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1.
Environmental Policy and Law ; 52(5/6):413-427, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198480

ABSTRACT

. There is a reality of creeping adverse effects of climate change. The human imprint on it has been affirmed by various global processes including 21 May 2019 recognition by the Anthropocene Working Group. It has emerged as a planetary crisis. By 2050 climate change could see 4% of global annual economic output lost to the tune of $23 trillion and may hit many poorer parts of the world disproportionately. Though entire populations are affected by climate change, women and girls suffer the most. Due to their traditional roles, women are heavily dependent on natural resources. As a consequence of natural disasters and during Covid-19 pandemic in 2020-22, women have faced heightened risks to different forms of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). They suffer from a lack of protection, privacy, and mental trauma. Effects of climate change results in the feminization and intensification of vulnerability of women and girls. As there is double victimization of women both as human beings and because of their gender. Growing evidence suggests role of climate change heightened violence against women and girls. There is no specific international legal instrument dealing with SGBV against women during and after the climate change induced disasters. The texts of the three specific climate change treaties (1992 UNFCCC, 1997 Kyoto Protocol and 2015 Paris Agreement) do not address this crucial aspect. It has been given attention only through the recent decisions of the Conference of the Parties (COP). Due to serious psychological and bodily harm SGBV causes to women, it needs to be explicitly factored in respective international legal instruments on climate change and disasters. There are ignorance, denials and lack of adequate attention by scholars and decision-makers in the field to address adverse effects of climate change in causing heightened violence against women and girls. Hence, this study makes a modest effort to deduce and analyze - from scattered initiatives, scholarly literature in different areas, existing international legal instruments and intergovernmental processes - the growing causal relationship between climate change and SGBV especially against women and girls as well as the phenomenal cost so as to suggest a way out for our better common future. It is a new challenge for international law that needs to be duly addressed in a timely manner.

2.
Environmental Policy and Law ; 52(5/6):463-471, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198479

ABSTRACT

. The current name of the game on climate action by the Global North is called "Backtracking" - backtracking on almost every commitment made by them at the various Conference of Parties (COP) held under the Unites Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This comes even as the UNFCCC turned 30 on 04 June 2022. The article seeks to place under scanner issues at stake that will impinge upon the future trajectory of the climate change regulatory regime.

3.
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review ; 22(3-4):292-305, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2197247

ABSTRACT

After rising for decades, carbon emissions fell in 2020 by 2.3 billion tonnes. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of COVID-19 on carbon emissions in India by employing the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag model over the period March 25, 2020, to August 31, 2021. Unit root test confirms that all variables are integrated at order I(0) and I(1). Bounds test supports long-run association amongst the variables. Results of the study validate the asymmetric relationship between COVID-19 determinants and CO2 emissions. It presents that lockdown has significantly reduced the CO2 emissions. This asymmetric relationship indicates that COVID-19 has become the major cause of reduction in greenhouse gases, but this cannot be treated as a permanent solution to environmental destruction. Thus, the study suggested that governments and policymakers should formulate FDI policy on high-tech low carbon technology while preparing a strict environmental access system and promote environmentally sustainable investment through subsidies.

4.
PLOS Sustainability and Transformation ; 1(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2197185

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is dramatically impacting planetary and human societal systems that are inseparably linked. Zoonotic diseases like COVID-19 expose how human well-being is inextricably interconnected with the environment and to other converging (human driven) social–ecological crises, such as the dramatic losses of biodiversity, land use change, and climate change. We argue that COVID-19 is itself a social–ecological crisis, but responses so far have not been inclusive of ecological resiliency, in part because the "Anthropause” metaphor has created an unrealistic sense of comfort that excuses inaction. Anthropause narratives belie the fact that resource extraction has continued during the pandemic and that business-as-usual continues to cause widespread ecosystem degradation that requires immediate policy attention. In some cases, COVID-19 policy measures further contributed to the problem such as reducing environmental taxes or regulatory enforcement. While some social–ecological systems (SES) are experiencing reduced impacts, others are experiencing what we term an "Anthrocrush,” with more visitors and intensified use. The varied causes and impacts of the pandemic can be better understood with a social–ecological lens. Social–ecological insights are necessary to plan and build the resilience needed to tackle the pandemic and future social–ecological crises. If we as a society are serious about building back better from the pandemic, we must embrace a set of research and policy responses informed by SES thinking.

