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1.
Behaviour & Information Technology ; JOUR: 1-20,
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2106757

ABSTRACT

The digital divide is especially pertinent in Majority World Countries (MWCs), and this was exacerbated greatly by the pandemic. Tackling the digital divide underpins the work of Human–Computer Interaction for Development (HCI4D) and remains an important global endeavour. Our project aimed to understand how children and young people (CYP) in MWC coped during the pandemic and how technology played a role. Voices of CYP were complemented by those of their parents and professionals with whom CYP interacted regularly. Our empirical study involved 73 CYP and 76 adults from Brazil, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, and Turkey. Qualitative data from diaries, drawings and focus groups were analysed thematically. Four major themes were identified – ‘access’, ‘usage’, ‘risk’, and ‘future Among others, some intriguing findings were that CYP acutely felt the peer pressure on ICT ownership and tended to direct frustration at parents, who grappled with their untenable roles as gatekeepers to digital worlds. Implications for addressing the digital divide include long-term strategies to improve infrastructures and mobilise community-based collaborative efforts and enhance digital literacy. [ FROM AUTHOR]

2.
Revista Medica Clinica Las Condes ; JOUR(5):450-457, 33.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2105844

ABSTRACT

Developmental language disorder is a diagnostic challenge in early stages of development, so its adequate approach and intervention improves the prognosis of this group of patients who are often diagnosed late, especially recently in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This article seeks to provide tools that promote understanding its importance, as well as allowing parents to be given strategies that promote language and communication skills in the early stages of their children's development.

3.
Journal of Pediatric Health Care ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105701

ABSTRACT

Sleep problems are commonly reported among children with developmental disabilities (DDs), and the COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected children with DDs’ sleep. While sleep is a multidimensional construct that can be measured in various ways, most studies on children with DDs rely on parent reports. Videosomnography is a non-invasive, portable time-lapse video recording system used to objectively obtain a child's sleep-wake behaviors and parents' caregiving activities in a natural environment. During the height of the COVID-19 pandemic (September 2020 to February 2021), we conducted a feasibility study using actigraphy (in mothers) and videosomnography in children with DDs for 7 consecutive nights to assess sleep and nighttime caregiving activities. Because of the pandemic, we developed and implemented alternative data collection strategies, such as delivering a “study package” that contained the study equipment with easy-to-follow written instructions and emailed video-recorded instructions on how to record a child's sleep. We aimed to enroll 10 mothers and 10 school-aged children with DDs and achieved this goal. Nine out of 10 mothers completed video recordings of their child's sleep, with only 10% missing data for videosomnography. This paper shared adaptations to our videosomnography protocol and lessons learned.

4.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-12, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107125

ABSTRACT

We explore how organisations working on parenting programmes and other types of family support and violence prevention in low-resource settings experienced the pandemic. In August 2020-May 2021, we interviewed (1) staff from three community-based organisations delivering evidence-informed parenting interventions and other psychosocial services for families in Cape Town, South Africa, (2) staff from a parenting programme training organisation and (3) staff from two international organisations supporting psychosocial services in South Africa. Interviews (22) were thematically analysed, with findings in three areas. First, respondents noted changes in the context, including the job losses, food insecurity, and stress experienced by local communities, and reductions in organisational funding. Second, we found that in response to these context changes, the organisations shifted their focus to food provision and COVID prevention. Parenting and psychosocial programmes were adapted - e.g. by changing the physical delivery settings, reducing group sizes, and taking up digital and phone implementation. Participants reported improved perceptions of remote delivery as a feasible approach for working with families - but internet and phone access remained challenging. Third, the pandemic brought new responsibilities for staff, and both the challenges of working from home and the health risks of in-person work.

