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1.
STAR Protoc ; 3(4): 101802, 2022 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106168

ABSTRACT

Here, we present a protocol to characterize the antiviral ability of a protein of interest to SARS-CoV-2 infection in cultured cells, using MUC1 as an example. We use SARS-CoV-2 ΔN trVLP system, which utilizes transcription and replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles lacking nucleocapsid gene. We describe the optimized procedure to analyze protein interference of viral attachment and entry into cells, and qRT-PCR-based quantification of viral infection. The protocol can be applied to characterize more antiviral candidates and clarify their functioning stage. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Lai et al. (2022).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Nucleocapsid , Cell Line , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
2.
iScience ; 25(12): 105479, 2022 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095532

ABSTRACT

The repetitive applications of vaccine boosters have been brought up in face of continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with neutralization escape mutations, but their protective efficacy and potential adverse effects remain largely unknown. Here, we compared the humoral and cellular immune responses of an extended course of recombinant receptor binding domain (RBD) vaccine boosters with those from conventional immunization strategy in a Balb/c mice model. Multiple vaccine boosters after the conventional vaccination course significantly decreased RBD-specific antibody titers and serum neutralizing efficacy against the Delta and Omicron variants, and profoundly impaired CD4+ and CD8+T cell activation and increased PD-1 and LAG-3 expressions in these T cells. Mechanistically, we confirmed that extended vaccination with RBD boosters overturned the protective immune memories by promoting adaptive immune tolerance. Our findings demonstrate potential risks with the continuous use of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine boosters, providing immediate implications for the global COVID-19 vaccination enhancement strategies.

3.
iScience ; 25(11): 105394, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076217

ABSTRACT

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family. Increasingly studies have demonstrated that viruses could utilize autophagy to promote their own replication. However, the relationship between SADS-CoV and autophagy remains unknown. Here, we reported that SADS-CoV infection-induced autophagy and pharmacologically increased autophagy were conducive to viral proliferation. Conversely, suppression of autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors or knockdown of autophagy-related protein impeded viral replication. Furthermore, we demonstrated the underlying mechanism by which SADS-CoV triggered autophagy through the inactivation of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Importantly, we identified integrin α3 (ITGA3) as a potential antiviral target upstream of Akt/mTOR and autophagy pathways. Knockdown of ITGA3 enhanced autophagy and consequently increased the replication of SADS-CoV. Collectively, our studies revealed a novel mechanism that SADS-CoV-induced autophagy to facilitate its proliferation via Akt/mTOR pathway and found that ITGA3 was an effective antiviral factor for suppressing viral infection.

4.
Elife ; 112022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040359

ABSTRACT

Viral infection often causes severe damage to the lungs, leading to the appearance of ectopic basal cells (EBCs) and tuft cells in the lung parenchyma. Thus far, the roles of these ectopic epithelial cells in alveolar regeneration remain controversial. Here, we confirm that the ectopic tuft cells are originated from EBCs in mouse models and COVID-19 lungs. The differentiation of tuft cells from EBCs is promoted by Wnt inhibition while suppressed by Notch inhibition. Although progenitor functions have been suggested in other organs, pulmonary tuft cells don't proliferate or give rise to other cell lineages. Consistent with previous reports, Trp63CreERT2 and KRT5-CreERT2-labeled ectopic EBCs do not exhibit alveolar regeneration potential. Intriguingly, when tamoxifen was administrated post-viral infection, Trp63CreERT2 but not KRT5-CreERT2 labels islands of alveolar epithelial cells that are negative for EBC biomarkers. Furthermore, germline deletion of Trpm5 significantly increases the contribution of Trp63CreERT2-labeled cells to the alveolar epithelium. Although Trpm5 is known to regulate tuft cell development, complete ablation of tuft cell production fails to improve alveolar regeneration in Pou2f3-/- mice, implying that Trpm5 promotes alveolar epithelial regeneration through a mechanism independent of tuft cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Biomarkers , Cell Differentiation , Cell Lineage , Epithelial Cells , Mice , Tamoxifen/pharmacology , Trans-Activators
5.
Eur J Cell Biol ; 101(4): 151275, 2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031259

