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1.
Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya (Russian Federation) ; 2021(9):232-236, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242895

ABSTRACT

Background: Women are most at risk for Clostridium difficile infection in the early postpartum period. Clostridium difficile-associated colitis may be mistaken for the intestinal form of COVID-19 during the ongoing novel coronavirus infection pandemic. Case report: The paper describes a clinical case of a female patient diagnosed with the novel coronavirus infection and Clostridium difficile-associated pseudomembranous colitis in the early postpartum period. It depicts the diagnosis and treatment of the identified concurrent pathology. It demonstrates data from of an endoscopic examination of the colon and spiral computed tomography of the chest and provides laboratory confirmation of the infectious etiology of comorbidity. There are data available in the literature on the high rate and recurrent course of pseudomembranous colitis in the early postpartum period. It is noted that timely C. difficile eradication and pathogenetic treatment for the novel coronavirus infection allow relief of clinical symptoms. Conclusion(s): The case of the novel coronavirus infection concurrent with Clostridium difficile-associated pseudomembranous colitis in the early postpartum period is of interest in connection with the need for differential diagnosis of the etiology of diarrheal syndrome, the precise identification of which determines the further tactics of patient management and the nature of anti-epidemic measures.Copyright © A group of authors, 2021.

2.
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana ; 56(3):309-313, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20240879

ABSTRACT

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) can cause anything from diarrhea to toxic megacolon. The objectives of this study were: to show the varia-tion in the number of diagnosed cases of CDI in this center, comparing 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic began, with 2019 and 2021 and to detail cases preceded by SARS-CoV-2 infection. This is an observational retrospective study in which the total number of samples processed with suspected CDI were recorded. The positive ones and the clinical history of patients with a diagnosis of CDI up to two months after their diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded as well. During 2020 a smaller number of samples were processed. However, during this year the percentage of positivity was 13.1% vs. 7,2% and 7.8% during 2019 and 2021, respectively. It is believed that this may have been due to improvements in clinical suspicion and sample selection for CDI diagnosis.

3.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 77(1): 23-33, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233067

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The primary symptom of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is diarrhea of varying severity. Both malnutrition and clinical nutrition increase the risk for contracting Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection and the likelihood of relapses. Moreover, the risk for recurrence is higher if there is infection with a hypervirulent strain (NAP1/BI/027). Hypoalbuminemia predisposes to a severe course of the disease and morbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis was carried out of the data regarding patients hospitalized at the Regional Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Warsaw from 01 January 2020 to 31 December 2021 who were diagnosed with C. difficile infection. A severe course of infection was diagnosed when a blood test showed a leukocyte count greater than or equal to 15,000/µl and/or a creatinine concentration >1.5 mg/dl (>132.6 mmol/l). RESULTS: Clostridioides difficile infection was the reason for 185 hospitalizations (involving 108 women and 77 men), of 167 patients aged from 22 to 93 years old. There were 68 (37%) cases of recurrent infection. Seventy-five (41%) infections met the study's criteria for severe CDI, and 12 (7%) patients died. Out of the total number of hospitalizations, 41 (22%) were due SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. PCR tests detecting binary toxin revealed 34 (18%) positive results. Infection with a hypervirulent strain was an independent risk factor for the recurrence of diarrhea which had C. difficile etiology. Overall, during an episode of diarrhea, one antibacterial drug was used in 139 cases (75%), two in 27 (15%), three in 14 (8%) situations, and four - twice (1%). Among these, drugs not recommended for the treatment of CDI were used in 21 (11%) cases. The number of antibacterial drugs administered during an episode of diarrhea was an independent risk factor for the death of the infected person. Clinical nutrition was applied during 19 hospitalizations (10%), out of which 12 (63%) cases showed a severe course of C. difficile infection, while four patients (21%) died. Using clinical nutrition methods was an independent risk factor for a severe course of the disease and patient death. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical nutrition and the number of antibiotics used during an episode of diarrhea are independent risk factors for the death of a patient with CDI. Infection with a hypervirulent strain increases the risk for relapse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Male , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Poland/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Clostridium Infections/complications , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Recurrence
5.
Cureus ; 15(5): e38401, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235070

ABSTRACT

Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile)and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections can have overlapping symptoms. Recently, the association and outcomes of coinfection have been studied. We present the case of an 83-year-old lady with Parkinson's disease (PD) who was admitted with pneumonia secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. She was treated with empiric antibiotics ampicillin-sulbactam and azithromycin, along with antiviral therapy remdesivir and baricitinib, and dexamethasone. The patient developed severe C. difficile infection with a leukemoid reaction. She was treated with intravenous metronidazole and oral vancomycin without any improvement. Before she could receive a fecal microbiota transplant, her infection progressed to fulminant colitis, and she required emergent surgery. The patient developed several complications post-surgery and succumbed to the severe illness. Our patient's multiple comorbidities and an underlying COVID-19 infection predisposed her to severe illness. This case emphasizes the long-standing discussion on antibiotic stewardship and encourages a debate on the role of immunosuppressant antiviral medications and underlying PD in predisposing patients to a severe C. difficile infection.