5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e177, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106269

ABSTRACT

Limited prospective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) data in children regarding the impact of Omicron variant in seropositivity have been reported. We investigated SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in children between 1 September 2021 and 30 April 2022, representing Delta and Omicron predominance periods. Serum samples from children admitted to the major tertiary Greek paediatric hospital for any cause, except for COVID-19, were randomly collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 natural infection antibodies against nucleocapsid antigen (Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 reagent). A total of 506/1312 (38.6%) seropositive children (0-16 years) were detected (males: 261/506(51.6%); median age (IQR): 95.2 months(24-144)). Seropositivity rates (%) increased from Delta to Omicron period from 29.7% to 48.5% (P-value<0.0001). Seropositivity increased for all age groups, except for the age group of 0-1 year (P-value:0.914). The highest seropositivity rate was detected in April 2022 (52.6%) and reached 73.9% specifically for the age group 12-16 years. No significant differences were detected in seropositivity with respect to gender, origin, or hospitalisation status. Median (IQR) antibody titres were higher in the Omicron vs. Delta period in all age groups, especially in 12-16 years [32.2 COI (7-77.1) vs. 11.4 COI(2.8-50.2), P-value:0.009). During Omicron variant period increased SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was detected in paediatric population, especially in adolescents, implicating either increased transmissibility or reinfection rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Prospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Female , Child, Preschool
6.
Vaccine ; 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risks of severe outcomes associated with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) are elevated in unvaccinated individuals. It remains crucial to understand patterns of COVID-19 vaccination, particularly in younger and remote populations where coverage often lags. This study examined disparities in COVID-19 vaccine coverage in farm children and adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in patients of the Marshfield Clinic Health System (MCHS) in Wisconsin. The sample included children/adolescents age 5-17 years who were eligible for COVID-19 vaccine initiation for ≥ 90 days (as of September 30, 2022), stratified by those who lived vs did not live on a farm. Outcomes included COVID-19 vaccine initiation, series completion, and booster receipt. Multivariable regression was used to examine associations between COVID-19 vaccination and farm, as well as rural and non-rural, residence. RESULTS: There were 47,104 individuals (5% farm residents) in the sample. Overall, 33% of participants initiated and 31% completed the COVID-19 vaccine series. After adjustment, farm residence was associated with significantly lower odds of COVID-19 vaccine initiation (aOR [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.61, 0.75], p < 0.001), series completion (aOR = 0.67 [0.60, 0.75], p < 0.001), and booster receipt (aOR = 0.73 [0.61, 0.88], p = 0.001). Secondary analyses found COVID-19 vaccine coverage was lowest in young children who lived on dairy farms. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccine coverage is low in north-central Wisconsin children and adolescents. Those who live on farms have significantly lower likelihood of COVID-19 vaccine initiation, series completion, and booster receipt compared to non-farm counterparts. Farm families are an underserved group and require more effective public health interventions designed to prevent COVID-19.

7.
Vestnik Tomskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta-Pravo-Tomsk State University Journal of Law ; JOUR(45): 193-202,
Article in Russian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100561

ABSTRACT

The article continues the development of the topic of convergence of public and private law. The social background is determined by the Covid-19 pandemic. The private legal aspects of the emergency situation, force majeure, requisition, and the unknown absence of people were among the priorities. Civilists have been familiar with these categories for a long time. Wars, natural disasters always accompany society and at different times the legal reaction of the state to human misfortunes becomes extremely important. These legal concepts are consistently analyzed in this manuscript. The specific contribution of specialists of the Tomsk State University Law Institute is shown. Scientific forecasts and the approximate fate of the necessary regulatory arrays have been determined. The expediency of working out the civilistic block of norms in complex federal laws, in particular, in the Information Code, is substantiated. The article proposes a number of measures aimed at strengthening the protection of citizens' interests. The thesis about the need for more radical transformations of the Family Code is repeated, since the reforms of the last two decades have turned into a process of "patching holes";the fragmentary nature of the measures taken gives negligible results. The author suggests returning to the discussion of the development of the Children's Code of the Russian Federation. The question of the need for a Children's Code in Russia in the literature accessible to the Soviet reader was raised more than a hundred years ago. Professor M.N. Gernet in his now famous monograph called one of the paragraphs "Children's Codes". There was no deeper and more thorough research in our private law literature. This is quite understandable, the criminological aspect "scared off the civilists." M.N. Gernet gave an overview of the content of children's codes (or regulations) of a number of countries. In previous works, the idea of abandoning the Housing Code was justified. Here are the arguments in favor of replacing it with another legal form. The issue of replacing the Housing Code of the Russian Federation is not difficult to solve at all, there is good experience. After all, the first Housing Code of the RSFSR appeared only in 1983, and did not live long. The following code could not be made qualitative, consistent with the Civil Code. It is impossible to include all the huge housing legislation in a small diversified regulatory act. Thus, the way to improve housing legislation is open for scientific research.