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of pandemic in 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has diverged into numerous variants driven by antigenic and infectivity-oriented selection. Some variants have accumulated fitness-enhancing mutations, evaded immunity and spread despite global vaccination campaigns. The spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated the greatest immunogenicity and amino acid substitution diversity owing to its importance in the interaction with human angiotensin receptor 2 (hACE2). The S protein consistently emerges as an amino acid substitution (AAS) hotspot in all six lineages, however, in Omicron this enrichment is significantly higher. This study attempts to design and validate a method of mapping S-protein substitution profile across variants to identify the conserved and AAS regions. A substitution matrix was created based on publicly available databases, and the substitution localization was illustrated on a cryo-electron microscopy generated S-protein model. Our analyses indicated that the diversity of N-terminal (NTD) and receptor-binding (RBD) domains exceeded that of any other regions but still contained extended low substitution density regions particularly considering significantly broader substitution profiles of Omicron BA.2 and BA.4/5. Finally, the substitution matrix was compared to a random sample alignment of variant sequences, revealing discrepancies. Therefore, it was suggested to improve matrix accuracy by processing a large number of S-protein sequences using an automated algorithm. Several critical immunogenic and receptor-interacting residues were identified in the conserved regions within NTD and RBD. In conclusion, the structural and topological analysis of S proteins of SARS-CoV-2 variants highlight distinctive amino acid substitution patterns which may be foundational in predicting future variants.

6.
iScience ; 25(10): 105082, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007783

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has triggered a worldwide pandemic. According to the BioGrid database, CLN7 (MFSD8) is thought to interact with several viral proteins. The aim of this work was to investigate a possible involvement of CLN7 in the infection process. Experiments on a CLN7-deficient HEK293T cell line exhibited a 90% reduced viral load compared to wild-type cells. This observation may be linked to the finding that CLN7 ko cells have a significantly reduced GM1 content in their cell membrane. GM1 is found highly enriched in lipid rafts, which are thought to play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection. In contrast, overexpression of CLN7 led to an increase in viral load. This study provides evidence that CLN7 is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection. This makes it a potential pharmacological target for drug development against COVID-19. Furthermore, it provides insights into the physiological function of CLN7 where still only little is known about.

7.
STAR Protoc ; 3(4): 101699, 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004616

ABSTRACT

The quality of an antigen-specific CD8+ T cell repertoire is crucial for the clearance of intracellular pathogens, in particular for viral infections. Here, we describe killing assays to determine the function of CD8+ T cells engineered with SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell receptors in a near-physiological system for antigen presentation. We detail the use of target cells either infected with replicating SARS-CoV-2 virus or engineered with SARS-CoV-2 open reading frames. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Moosmann et al. (2022) and Wagner et al. (2022).

8.
Tissue Engineering Part A ; 28:S641-S642, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1981253
10.
JCI Insight ; 7(14)2022 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962552

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a lethal condition with limited treatment options and currently a common global cause of death due to COVID-19. ARDS secondary to transfusion-related ALI (TRALI) has been recapitulated preclinically by anti-MHC-I antibody administration to LPS-primed mice. In this model, we demonstrate that inhibitors of PTP1B, a protein tyrosine phosphatase that regulates signaling pathways of fundamental importance to homeostasis and inflammation, prevented lung injury and increased survival. Treatment with PTP1B inhibitors attenuated the aberrant neutrophil function that drives ALI and was associated with release of myeloperoxidase, suppression of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and inhibition of neutrophil migration. Mechanistically, reduced signaling through the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, particularly to the activation of PI3Kγ/AKT/mTOR, was essential for these effects, linking PTP1B inhibition to promoting an aged-neutrophil phenotype. Considering that dysregulated activation of neutrophils has been implicated in sepsis and causes collateral tissue damage, we demonstrate that PTP1B inhibitors improved survival and ameliorated lung injury in an LPS-induced sepsis model and improved survival in the cecal ligation and puncture-induced (CLP-induced) sepsis model. Our data highlight the potential for PTP1B inhibition to prevent ALI and ARDS from multiple etiologies.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mice , Neutrophils , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Sepsis/complications
11.
STAR Protoc ; 3(3): 101612, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937317