6.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(4): 222-225, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242950

ABSTRACT

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) among children remains a concerning cause of morbidity in hospital settings. We present epidemiological and molecular trends in healthcare- and community-associated CDI among children in Canadian inpatient and outpatient settings, including those who experienced recurrent infections.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Humans , Child , Canada/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/etiology , Health Facilities , Delivery of Health Care , Cross Infection/epidemiology
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(5): 919-928, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241735

ABSTRACT

Although Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) incidence is high in the United States, standard-of-care (SOC) stool collection and testing practices might result in incidence overestimation or underestimation. We conducted diarrhea surveillance among inpatients >50 years of age in Louisville, Kentucky, USA, during October 14, 2019-October 13, 2020; concurrent SOC stool collection and CDI testing occurred independently. A study CDI case was nucleic acid amplification test‒/cytotoxicity neutralization assay‒positive or nucleic acid amplification test‒positive stool in a patient with pseudomembranous colitis. Study incidence was adjusted for hospitalization share and specimen collection rate and, in a sensitivity analysis, for diarrhea cases without study testing. SOC hospitalized CDI incidence was 121/100,000 population/year; study incidence was 154/100,000 population/year and, in sensitivity analysis, 202/100,000 population/year. Of 75 SOC CDI cases, 12 (16.0%) were not study diagnosed; of 109 study CDI cases, 44 (40.4%) were not SOC diagnosed. CDI incidence estimates based on SOC CDI testing are probably underestimated.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Humans , Adult , United States , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Kentucky/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Diagnostic Errors , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Specimen Handling
8.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S145, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324191

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Multiple meta-analyses have shown that over 15% patients with COVID-19 have at least one gastrointestinal complaint, most commonly diarrhea. The effects on the gastrointestinal system are thought to be mediated by the high expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and cellular serine proteases (TMPRSS2) in enterocytes, which cause altered intestinal permeability. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea as it relates to COVID-19 infection and to determine if having concomitant diarrhea had a significant impact on disease course. Method(s): A retrospective chart review of 164,730 patients in a hospital system who were older than 18 years of age and had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test from March 2020 to February 2022 was completed. Diarrhea was determined using ICD code or patient's symptoms. Patients with confounding variables such as IBD, IBS, Celiac, Clostridium difficile, and pancreatic insufficiency were excluded. Demographic clinical characteristics and outcomes, including inpatient admission and mortality, were compared in patients with and without diarrhea. The Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's exact or Chi-square test was used for continuous and categorical variables respectively and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate for significant differences in disease outcome between the two groups. (Table) Results: Of the 164,730 patients included, 14,648 (8.89%) had diarrhea at the time of SARS-CoV-2. 6,748/33,464 (20.16%) of inpatient admissions were associated with diarrhea. On multivariate analysis, diarrhea was an independent risk factor for inpatient hospitalization (OR 2.39, CI 95% 2.28-2.51, P, 0.001) and inpatient mortality (OR 1.15, CI 96% 1.06-1.26, P= 0.001) after controlling for age, gender, race, comorbidities that could impact patient outcome, use of immunomodulators and outpatient antibiotics. Conclusion(s): These findings show that, even with controlling for comorbidities with COVID-19, diarrhea was an independent factor for predicting inpatient mortality and inpatient admission in general. Patients who had diarrhea and COVID-19 were sicker, having more comorbid conditions than those without diarrhea in our cohort. Attention should be given to not only respiratory complaints of COVID-19, but also gastrointestinal complaints, as they are an indicator of poor prognosis and mortality.