8.
Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Niñez y Juventud ; JOUR(1):1-20, 21.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2100404

ABSTRACT

El proceso educativo se trasladó de las escuelas a los hogares mexicanos como consecuencia de la covid-19. El objetivo planteado fue analizar el impacto económico, familiar y académico de la covid-19 en discentes de comunidades rurales que asisten a la preparatoria. La metodología fue cuantitativa. La muestra fueron 222 estudiantes de la Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, en México, que respondieron un cuestionario en línea. Los datos se analizaron por estadística descriptiva y análisis de correlación. En los resultados se destacan tres impactos: económicos, por falta de ingresos para comprar tecnología;familiares, por la falta de apoyo de padres y madres;y académicos, porque hay poca capacitación en el uso de TIC. En conclusión, la covid-19 causó dificultades y puso de manifiesto una brecha digital, inequidad social y rezago educativo.Alternate :The educational process shifted from schools to the home for Mexicans as a result of COVID-19. The objective was to analyze the economic, family and academic impact of COVID-19 among students from rural communities attending high school in Sinaloa. The methodology used for the study was the quantitative. The statistical sample size was 222 students from the Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, in México, who respond to an online questionnaire. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlational analysis. The results showed three types of problems: economic issues due to lack of income to buy the technological items required for online learning;family problems, specifically the lack of support provided by parents to help children with distance education;and academic difficulties, because there was little training provided to students on the use of technology. The authors concluded that COVID-19 caused difficulties and highlighted the existence of a digital divide, social inequality and educational lag.Alternate :O processo educacional mudou as escolas para lares mexicanos como resultado da covid-19. O objetivo era analisar o impacto econômico, familiar e acadêmico do Covid-19 em algumas comunidades rurais que eles estudam ensino preparatório. A metodologia era quantitativa. A amostra era de 222 alunos da Universidade Autônoma de Sinaloa, no México, eles responderam a um questionário online. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e análise de correlação. Os resultados mostram três problemas: econômicos devido à falta de renda para comprar tecnologia;parentes por falta de apoio dos pais e filhos, e Acadêmicos porque há pouco treinamento no uso das TIC. Em conclusão, da covid-19 causou dificuldades e revelou uma lacuna digital, desigualdade social e atraso educacional.

9.
Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Niñez y Juventud ; JOUR(1):1-26, 21.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2100403

ABSTRACT

El artículo analiza prácticas de crianza de familias pobres ubicadas en la ciudad de Ibagué (Colombia), que emergen en su relación con las ONG que las intervienen en el contexto de la pandemia por covid-19. La metodología empleada fue la etnografía, en diálogo con estrategias dialógicas y participativas. Se evidenciaron dos tipos de prácticas de crianza: alimentaria y de acompañamiento educativo. Mientras la primera se gestiona por medio de donaciones, sujetas a las lógicas del mercado, la segunda se basa en la asignación de roles educativos a los acudientes para que estos instruyan a sus hijos e hijas con base en los parámetros del Estado. Como conclusión, se evidencia que estas intervenciones buscan que las familias autogestionen su precariedad, en el marco de la legitimación de un orden social neoliberal.Alternate :This article analyzes the parenting practices of poor families located in the city of Ibagué (Colombia), which emerged in the families' relationships with an NGO that provided them with support during the COVID-19 pandemic. An ethnographic methodology was used, complemented with dialogic and participatory strategies. Two types of parenting practices were identified: food-based care and educational support. While the first was based upon receiving donations and was subject to market dynamics, the second was based on the allocation of educational roles to parents and caregivers so that they could teach their children based on the State's guidelines. The authors conclude that these interventions support families to self-manage their precarious situation in the framework of the legitimation of a neoliberal social order.Alternate :O artigo analisa práticas na formação de famílias pobres, localizadas na cidade de Ibagué (Colômbia), que emergem na sua relação com as ONGs, que as intervêm, no contexto da pandemia por Covid-19. A metodologia aplicada foi a etnografia, em diálogo com estratégias dialógicas e participativas. Evidenciaram-se dois tipos de práticas de formação: alimentar e de acompanhamento educativo. Enquanto a primeira se gestiona através de doações, sujeitas às lógicas do mercado, a segunda se baseia na designação de papéis educativos aos pais ou responsáveis para que estes instruam aos seus filhos e filhas com base nos parâmetros do Estado. Como conclusão, se evidencia que estas intervenções procuram que estas famílias autogestionem a sua precariedade, no marco da legitimação de uma ordem social neoliberal.

