Product, income category or political status. Findings: SARS-CoV-2 sequences from the Caribbean are underrepresented with only 18,981 (0.8%) sequences of over 2 million documented cases which is further exacerbated by a clear disparity based not only on country income but also on political status (sovereign country or not) and accessibility to sequencing technologies. There are a limited number of SARS-CoV-2 sequencing centers based in Caribbean islands (seven) with the majority (fifteen) are located on the American and European continents. Interpretation: Considering the dispersed populations, the diverse political status, health infrastructures, and resources, we suggest that the Caribbean capacity building should focus on sharing regional mobile easy to use sequencing technologies while investing in data analysis training for the greatest possible number of islands.

14.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 9: 100193, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773617

ABSTRACT

Background: The Caribbean has a long history of being a global leader in immunization, and one factor contributing to this success has been the commitment of healthcare workers in promoting the benefits of vaccines. Healthcare workers play a critical role in building trust between the public and the immunization program and are generally cited as the most trusted source of information on vaccination. Healthcare workers themselves, therefore, must be confident in vaccination as a public health good and able to transmit this confidence to those who trust them. However, just as with the general public, healthcare workers develop confidence at different rates and may be susceptible to misinformation about vaccines. Methods: During April and May 2021, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) conducted a mixed-methods survey to assess vaccination attitudes, opinions, and reasoning of 1197 healthcare workers across 14 Caribbean countries. Findings: Seventy-seven percent of respondents expressed clear intention to be vaccinated for COVID-19 as soon as possible. Intention to be vaccinated as soon as possible was expressed by lower proportions of nurses (66%) and allied health professionals (62%) than physicians (85%) and by younger respondents than older ones (64% vs. 85%, respectively; p < 0.001 for all these comparisons). Across 32 questions about attitudes and opinions, vaccine hesitancy was consistently expressed by higher proportions of nurses and allied health professionals than physicians and by younger respondents than older ones. Interpretation: Insights from the survey are helping PAHO address healthcare worker concerns with informative messages and supporting countries in policy development to increase vaccine confidence and coverage among Caribbean healthcare workers. Funding: This work has been sponsored by the World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization, the Government of Germany and The Gavi Alliance.

15.
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes ; 14(2):147-155, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1769539

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The maritime port in Guadeloupe, a French island in the Lesser Antilles, is set to be transformed into a major logistics hub catering to the Greater Caribbean and the Lesser Antilles. The increase in shipping generated by expansion of the Panama Canal and the development of the cruise industry are the two main factors which contributed to the shift in the Island's policy that aims to capitalise on the increase in the expected shipping traffic in the region. This article examines various areas and policies which have been implemented so far by the Port of Guadeloupe and considers the innovative ways used to achieve its objectives and raises the question as to whether the Guadeloupian development in the logistics area is likely to be a force to be reckoned with in the Caribbean region. Design/methodology/approach: The approach employed involves the analysis of material extracted from published articles and information from periodic progress reports obtained from the Port of Guadeloupe. Findings: The study showed that the Port of Guadeloupe had implemented various changes to achieve its objectives of becoming a major logistics hub in the region and "the smart port" of the Caribbean, which is likely to represent a challenge to Jamaica's aspiration to be the major port in the Caribbean. Research limitations/implications: Much of the published information accessed on the Guadeloupian Port and elsewhere is written in French, which could limit access to English speakers in conducting related research. Practical implications: Rapid logistic port development is taking place in the shipping arena in the French-speaking Caribbean and the Guadeloupian logistic hub's aim to be the number one "smart port" in the region could be realised sooner than expected. Social implications: If the Port of Guadeloupe achieves its objectives, it could impact on jobs in the shipping industry in the English-speaking Caribbean and affect people's standard of living. Originality/value: The question as to whether the Port of Guadeloupe is a threat to other Caribbean ports has not yet been explored and the findings of this investigation would be useful to other port authorities.

16.
Revista Cubana de Salud P..blica ; 47(3), 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1766794

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In presence of the COVID-19 pandemic emerges the need of designing a Cuban protocol of action for the care of these cases, which creation mainly requires the selection of contents, as well as a suitable structuring.

17.
Revista Cubana de Salud P..blica ; 47(3), 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1766790

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In Cuba, boundless efforts are being made for the prevention and control of COVID-19, such as the active screening carried out by students of Medical Sciences, as a community work integrated into the community itself.

18.
Revista Cubana de Salud P..blica ; 47(4), 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1766513

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 has the potential to impact any population group, however, older adults have a worse prognosis and a higher mortality rate.

19.
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Per.. ; 33(1), 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1761293

ABSTRACT

Pet ownership (PO) exerts beneficial effects on the physical and psycho-emotional health of the people with whom they live, even in pandemic contexts. Animals benefit from receiving attention and care and avoiding health risks, based on the ..One Health.. approach. Considering the contributions and importance of the subject, a compilation study of works carried out by the authors was carried out to determine the perception of the benefits of PO in different population sectors. These were exploratory and descriptive studies, cross-sectional and quantitative conducted at the National Institute of Endocrinology and the main Veterinary Clinic of Havana, in which people responsible for companion animals (PO). These people had chronic diseases (cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic), sexual and reproductive health conditions (infertility) and sexual identity (homoerotic and transsexual sexual orientation), in different stages of life (middle and elderly), from 2013 to 2020 (during the context of the COVID-19 pandemic). Selfadministered questionnaires prepared by the research team were used. The results were processed using descriptive statistics and ethical aspects were considered. Most of the participants expressed satisfaction with PO, perceived its benefits on their physical and emotional health, motivated them to take better care of themselves and engage in physical activities, and during the COVID- 19 pandemic. Besides, PO decreased the negative effects of social distancing. Dogs and cats were the preferred animals for emotional reasons.

20.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 19(1): 37-45, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748427

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has been hit hard by COVID-19 due to political instability, flawed health systems, and structural inequalities. The repercussion of the pandemic on vulnerable populations, like people living with HIV (PLWH), is complex. This review aims to explore the interactions between the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics in this region. RECENT FINDINGS: Data regarding the interactions of HIV and COVID-19 in LAC is scarce. Only case reports or small case series have been published regarding the clinical course of COVID-19 in PLWH and regarding the clinical course of COVID-19 in PLWH, which appears to be similar to the general population. The pandemic has disrupted prevention and treatment of PLWH. However, there have been country efforts to counteract those effects. There are some lessons from the HIV response which have been effectively applied in the region to address COVID-19. COVID-19 has had an unprecedented impact on the cascade-of-care among PLWH in LAC. There is a need for longitudinal studies that assess clinic implication of these pandemic interactions in LAC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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