5.
PLOS Sustainability and Transformation ; 1(3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2197184

ABSTRACT

Climate scientists at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies reported 2020 as the warmest year on record [1];the Gulf Stream has slowed down dramatically [2];the Last Ice Area has melted away faster than previously estimated [3];and coral reefs continue their constant and global decline [4]. The effects of the pandemic and climate change have also led to a rebalance in focus between efficiency and resilience across the public, private, and people sectors in society. The fodder for our global body of knowledge ultimately are the outputs and insights from our researchers and thought leaders.

6.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(11), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2196839

ABSTRACT

Governments all throughout the world have been negotiating about human destiny for decades, but without people. There is a significant chance that the future COP27, which will be hosted by Egypt in November 2022, will be just like the other COPs, in which enthusiasm and ambition are quickly overshadowed by the strength and influence of short-term interests and corporate avarice. Since the COVID-19 pandemic gave us a "sneak preview" of the harmful effects that shocks and stressors brought on by crises like the climate emergency could have on people, many people were hoping that last year's COP26 in Glasgow would be a turning point for climate action. However, the earlier pledge to "phase out" coal-based power in major economies was not included in the COP26 final declaration. The lengthy history of colonialism around the world must be explicitly acknowledged in the climate negotiations in addition to placing a strong emphasis on everyone's health and wellbeing. For the first time, the most recent assessment of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (UN IPCC) emphasized the crucial part historical colonialism played in accelerating current anthropogenic climate change. Only extraction from people and the Earth is valued in the colonial capitalist world order humans currently live in. The world's Indigenous Peoples, who were victims of colonization, are now being exploited and pillaged while still fighting the climatic disaster on the ground. Even in the bargaining chambers, where the powerful's interests are prioritized and Indigenous peoples are underrepresented, the colonial legacy persists. However, young people are inventively channeling their angst and fear into initiative and action. For instance, young movements from the frontlines of the climate crisis, like Tuvali, are making the stories of their struggle and survival apparent to the influential through campaigning and awareness raising. The People's Health Hearing, a global forum for testimonies about how extractive industries are wreaking havoc on health and how communities are fending off oppressive systems of pollution, is one of the forums that a number of us are organizing. People with credentials in health are working with health systems and professional associations to influence policy change and take action on climate change by using the strength of health evidence and their voices.

7.
Environmental Health ; 21:1-13, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2196301

ABSTRACT

Background Influenza seasonality has been frequently studied, but its mechanisms are not clear. Urban in-situ studies have linked influenza to meteorological or pollutant stressors. Few studies have investigated rural and less polluted areas in temperate climate zones. Objectives We examined influences of medium-term residential exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), NO2, SO2, air temperature and precipitation on influenza incidence. Methods To obtain complete spatial coverage of Baden-Württemberg, we modeled environmental exposure from data of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service and of the Copernicus Climate Change Service. We computed spatiotemporal aggregates to reflect quarterly mean values at post-code level. Moreover, we prepared health insurance data to yield influenza incidence between January 2010 and December 2018. We used generalized additive models, with Gaussian Markov random field smoothers for spatial input, whilst using or not using quarter as temporal input. Results In the 3.85 million cohort, 513,404 influenza cases occurred over the 9-year period, with 53.6% occurring in quarter 1 (January to March), and 10.2%, 9.4% and 26.8% in quarters 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Statistical modeling yielded highly significant effects of air temperature, precipitation, PM2.5 and NO2. Computation of stressor-specific gains revealed up to 3499 infections per 100,000 AOK clients per year that are attributable to lowering ambient mean air temperature from 18.71 °C to 2.01 °C. Stressor specific gains were also substantial for fine particulate matter, yielding up to 502 attributable infections per 100,000 clients per year for an increase from 7.49 μg/m3 to 15.98 μg/m3. Conclusions Whilst strong statistical association of temperature with other stressors makes it difficult to distinguish between direct and mediated temperature effects, results confirm genuine effects by fine particulate matter on influenza infections for both rural and urban areas in a temperate climate. Future studies should attempt to further establish the mediating mechanisms to inform public health policies.