10.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; JOUR:1208-1215, 26(11).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2100192

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The objective was to delineate the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized children with RSV-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (RSV-ALRI) during its recent outbreak and to find out the independent predictors of PICU admission. Methodology: Children aged between 1 month and 12 years who tested positive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were included. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors and predictive scores were developed from the beta-coefficients. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was generated and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the overall precision. The performance of sum scores in predicting PICU need, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) were calculated for each cutoff value. Result(s): The proportion of RSV positivity was 72.58%. A total of 127 children were included with a median [interquartile range (IQR)] age of 6 (2-12) months, of whom 61.42% were males and 33.07% had underlying comorbidity. Tachypnoea, cough, rhinorrhea, and fever were predominant clinical presentations while hypoxia and extrapulmonary manifestations were present in 30.71% and 14.96% of children, respectively. About 30% required PICU admission, and 24.41% developed complications. Premature birth, age below 1 year, presence of underlying CHD, and hypoxia were independent predictors. The AUC [95% confidence interval (CI)] was 0.869 (0.843-0.935). Sum score below 4 had 97.3% sensitivity and 97.1% NPV whereas sum score above 6 had 98.9% specificity, 89.7% PPV, 81.3% NPV, 46.2 LR+, and 0.83 LR- to predict PICU needs. Conclusion(s): Awareness of these independent predictors and application of the novel scoring system will be beneficial for busy clinicians in planning the level of care needed, thereby optimizing PICU resource utilization. Copyright © The Author(s).

11.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 91, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100229

ABSTRACT

Background: This article summarises a session from the recent Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health Focus meeting on Environmental Impacts on Infectious Disease. Objective: To provide an overview of the literature underpinning the presentations from this session. Methods: References used in developing the presentations were obtained from the presenters. Additional references were obtained from PubMed using key words from the presentations. Findings and Conclusions: The Hokkaido longitudinal children's study has found that exposure to chemicals in early life, such as persistent organic pollutants and per/polyfluorinated compounds, is associated with a range of immunological outcomes such as decreased cord blood IgE, otitis media, wheeze, increased risk of infections and higher risk of food allergy.Epidemiological evidence links exposure to poor air quality to increased severity and mortality of Covid-19 in many parts of the world. Most studies suggest that long-term exposure has a more marked effect than acute exposure.Components of air pollution, such as a newly described combustion product known as environmentally persistent free radicals, induce oxidative stress in exposed individuals. Individuals with genetic variations predisposing them to oxidative stress are at increased risk of adverse health effects from poor air quality.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Child , Humans , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environment , Air Pollutants/adverse effects
12.
Children (Basel) ; 9(11)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causes an acute respiratory illness named COVID-19 and is a controversial risk factor for hearing loss (HL). Herein, we aim to describe the associated symptoms and to evaluate hearing function in the COVID-19 pediatric population. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional observational study was carried out on 37 children who contracted COVID-19 infection with no previous audio-vestibular disorders. Clinical data on the infections were collected, and an audiological assessment of all affected children was performed by using different diagnostic protocols according to their age. RESULTS: Fever, upper respiratory and gastrointestinal manifestations were common presentations of infection. Audiological function was normal in 30 (81.08%) children, while 7 children showed an increased hearing threshold: 6 (16.21%) had transient conductive hearing loss (CHL) due to middle ear effusion and normalized at the follow-up and 1 had sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). A single child was affected by bilateral SNHL (2.7%); however, he underwent a complete audiological work-up leading to a diagnosis of genetic HL due to a MYO6 gene mutation which is causative of progressive or late onset SNHL. CONCLUSIONS: HL needs to be considered among the manifestations of COVID-19 in children, nevertheless, we found cases of transient CHL. The onset of HL during or following COVID-19 infection does not eliminate the indication for maintaining audiological surveillance and audiological work-ups, including genetic diagnosis, to avoid the risk of mistaking other causes of HL.