9.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S1643-S1644, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323840

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In a subset of Covid19-convalescent patients, a multitude of long-term sequelae are increasingly being reported. We report 4 cases with varying neuro-GI and motility manifestations after recent COVID-19 infection. Case Description/Methods: Case 1: A 23-year-old man contracted COVID-19 and had a protracted course of respiratory illness. Despite resolution of respiratory symptoms and dysgeusia, he continued to experience early satiety, postprandial nausea, vomiting and unintentional weight loss. Gastric Emptying Scan (GES) revealed gastroparesis (Figure A). Dietary modification and metoclopramide led to symptomatic improvement. Case 2: A 39-year-old woman with migraines, suffered from Covid-19 infection where anosmia and respiratory symptoms lasted for 2 weeks. Despite resolution of initial symptoms, she started experiencing nausea and vomiting, and reported stereotypical symptoms with complete absence of vomiting between episodes. Endoscopic examination, CT head and GES were normal. Urine tox screen was negative for cannabinoids. She responded favorably to amitriptyline and ondansetron. Case 3: A 47-year-old man started experiencing severe constipation associated with abdominal pain and bloating soon after being diagnosed with COVID-19. Three months after resolution of respiratory symptoms, in addition to constipation, he began reporting postprandial fullness, early satiation and epigastric pain. GES showed gastroparesis ( figure B) and a Sitzmarks Study revealed delayed colonic transit (Figure C). Prucalopride was started, leading to improvement in symptoms. Case 4: A 74-year-old woman with obesity and diabetes, was hospitalized and intubated for severe respiratory distress due to COVID-19. After discharge, she had persistent symptoms of brain fog, fatigue, dyspnea as well as diarrhea and abdominal cramping, persisting despite loperamide and dicyclomine. C. difficile toxin, random colonic biopsies and H2 breath test were unremarkable. Her symptoms eventually improved with rifaximin. Discussion(s): We report 4 cases with post-COVID gastroparesis, cyclical vomiting syndrome, pan-gut dysmotility, and post-infectious IBS phenotypes.The pathophysiology of post-infectious-gut-brain disorders is still obscure. The current conceptual framework implicates acquired neuropathy, altered motility, intestinal barrier disruption and persistent intestinal inflammation. Similar pathophysiology may be involved in COVID-19 infection leading to sustained neurogastroenterological dysfunction and gut dysmotility.

10.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S28, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322589

ABSTRACT

Intro: The ongoing pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has brought many new insights into medicine. During the first months of the pandemic, when there were no comprehensive guidelines for precise antimicrobial therapy, empirical overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics was observed. Which resulted in the development of clostidium infection in certain cases. In our report, we address 83 cases of clostridial colitis in post-covid patients from 3/2020 to 3/2021 and their specific therapy. Method(s): Retrospective analysis of risk factors for clostridial infection and therapy of clostridial colitis. Finding(s): In the period 3/2020-3/2021, 9617 patients were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 virus infection in our hospital, of which 1247 were hospitalized. In 83 cases, clostridial colitis occurred during or after the covid infection had resolved. Mortality in this group was 17%, which corresponds to 14 patients. Previous empirical administered antiobiotics in COVID-19 infection contributed to the development of clostridial colitis in case of 22 patients (27%) by clarithromycin, in 14 pacients (17%) by penicillins and by 3rd generation cephalosporins in 9 patients (11%). The average duration of therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics was 15.63 days (+-8.99). Other risk factors we observed are: PPI use (25%), active malignant disease (10%), previous glucocorticoid therapy (22%). Vancomycin was used in clostridial infection therapy in 47% (39), metronidazole in 31% (25) and fidaxonicin in 7% (6). In the group, we observed recurrence of clostridium difficile infection in 14% of patients and FMT was performed in 6 patients. Conclusion(s): This study shows a higher percentage of clostridial infection in cases of long-term therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics. It also points to the effect of specific antimicrobial therapy for infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile and the possibility of using fecal bacteriotherapy.Copyright © 2023