8.
Environmental Sciences Europe ; 35(1):6, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2196030

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had many deep social and economic impacts that go beyond health issues. One consequence is that the pandemic has made it even harder to mobilize the financial resources needed to pursue SDG 13 (Climate Action) as a whole and to fund climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts in particular. This is especially acute in respect of the efforts to achieve the targets set by the Paris Agreement and by the recent decisions in Glasgow. This paper looks at how the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated poverty and undermined climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts, as a result of the switches in priorities and funding. Using a review of the recent literature, an analysis of international trends, and a survey among climate scientists, it identifies some of the impacts of the pandemic on climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts and discusses their implications. The findings indicate a decrease in funding to climate change research since the pandemic crisis. The bibliometric analysis reveals that a greater emphasis has been placed on the relationship between COVID-19 and poverty when compared to the interrelations between COVID-19 and climate change. Addressing climate change is as urgent now as it was before the pandemic crisis started, and efforts need to be made to upkeep the levels of funding needed to support research in this field.

9.
Global Governance ; 28(4):562-586, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2194437

ABSTRACT

Promoting stability is a core component of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) surveillance's mandate. The Covid-19 pandemic hit almost every country worldwide. This article evaluates whether and how the IMF surveillance documents in the aftermath of the health and economic crisis have identified risks and mitigation measures to improve health outcomes, protect vulnerable people and firms, and address climate change. Through the IMF COVID-19 Surveillance Monitor, a textual analysis index, the authors found that these issues received relatively little attention in Article IV consultations in 2019, with fiscal issues dominating the discussion. However, the consultations conducted in 2020 show some timely incremental shifts and more attention toward health systems and protecting vulnerable matters. While climate change has become a key part of senior IMF official narratives, it has not had a significant presence in surveillance activities. The techniques and indices developed here can help the IMF improve its surveillance policy. © 2022 Copyright 2022 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

10.
Journal of Medical Ethics ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2193898

ABSTRACT

Correspondence to Dr Anand Bhopal, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway;anand.bhopal@uib.no When weighing up which inhaler to prescribe, a doctor may prioritise a patient's preferences over the expected harms from the associated carbon emissions. A few examples include the dangerous working conditions for many people making surgical tools and equipment,4 the overseas export of contaminated clinical waste infecting individuals bordering refuse sites,5 and the hoarding of vaccines during intense global scarcity early in the COVID-19 pandemic.6 In each case, efforts to address these harms have been piecemeal, where acknowledged at all;in practice, harms occurring beyond a country's borders are routinely ignored in the moral and economic calculus. The relative value of carbon emissions in this revised equation would, in turn, be contingent on many other ethical factors, including risk aversion (since the harms of a given quantity of emissions are uncertain), discount rates (since the negative impacts are concentrated in the future) and whether the population of concern is national or global (since climate impacts are largely imposed on people far away).

11.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 380, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2193716

ABSTRACT

Conflict, climate change, covid-19, and the rising cost of living have caused an international increase in hunger, it said. The agencies are calling for more investment for their global action plan to alleviate maternal and child nutrition through food, health, water, and sanitation, and social protection systems.1 Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Yemen have been identified as the 15 priority nations. Hunger and famine are interlinked with the most prominent health problems in the Global South, making it harder for countries to escape cycles of poor health outcomes.

12.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 379, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2193692

ABSTRACT

[...]threats include nuclear proliferation, antimicrobial resistance and climate change.6 Promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services are subsystems of universal healthcare, and play a crucial role in ensuring a healthy population, but they must be extended beyond the realm of the healthcare system. Interventions addressing both health security concerns and passing measures to establish healthy populations should reconcile the common interests of both HICs and LMICs.7 A systems for health approach would minimize parallel programmes currently implemented at national and sub-national levels that each have their own reporting requirements, funding streams, supply chains, and human resource policies leading to significant inefficiencies. PMC9514836. 6 Heymann DL Chen L Takemi K. Global health security: the wider lessons from the west African Ebola virus disease epidemic.