13.
Children (Basel) ; 9(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099375

ABSTRACT

There is a lack of evidence of the health impacts due to long COVID among children and young people (CYP). The objective of this study is to determine the main clinical characteristics of long COVID in CYP and to investigate the academic, social, and health status impacts of long COVID in this population. An observational, descriptive, and longitudinal study on CYP who presented COVID-19 symptoms for more than twelve weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection was performed between December 2020 and May 2021. Fifty CYP were included, with a median age of 14.1 years, 33 (66%) were female, and 17 (34%) had a relative diagnosed with long COVID. Since the initial infection and up to the first visit, CYP had persisting symptoms for a median of 4.1 months, and for 18 (36%) CYP these symptoms persisted for more than 6 months. Fatigue (100%), neurocognitive disorders (74%), muscular weakness (74%), and headache (72%) were the most reported symptoms. A total of 9 (18%) CYP could not attend school, 17 (34%) had a reduced schedule, 33 (66%) showed a decreased school performance, and 68% had stopped extracurricular activities. This preliminary study shows the impact that long COVID has on the health, academic, and social life of CYP.

14.
2022 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IJCNN 2022 ; JOUR, 2022-July.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2097621

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy and acceptance delay is an unprecedented challenge for concerned authorities. Existing studies lack the investigation about public vaccination acceptance, specifically for children. In this study, we surveyed the adult population in the UK to determine the diversity in public perception and acceptance of Covid-19 vaccination specifically for the children, among different sociodemographic groups. Statistical results and intelligent clustering outcomes indicate significant relationships between sociodemographic diversity and vaccination acceptance for children and their families. Acceptability for children is significantly dependent on ethnicity (p=3.7e-05), age group, and gender, where only 47% of participants show willingness towards children's vaccination. Primary dataset in this study, along with the experimental outcomes, might be useful for public awareness and policy makers towards better preparation for future epidemics as well as working globally to combat the ongoing Covid-19 variations while running effective vaccination campaigns in the identified sociodemographic groups. © 2022 IEEE.

15.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a novel disease that is associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). MIS-C usually affects children older than 5 years of age and adolescents, with a median of 8-years and an interquartile range of 3 to 11 years. A multisystemic inflammatory disease has been described in neonates and named MIS-N (multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in Neonates). We report three cases of Mexican newborns with MIS-N presenting with multiorgan compromise and a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG who developed Kawasaki disease (KD)-like cardiac features and discuss the current dilemma regarding diagnosis and treatment in these patients.