11.
Koloproktologia ; 21(4):111-119, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2326677

ABSTRACT

AIM: to estimate the features of pseudomembranous colitis in patients with COVID-19, diagnostics, conservative treatment and surgery for complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: a retrospective analysis of 396 patients with pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) in patients with new coronavirus infection was carried out for the period from March 2020 to November 2021. Among them there were 156 (39.3%) males, females - 240 (60.6%), moderate and severe forms of COVID-19 occurred in 97.48%. The diagnosis of PMC was established due to clinical picture, laboratory, instrumental methods (feces on Cl. difficile, colonoscopy, CT, US, laparoscopy). RESULT(S): the PMC rate in COVID-19 was 1.17%. All patients received antibiotics, 2 or 3 antibiotics - 44.6%, glu-cocorticoids were received by all patients. At 82.8%, PMC developed during the peak of COVID-19. To clarify the PMC, CT was performed in 33.8% of patients, colonoscopy - 33.08%, laparoscopy - in 37.1% (to exclude bowel perforation, peritonitis). Conservative treatment was effective in 88.8%, 76 (19.1%) patients had indications for surgery (perforation, peritonitis, toxic megacolon). Most often, with peritonitis without clear intraoperative confir-mation of perforation, laparoscopic lavage of the abdominal cavity was performed (60 patients - 78.9%, mortality - 15.0%), colon resection (n = 6 (7.9%), mortality - 66.6%), ileo-or colostomy (n = 8 (10.5%), mortality - 37.5%), colectomy (n = 2 (2.6%), mortality - 50.0%). The overall postoperative mortality rate was 22.4%, the incidence of surgical complications was 43.4%. In addition, in the postoperative period, pneumonia was in 76.3%, thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in 22.3% of patients. In general, the overall mortality in our patients with PMC was 11.4%, with conservative treatment - 8.8%. CONCLUSION(S): pseudomembranous colitis is a severe, life-threatening complication of COVID-19. In the overwhelm-ing majority of patients, conservative therapy was effective, but almost 1/5 of patients developed indications for surgery, the latter being accompanied by high mortality and a high morbidity rate. Progress in the treatment of PMC, apparently, is associated with early diagnosis, intensive conservative therapy, and in the case of indications for surgery, their implementation before decompensation of the patient's condition and the development of severe intra-abdominal complications and sepsis.Copyright © 2022, Association of Coloproctologists of Russia. All rights reserved.

12.
Infection Prevention: New Perspectives and Controversies: Second Edition ; : 341-348, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2325823

ABSTRACT

There are several relevant pathogens in healthcare today that are easily transmissible among populations and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In order to decrease transmission, it is important to identify infected patients quickly so that infection prevention techniques can be employed. Rapid diagnostic tests assist with this as they often produce results 24-48 h faster than traditional culture and sensitivity methods. This chapter discusses the benefits and limitations of rapid diagnostic tests overall, as well as considerations for rapid diagnostics for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE), Clostridioides difficile, Candida auris, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and influenza. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1033417, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323615

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Arriving at a C. difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis, treating patients and dealing with recurrences is not straightforward, but a comprehensive and well-rounded understanding of what is needed to improve patient care is lacking. This manuscript addresses the paucity of multidisciplinary perspectives that consider clinical practice related and healthcare system-related challenges to optimizing care delivery. Methods: We draw on narrative review, consultations with clinical experts and patient representatives, and a survey of 95 clinical and microbiology experts from the UK, France, Italy, Australia and Canada, adding novel multi-method evidence to the knowledge base. Results and discussion: We examine the patient pathway and variations in clinical practice and identify, synthesize insights on and discuss associated challenges. Examples of key challenges include the need to conduct multiple tests for a conclusive diagnosis, treatment side-effects, the cost of some antibiotics and barriers to access of fecal microbiota transplantation, difficulties in distinguishing recurrence from new infection, workforce capacity constraints to effective monitoring of patients on treatment and of recurrence, and ascertaining whether a patient has been cured. We also identify key opportunities and priorities for improving patient care that target both clinical practice and the wider healthcare system. While there is some variety across surveyed countries' healthcare systems, there is also strong agreement on some priorities. Key improvement actions seen as priorities by at least half of survey respondents in at least three of the five surveyed countries include: developing innovative products for both preventing (Canada, Australia, UK, Italy, and France) and treating (Canada, Australia, and Italy) recurrences; facilitating more multidisciplinary patient care (UK, Australia, and France); updating diagnosis and treatment guidelines (Australia, Canada, and UK); and educating and supporting professionals in primary care (Italy, UK, Canada, and Australia) and those in secondary care who are not CDI experts (Italy, Australia, and France) on identifying symptoms and managing patients. Finally, we discuss key evidence gaps for a future research agenda.