13.
Science ; 371(6528):477, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2193389
14.
Science ; 370(6522):1286, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2193388
15.
Transfusion Medicine ; 32(6):443-444, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2193287
16.
Canadian Public Administration ; 65(4):620-628, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2192445

ABSTRACT

This short article provides a practitioner's perspective in response to Iacobucci and Trebilcock's (2022) article "Existential threats: Climate change, pandemics and institutions." It offers some thoughts on: the many kinds of advisory bodies on whose advice governments can draw;the options for and constraints on institutional change;and what the federal and provincial governments could do to better equip themselves for dealing with the next "existential crisis." The goal is to point to the full range of sources of scientific and policy advice for governments, to encourage better appreciation of when different sources of advice might be best served by different institutional underpinnings, and to emphasize the important role of the public service and "soft" machinery in fielding advice from diverse sources in an increasingly risky future. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR]

17.
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine ; 40(1):3-7, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2192023

ABSTRACT

First, I would like to wish you and your loved ones a nice new year filled with health and happiness. The last few years have been challenging for various reasons: the COVID-19 pandemic, climatic events, and the war in Ukraine, to name a few. It seems impossible to be able to stop the megalomania and madness of some human beings. It also seems difficult to reverse climate changes brought on by habits that we would have to radically change and industrial lobbying focused solely on profits at whatever cost. I fear that based on all of the disasters we have been experiencing, no one sound person can challenge the climate changes taking place around the world.

18.
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2191475

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe objective of this study was to examine the impact of the pandemic on sustainable agricultural practices (SAP) adoption such as: organic fertilizers, minimal use of tillage, crop rotation, soil burning and crop association in the frame of family farming systems in Ecuador.Design/methodology/approachThe present research employed probit models' estimation with pooled data from 2018 to 2020. The study combined three sources of information with The Survey on Surface and Agricultural Continuous Production, as the main. This study also proposed the analysis of six regions: Coast, Coast Mountains, Northern Highlands, Central Highlands, Southern Highlands and the Amazon.FindingsThe authors see a lower adoption in the year 2020, where the pandemic was one of the causes. The only exception was the use of organic fertilizer. The adoption of these sustainable practices differed across the six regions. The findings also reveal that the employment generated by agricultural enterprises had a negative influence on the adoption of three sustainable practices, and that for the remaining practices the effect was positive.Research limitations/implicationsThe data set lacks information on the acceptance and the application of the practices promoted by agricultural technical assistance, which could provide insights into the effectiveness of the learning process. The limited observation period does not allow for investigating long-term effects on sustainable practices adoption.Originality/valueThis study helps to understand the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic in the adoption of SAP. Additionally, this research can help with the scalability of the practices starting from the regions that are most likely to adopt each of them.

19.
Built Environment Project and Asset Management ; 13(1):1-4, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2191298

ABSTRACT

[...]this special issue (SI) proposed a nexus between the construction industry trends within the niches of the circular economy (CE);building information modelling (BIM);cost reduction and maintenance;construction digitalisation;designing for sustainability;low-zero carbon technology and transitioning construction stakeholders, projects and organisations towards the next normal. [...]the limitations of transforming the construction sector towards the next normal were studied in the last paper. Labour productivity has been a challenge for the construction industry before the 2020 pandemic and more so in the new normal. [...]construction labour performance and grading evaluations for enhanced productivity were studied by Manoharan et al. [...]in transforming the construction industry towards the next normal, previous studies on the CE and OSC may spur the furtherance of waste reduction philosophies in the construction sector, as studied by Obi et al.

20.
Regenerative and Sustainable Futures for Latin America and the Caribbean: Collective Action for a Region with a Better Tomorrow ; : 93-116, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191278

ABSTRACT

In this chapter, the reality of Bolivia's current situation is presented, including details regarding the country's political, economic and environmental context. Then, alternate possible future scenarios are presented, developed by four different types of stakeholders in Bolivian society during four workshops that produced various suggestions on how to recover from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic using a sustainable approach. Several findings are incorporated into these scenarios, including potential risks, public policy recommendations and structural changes required to attain the best possible post-pandemic scenario for Bolivia, including the achievement of several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) from the 2030 Agenda, especially SDGs 8, 13 and 17. © 2022 Emerald Publishing Limited.

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