16.
JMIR Pediatr Parent ; 5(4): e40431, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Generation Health (GH) is a 10-week family-based lifestyle program designed to promote a healthy lifestyle for families with children who are off the healthy weight trajectory in British Columbia, Canada. GH uses a blended delivery format that involves 10 weekly in-person sessions, and self-guided lessons and activities on a web portal. The blended program was adapted to be delivered virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Currently, the effectiveness of the virtual GH program compared with that of the blended GH program remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to (1) compare the effectiveness of the virtual GH program delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic with that of the blended GH program delivered prior to the pandemic for changing child physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviors, screen time, and parental support-related behaviors for child physical activity and healthy eating, and (2) explore virtual GH program engagement and satisfaction. METHODS: This study used a single-arm pre-post design. The blended GH program (n=102) was delivered from January 2019 to February 2020, and the virtual GH program (n=90) was delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic from April 2020 to March 2021. Families with children aged 8-12 years and considered overweight or obese (BMI ≥85th percentile according to age and sex) were recruited. Participants completed preintervention and postintervention questionnaires to assess the children's physical activity, dietary and sedentary behaviors, and screen time, and the parent's support behaviors. Intervention feedback was obtained by interviews. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the difference between the virtual and blended GH programs over time. Qualitative interviews were analyzed using thematic analyses. RESULTS: Both the virtual and blended GH programs improved children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (F1,380=18.37; P<.001; ηp2=0.07) and reduced screen time (F1,380=9.17; P=.003; ηp2=0.06). However, vegetable intake was significantly greater in the virtual GH group than in the blended GH group at the 10-week follow-up (F1,380=15.19; P<.001; ηp2=0.004). Parents in both groups showed significant improvements in support behaviors for children's physical activity (F1,380=5.55; P=.02; ηp2=0.002) and healthy eating (F1,380=3.91; P<.001; ηp2=0.01), as well as self-regulation of parental support for children's physical activity (F1,380=49.20; P<.001; ηp2=0.16) and healthy eating (F1,380=91.13; P<.001; ηp2=0.28). Families in both groups were satisfied with program delivery. There were no significant differences in attendance for the weekly in-person or group video chat sessions; however, portal usage was significantly greater in the virtual GH group (mean 50, SD 55.82 minutes) than in the blended GH group (mean 17, SD 15.3 minutes; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggested that the virtual GH program was as effective as the blended program for improving child lifestyle behaviors and parental support-related behaviors. The virtual program has the potential to improve the flexibility and scalability of family-based childhood obesity management interventions.