ABSTRACT

We describe a protocol for single-cell RNA sequencing of SARS-CoV-2-infected human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived kidney organoids. After inoculation of kidney organoids with virus, we use mechanical and enzymatic disruption to obtain single cell suspensions. Next, we process the organoid-derived cells into sequencing-ready SARS-CoV-2-targeted libraries. Subsequent sequencing analysis reveals changes in kidney cells after virus infection. The protocol was designed for kidney organoids cultured in a 6-well transwell format but can be adapted to organoids with different organ backgrounds. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Jansen et al. (2022).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Humans , Kidney , Organoids , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Elife ; 112022 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924600

ABSTRACT

The tongue is a unique muscular organ situated in the oral cavity where it is involved in taste sensation, mastication, and articulation. As a barrier organ, which is constantly exposed to environmental pathogens, the tongue is expected to host an immune cell network ensuring local immune defence. However, the composition and the transcriptional landscape of the tongue immune system are currently not completely defined. Here, we characterised the tissue-resident immune compartment of the murine tongue during development, health and disease, combining single-cell RNA-sequencing with in situ immunophenotyping. We identified distinct local immune cell populations and described two specific subsets of tongue-resident macrophages occupying discrete anatomical niches. Cx3cr1+ macrophages were located specifically in the highly innervated lamina propria beneath the tongue epidermis and at times in close proximity to fungiform papillae. Folr2+ macrophages were detected in deeper muscular tissue. In silico analysis indicated that the two macrophage subsets originate from a common proliferative precursor during early postnatal development and responded differently to systemic LPS in vivo. Our description of the under-investigated tongue immune system sets a starting point to facilitate research on tongue immune-physiology and pathology including cancer and taste disorders.


Subject(s)
Taste Buds , Tongue , Animals , Macrophages , Mice , Taste/physiology , Tongue/innervation
13.
iScience ; 25(8): 104709, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914524

ABSTRACT

Post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as glycosylation and palmitoylation, are critical to protein folding, stability, intracellular trafficking, and function. Understanding regulation of PTMs of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein could help the therapeutic drug design. Herein, the VSV vector was used to produce SARS-CoV-2 S pseudoviruses to examine the roles of the 611LYQD614 and cysteine-rich motifs in S protein maturation and virus infectivity. Our results show that 611LY612 mutation alters S protein intracellular trafficking and reduces cell surface expression level. It also changes S protein glycosylation pattern and decreases pseudovirus infectivity. The S protein contains four cysteine-rich clusters with clusters I and II as the main palmitoylation sites. Mutations of clusters I and II disrupt S protein trafficking from ER-to-Golgi, suppress pseudovirus production, and reduce spike-mediated membrane fusion activity. Taken together, glycosylation and palmitoylation orchestrate the S protein maturation processing and are critical for S protein-mediated membrane fusion and infection.

14.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e058647, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902005

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The clinical course of patients with a SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection varies widely, from symptom-free to severe courses that can lead to death. Laboratory values of SARS-CoV-2 patients such as lymphocyte counts or C-reactive protein (CRP) do not allow a prediction of the actual course of the disease. To identify a possible predictive marker for the differentiation and prognosis of illness with influenza-like symptoms with and without SARS-CoV-2 infections in general practice, we will analyse the concentrations of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) levels, laboratory and clinical parameters, temperature, oxygen saturation, breathing rate and concomitant symptoms in patients with flu-like symptoms with and without a SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single-centre, two-arm, parallel longitudinal cohort study with a total of 44 patients. 22 patients with flu-like symptoms without a SARS-CoV-2 infection and 22 patients with flu-like symptoms with a SARS-CoV-2 infection will be recruited. The primary objective is to compare cfDNA levels in ambulatory patients in general practice with flu-like symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 infection with those with influenza like symptoms without a SARS-CoV-2 infection during the disease (day 7 and day 14). The secondary objective is to determine whether there is a correlation between cfDNA concentrations on the one hand, and laboratory and clinical parameters on the other hand. cfDNA, differential blood count, high-sensitive CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate will be measured in blood samples, concomitant symptoms will be surveyed via a self-assessment questionnaire, and oxygen saturation, breathing rate and examination of the lungs will be reported by treating physicians. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was issued on 1 March 2021 by the Ethics Committee Essen under the number 21-9916-BO. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed open-access journals and presented at national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00024722.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , General Practice , Influenza, Human , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Cell ; 185(8):1275-1278, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1894265

ABSTRACT

Dr. Deborah J. Cook's contributions in the field of critical care have not only impacted the intensive care unit (ICU) patients she treats and countless others worldwide but have also helped establish research programs and clinical trials as integral components of improving care and outcomes for the most seriously ill. Lara Szewczak spoke with Dr. Cook, recipient of the 2022 Canada Gairdner Wightman award, about critical care research, her reflections on the COVID-19 pandemic, and her views on mentorship. An edited version of this conversation is presented below.