14.
Infect Dis Rep ; 15(3): 279-291, 2023 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321774

ABSTRACT

The incidence of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) has been increasing compared to pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels. The COVID-19 infection and CDI relationship can be affected by gut dysbiosis and poor antibiotic stewardship. As the COVID-19 pandemic transitions into an endemic stage, it has become increasingly important to further characterize how concurrent infection with both conditions can impact patient outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study utilizing the 2020 NIS Healthcare Cost Utilization Project (HCUP) database with a total of 1,659,040 patients, with 10,710 (0.6%) of those patients with concurrent CDI. We found that patients with concurrent COVID-19 and CDI had worse outcomes compared to patients without CDI including higher in-hospital mortality (23% vs. 13.4%, aOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.12-1.5, p = 0.01), rates of in-hospital complications such as ileus (2.7% vs. 0.8%, p < 0.001), septic shock (21.0% vs. 7.2%, aOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 2.1-2.6, p < 0.001), length of stay (15.1 days vs. 8 days, p < 0.001) and overall cost of hospitalization (USD 196,012 vs. USD 91,162, p < 0.001). Patients with concurrent COVID-19 and CDI had increased morbidity and mortality, and added significant preventable burden on the healthcare system. Optimizing hand hygiene and antibiotic stewardship during in-hospital admissions can help to reduce worse outcomes in this population, and more efforts should be directly made to reduce CDI in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection.

15.
Gut Pathog ; 15(1): 21, 2023 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325712

ABSTRACT

Clostridioides difficile, which causes life-threatening diarrheal disease, is considered an urgent threat to healthcare setting worldwide. The current standards of care solely rely on conventional antibiotic treatment, however, there is a risk of promoting recurrent C. difficile infection (rCDI) because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. Globally, the alarming spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of C. difficile has resulted in a quest for alternative therapeutics. The use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which involves direct infusion of fecal suspension from a healthy donor into a diseased recipient, has been approved as a highly efficient therapeutic option for patients with rCDI. Bacteriophages or phages are a group of viruses that can infect and destroy bacterial hosts, and are recognized as the dominant viral component of the human gut microbiome. Accumulating data has demonstrated that phages play a vital role in microbial balance of the human gut microbiome. Recently, phage therapy and fecal virome transplantation (FVT) have been introduced as promising alternatives for the treatment of C. difficile -related infections, in particular drug-resistant CDI. Herein, we review the latest updates on C. difficile- specific phages, and phage-mediated treatments, and highlight the current and future prospects of phage therapy in the management of CDI.

16.
Infection ; 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320125

ABSTRACT

PURPOSES: Despite reports of a declining incidence over the last decade, Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is still considered the most important healthcare-associated causes of diarrhea worldwide. In Germany, several measures have been taken to observe, report, and influence this development. This report aims to analyze the development of hospital coding for CDI in Germany over the last decade and to use it to estimate the public health burden caused by CDI. METHODS: Reports from the Institute for Hospital Remuneration Systems, German Federal Statistical Office (DESTATIS), the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI), Saxonian authorities and hospital quality reports during 2010-2021 were examined for CDI coding and assessed in a structured expert consultation. Analysis was performed using 2019 versions of Microsoft Excel® and Microsoft Access®. RESULTS: Peaks of 32,203 cases with a primary diagnosis (PD) of CDI and 78,648 cases with a secondary diagnosis (SD) of CDI were observed in 2015. The number of cases had decreased to 15,412 PD cases (- 52.1%) and 40,188 SD cases (- 48.9%) by 2021. These results were paralleled by a similar decline in notifiable severe cases. However, average duration of hospitalization of the cases remained constant during this period. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital coding of CDI and notification to authorities has approximately halved from 2015 to 2021. Potential influential factors include hospital hygiene campaigns, implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs, social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and a decrease in more pathogenic subtypes of bacteria. Further research is necessary to validate the multiple possible drivers for this development.

17.
Scripta Medica (Banja Luka) ; 54(1):19-27, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2298007

ABSTRACT

Background/Aim: Diarrhoea that occurs as a result of the presence of Clostridium difficile (reclassified as Clostridioides difficile) is usually manifested as a hospital infection, usually after antibiotic treatment. The study aim was to assess the incidence, characteristics and outcomes of hospitalised patients with healthcare – associated Clostridioides difficile infection (HA-CDI) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients older than 18, who met the HA-CDI case definition. The CDI diagnosis was made by demonstrating toxins A and B in stool samples using an immunochromatographic assay test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The incidence of HA-CDI has significantly decreased from the pre-COVID-19 period to the COVID-19 period (11.04 per 10,000 vs 6.49 per 10,000, p < 0.001). Before establishing the HA-CDI diagnosis, 41.4 % of patients used one antibiotic, 25.9 % used two and 11.2 % were treated with three or more antibiotics. Almost one half of the applied antibiotics were from the group that represents high risk for the development of HA-CDI. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that older age (OR = 3.4;95 % CI = 0.9-12.4;p = 0.038) and complicated disease course (OR = 11.8;95 % CI = 2.6-53.6;p ≤ 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of death. Conclusion: The incidence of HA-CDI has decreased during the observed period of the COVID-19 pandemic, however, no clear connection between the impact of the pandemic and incidence reduction was found. Due to unfavourable outcome of the treatment of HA-CDI patients during COVID-19 pandemic, the rational use of antibiotics is necessary. © 2023 Knežević et al.