17.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 183, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is a rare condition in pediatrics; LyP histological type D has been reported in only 7 children. The differential diagnosis of LyP in the spectrum of lymphoid proliferation remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A 6-year-old boy presented to Emergency Department with a 3-week history of an erythematous papulo-vesicular itchy eruption over the submandibular regions, trunk and extremities. History, symptoms and laboratory tests were unremarkable. SARS-CoV-2 antigen was negative. The clinical suspicion of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (PLEVA) was posed, and topical steroids were introduced. One week after, he returned with an extensive painful scaly papulo-erythematous rash, with some ulcerated and necrotic lesions, and fever; therefore the child was hospitalized. Biochemical results were within reference limits, except for high level of C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase and bilirubin. Due to a persistently high fever, systemic corticosteroid treatment was administered, with a good clinical response and an improvement of the skin lesions. Anti-PVB-19 Immunoglobulin M was detected. Elevated levels of IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ were also recorded. Five days post-admission, most of the lesions had cleared, and the child was discharged. Methotrexate was started, with a positive response. At skin biopsy a "PLEVA-like" pattern was apparent, with a dense, wedge shaped lymphoid infiltrate featuring epidermotropism and morphologically comprising pleomorphic and blastic cells. The pattern of infiltration was highlighted by immunohistochemical stains, which prove the process to feature a CD8+/CD30 + phenotype, the latter being intense on larger cells, with antigenic loss. Polymerase chain reaction for T-cell receptor gamma (TCRG) chain clonality assessment documented a monoclonal peak. A diagnosis of LyP type D was favored. CONCLUSION: The reported case encompasses most of the critical features of two separated entities-PLEVA and LyP-thus providing further support to the concept of them representing declinations within a sole spectrum of disease. Studying the role of infectious agents as trigger potential in lymphoproliferative cutaneous disorders and detecting novel markers of disease, such as cytokines, could have a crucial impact on pathogenic disease mechanisms and perspective therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphomatoid Papulosis , Parvoviridae Infections , Pityriasis Lichenoides , Child , Humans , Male , Lymphomatoid Papulosis/diagnosis , Lymphomatoid Papulosis/pathology , Pityriasis Lichenoides/diagnosis , Pityriasis Lichenoides/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Cell Proliferation
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1982, 2022 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is the lack of access to nutritious healthy food due to economic and financial insufficiencies. Food insecurity is expected to be higher during these difficult times in Lebanon, which is facing many financial, political, economic and health debates. The present study aims to find the prevalence of food insecurity among Lebanese children during the COVID-19 pandemic and its correlates. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 4001 participants from all Lebanese governorates (March-April 2022). The Ministry of Education and Higher Education randomly disseminated the link to parents of children aged between 5 and 11 years from public and private schools. RESULTS: The results showed that 1505 (37.6%) and 1497 (37.4%) had moderate and severe food insecurity. A significantly higher percentage of families with severe food insecurity was reported by fathers compared to mothers. In addition, participants who reported a bad overall health status of their children had a severe food insecurity. Moreover, those with a severe food insecurity had their children's daily snacking habit between meals decreased, with a decreased quantity of meals, intake of vegetables/fruits, the intake of balanced diet, junk food, sugar-sweetened beverages, consumption of sweets/candies/chocolate, consumption of unhealthy food, intake of immunity-boosting food, intake of nutrition supplements, participation in the house chores, number of sleeping hours and sleep quality, as well as stress/anxiety decreased. Finally, a higher mean financial burden was seen in families with severe food insecurity compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: The current study found a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity among Lebanese children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Food insecurity should be seriously discussed in Lebanon due to its rapid development in the middle of all the crises facing the country in order to avoid short and long term consequences on human's health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Supply , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Feeding Behavior , Food Insecurity , Educational Status
19.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has tremendously impacted the U.S. healthcare system, but no study has examined the impact of the pandemic on utilization of dental care among U.S. children. Changes in past-year dental versus medical visits and perceived unmet health needs between 2019 and 2020 among U.S. children aged 1-17 years were examined. METHODS: National and state representative, cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Children's Health conducted during June 2019-January 2020 (i.e. pre-pandemic, n = 28 500) and July 2020-January 2021 (i.e. intra-pandemic, n = 41 380) were analysed. Any past-year visit and perceived unmet needs (i.e. delay or inability to receive needed care) were reported by the parent proxy. Weighted prevalence estimates were compared using two-tailed chi-squared tests at p < .05. Poisson regression analyses were used to explore the relationship between having dental and/or medical unmet needs during the pandemic and indicators of poor health and social wellbeing. RESULTS: Between 2019 and 2020, a significantly reduced prevalence of past-year medical (87.2%-81.3%) and dental visits (82.6%-78.2%) among U.S. children aged 1-17 years (all p < .05) were observed. Correspondingly, perceived unmet needs increased by half for dental care (from 2.9% in 2019 to 4.4% in 2020) and almost one-third for medical care (from 3.2% to 4.2% in 2020). Subgroups with the highest prevalence of unmet dental need included those with low socio-economic status, living with their grandparents, uninsured and living with a smoker. CONCLUSIONS: Unmet health needs increased in general but increased more for dental than for medical care among U.S. children aged 1-17 years. Enhanced and sustained efforts will be needed to deliver targeted services towards disadvantaged segments of the population to narrow existing disparities.

20.
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095625

ABSTRACT

Background/objective This paper aimed to summarize the findings of the third (2022) Active Healthy Kids Hong Kong Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents and evaluate the secular trends of physical activity related indicators. Methods Five behavioral indicators (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport and Physical Activity, Active Play, Active Transportation, and Sedentary Behavior), three outcome indicators (Physical Fitness, Sleep, and Obesity) and four sources of influence indicators (Family and Peers, School, Community and Environment, and Government) were assigned a letter grade (ranging from A+ to F or incomplete) based on the best available evidence following a harmonized approach developed by the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance. Data sources included published journal articles, government reports, manual searches, and personal contacts;and consisted of both pre-COVID-19 and after-COVID-19 evidence. Results Grades for Overall Physical Activity (D−**) and Sedentary Behavior (D) deteriorated compared to the 2018 Report Card. The other three behavioral indicators, Organized Sport and Physical Activity, Active Play, and Active Transportation, were assigned B−, D, and B+, respectively. Physical Fitness (D), Sleep (C−), and Obesity (D−) obtained the same grades as in the 2018 Report Card. School (B) and Government (C+) grades slightly improved, while Community and Environment grade (B) was stable. Family and Peers was not graded due to insufficient evidence. Conclusions Despite slight improvements in influence indicators, physical activity and sedentary behavior have changed unfavorably for children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Strategic investments are needed to improve adoption and implementation of effective interventions.

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