16.
Cell ; 185(8):1279-1282, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1894242

ABSTRACT

A game-changing intervention in the COVID-19 pandemic has been the rapid implementation of highly effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. The 2022 Canada Gairdner International Award recognizes Pieter Cullis, Katalin Kariko, and Drew Weissman "for their pioneering work developing nucleoside-modified mRNA and lipid nanoparticle (LNP) drug delivery: the foundational technologies for the highly effective COVID-19 mRNA vaccines.'' Cell editor Cheri Sirois caught up with Pieter to discuss how a long interest in basic and applied questions in lipid biology led to this fortuitous collaboration. Excerpts of the conversation are presented below.

17.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 16(9): 799-811, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885455

ABSTRACT

Acute cardiac injuries occur in 20%-25% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Herein, we demonstrate that human cardiac organoids (hCOs) are a viable platform to model the cardiac injuries caused by COVID-19 hyperinflammation. As IL-1ß is an upstream cytokine and a core COVID-19 signature cytokine, it was used to stimulate hCOs to induce the release of a milieu of proinflammatory cytokines that mirror the profile of COVID-19 cytokine storm. The IL-1ß treated hCOs recapitulated transcriptomic, structural, and functional signatures of COVID-19 hearts. The comparison of IL-1ß treated hCOs with cardiac tissue from COVID-19 autopsies illustrated the critical roles of hyper-inflammation in COVID-19 cardiac insults and indicated the cardioprotective effects of endothelium. The IL-1ß treated hCOs thus provide a defined and robust model to assess the efficacy and potential side effects of immunomodulatory drugs, as well as the reversibility of COVID-19 cardiac injuries at baseline and simulated exercise conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Heart Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Models, Biological , Organoids
18.
Elife ; 112022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879632

ABSTRACT

TMEM16F, a Ca2+-activated phospholipid scramblase (CaPLSase), is critical for placental trophoblast syncytialization, HIV infection, and SARS-CoV2-mediated syncytialization, however, how TMEM16F is activated during cell fusion is unclear. Here, using trophoblasts as a model for cell fusion, we demonstrate that Ca2+ influx through the Ca2+ permeable transient receptor potential vanilloid channel TRPV4 is critical for TMEM16F activation and plays a role in subsequent human trophoblast fusion. GSK1016790A, a TRPV4 specific agonist, robustly activates TMEM16F in trophoblasts. We also show that TRPV4 and TMEM16F are functionally coupled within Ca2+ microdomains in a human trophoblast cell line using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Pharmacological inhibition or gene silencing of TRPV4 hinders TMEM16F activation and subsequent trophoblast syncytialization. Our study uncovers the functional expression of TRPV4 and one of the physiological activation mechanisms of TMEM16F in human trophoblasts, thus providing us with novel strategies to regulate CaPLSase activity as a critical checkpoint of physiologically and disease-relevant cell fusion events.


Subject(s)
Anoctamins/metabolism , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Phospholipid Transfer Proteins/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Female , Humans , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , TRPV Cation Channels/genetics , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism , Trophoblasts/metabolism
19.
Cell Rep ; 39(11): 110955, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866959

ABSTRACT

Direct myocardial and vascular injuries due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-driven inflammation is the leading cause of acute cardiac injury associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, in-depth knowledge of the injury characteristics of the heart affected by inflammation is lacking. In this study, using a quantitative spatial proteomics strategy that combines comparative anatomy, laser-capture microdissection, and histological examination, we establish a region-resolved proteome map of the myocardia and microvessels with obvious inflammatory cells from hearts of patients with COVID-19. A series of molecular dysfunctions of myocardia and microvessels is observed in different cardiac regions. The myocardia and microvessels of the left atrial are the most susceptible to virus infection and inflammatory storm, suggesting more attention should be paid to the lesion and treatment of these two parts. These results can guide in improving clinical treatments for cardiovascular diseases associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2
20.
In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal ; 58(SUPPL 1):S9-S9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1865895
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