18.
Am J Infect Control ; 2023 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, increased antibiotic prescribing and infection prevention challenges coincided with antibiotic-resistant (AR) infection increases. Clostridioides difficile (C difficile) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are serious, costly AR threats. Health inequities in pandemic-era AR infections are not well-characterized. METHODS: North Carolina statewide inpatient admissions were used to determine monthly admission rates and admission rate ratios (RRs) for C difficile and MRSA infections comparing 2017-2019 (prepandemic) to 2020 (pandemic exposure) using mixed-model Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and COVID-19. We assessed effect measure modification by admissions' community-level income, county rurality, and race and ethnicity. Mean total costs by infection type were compared. RESULTS: With pandemic exposure, C difficile (adjusted RR = 0.90 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86, 0.94]) and MRSA pneumonia (adjusted RR = 0.97 [95% CI 0.91, 1.05]) decreased, while MRSA septicemia (adjusted RR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.07, 1.19]) increased. Effect measure modification was not detected. C difficile or MRSA coinfection nearly doubled mean costs among COVID-19 admissions. CONCLUSIONS: Despite decreases in C difficile and most MRSA infections, the early COVID-19 pandemic period saw continued increases in MRSA septicemia admissions in North Carolina. Equitable interventions to curb increases and reduce health care costs should be developed.

19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(5)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301170

ABSTRACT

Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (RCDI) causes an increased burden on the healthcare system. We calculated RCDI incidence and identified factors associated with RCDI cases in New Haven County, Connecticut, USA, during 2015-2020 by using data from population-based laboratory surveillance. A subset of C. difficile cases had complete chart reviews conducted for RCDI and potentially associated variables. RCDI was defined as a positive C. difficile specimen occurring 2-8 weeks after incident C. difficile infection. We compared cases with and without RCDI by using multiple regression. RCDI occurred in 12.0% of 4,301 chart-reviewed C. difficile cases, showing a U-shaped time trend with a sharp increase in 2020, mostly because of an increase in hospital-onset cases. Malignancy (odds ratio 1.51 [95% CI 1.11-2.07]) and antecedent nitrofurantoin use (odds ratio 2.37 [95% CI 1.23-4.58]) were medical risk factors for RCDI. The 2020 increase may reflect the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Connecticut/epidemiology , Pandemics , Recurrence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology
20.
American Family Physician ; 106(1):72-80, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2271778

ABSTRACT

Acute diarrheal disease accounts for 179 million outpatient visits annually in the United States. Diarrhea can be categorized as inflammatory or noninflammatory, and both types have infectious and noninfectious causes. Infectious noninflammatory diarrhea is often viral in etiology and is the most common presentation;however, bacterial causes are also common and may be related to travel or foodborne illness. History for patients with acute diarrhea should include onset and frequency of symptoms, stool character, a focused review of systems including fever and other symptoms, and evaluation of exposures and risk factors. The physical examination should include evaluation for signs of dehydration, sepsis, or potential surgical processes. Most episodes of acute diarrhea in countries with adequate food and water sanitation are uncomplicated and self-limited, requiring only an initial evaluation and supportive treatment. Additional diagnostic evaluation and management may be warranted when diarrhea is bloody or mucoid or when risk factors are present, including immunocompromise or recent hospitalization. Unless an outbreak is suspected, molecular studies are preferred over traditional stool cultures. In all cases, management begins with replacing water, electrolytes, and nutrients. Oral rehydration is preferred;however, signs of severe dehydration or sepsis warrant intravenous rehydration. Antidiarrheal agents can be symptomatic therapy for acute watery diarrhea and can help decrease inappropriate antibiotic use. Empiric antibiotics are rarely warranted, except in sepsis and some cases of travelers' or inflammatory diarrhea. Targeted antibiotic therapy may be appropriate following microbiologic stool assessment. Hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, and food and water safety measures are integral to preventing infectious diarrheal illnesses.Copyright © 2022 American Academy of Family Physicians.

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