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1.
Moravian Geographical Reports ; 30(4):228-236, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198324

ABSTRACT

Coal energy landscapes have changed dramatically over the last decades, including geographic shifts in production and consumption, technological changes that have reduced labour demand and led to relatively new mining practices (e.g. invasive mountain-top approaches), changed economic footprints, a shutdown of capacities or a complete end of mining in many regions with massive impacts on regional and local economies, community well-being, social capital, et cetera. Then the Covid-19 pandemic and Russia´s invasion of Ukraine have fundamentally affected the global economy, disrupted energy markets, and shattered existing estimates about development trends, challenging the progress and speed of the low-carbon energy transition and coal phase-out. This article provides a brief reflection on the changing landscapes of coal and their possible futures, and serves as an introduction to the Special Issue of Moravian Geographical Reports on "The death of coal in the energy transition? Regional perspectives”.

2.
Ugol ; - (11):62-68, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2204657

ABSTRACT

The aim of the work is to develop measures to support the coal industry during non-systemic crises, one of which was the 2020–2021 crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The object of the study is the Russian coal industry as a set of enterprises engaged in the extraction and enrichment of coal. The subject of the study is the impact of the crisis on the financial result of the industry. The paper identifies and systematizes the factors of the crisis and analyzes its impact on the financial result of the industry and individual groups of enterprises. Groups of enterprises were identified, the financial results of which deteriorated the most. Based on the results of the analysis, a cash flow management scheme was proposed, aimed at minimizing the negative impact of the crisis on operating, financial and investment activities. © D.Yu. Savon, A.E. Safronov, N.O. Vikhrova, G.V. Kruzhkova, M.S. Goncharov, 2022.

3.
Resources Policy ; 80:103200, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165802

ABSTRACT

The present study empirically probed into non-linear associations between natural resources commodity prices and green finance measured in terms of green bonds. Although the literature has sufficient evidences for the association of energy stocks and precious metals like gold and silver with green bond market, however, the number of studies investigating the relationship between natural resources like oil prices, natural gas prices and coal prices are very scarce. Therefore our study accompanies those few studies that tried to explore this association. For empirical estimation, the QARDL estimation approach followed by Wald test as well as Granger causality tests is employed to analyze the daily global data, spanning over Jan 2010 to Dec 2021. The results of our empirical calculations show that over the long term, green bonds are strongly and favourably correlated with rising oil prices at all quantiles. However, only at medium to higher quantiles are natural gas prices and coal prices highly correlated with green bonds (in a negative and positive manner, respectively). i.e., (0.05–0.40). Oil prices and natural gas has significant impact on green bonds only at low quantiles (positive and negative, respectively), while coal prices have significant (positive impact) on green bonds at all quantiles. The error correction term fulfills all the requirements i.e., it is significant and negative, which shows that there exists a long term stable association between the studied variables and the green bonds globally. Moreover, the Granger causality test shows the presence of the bi-directional associations between the prices of these resources with green bonds. This research offers a number of policy proposals to assist governments, decision makers and investors in making better green bond market decisions.

4.
Energy Reports ; 8:14595-14605, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2130648

ABSTRACT

Data from 15 European countries is analysed to provide novel estimates of daily own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of natural-gas-demand from 2016 to 2020. The results show that: first, there is a strong-seasonal component in the October–February period during which residential-demand has a higher share on total demand, and gas price is not a determinant factor for most of the countries. This seasonal profile makes price-based tools more effective modifying end-consumer behaviours from March to August when estimated own-price elasticities present larger values in absolute terms. Second, there are estimated positive own-price elasticities from October to February in Bulgaria, Luxemburg, Poland, the UK, and Portugal. The first four countries present natural gas prices below the EU-28 average during the analysed period and it is argued that positive elasticities may reflect a disconnection between the price traded on the organized markets and the real price perceived by end-customers. For Portugal, who is currently carrying out a very aggressive policy to become coal-free by the end of 2021, natural gas and coal are mainly consumed in power sector to provide flexibility and back up renewable generation. The limited alternatives to provide these services may explain why coal and natural gas are found to be complementary. Finally, it is found that lockdowns due to covid-19 highly impacted on natural gas demand, confirming for the first time in the literature a “double heating effect”. Our results help to find when price-based tools by policymakers will influence more effectively natural-gas-demand following economic and environmental goals. © 2022 The Authors

5.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(19):13183-13200, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067020

ABSTRACT

Emission inventories are essential for modelling studies and pollution control, but traditional emission inventories are usually updated after a few years based on the statistics of “bottom-up” approach from the energy consumption in provinces, cities, and counties. The latest emission inventories of multi-resolution emission inventory in China (MEIC) was compiled from the statistics for the year 2016 (MEIC_2016). However, the real emissions have varied yearly, due to national pollution control policies and accidental special events, such as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. In this study, a four-dimensional variational assimilation (4DVAR) system based on the “top-down” approach was developed to optimise sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by assimilating the data of SO2 concentrations from surface observational stations. The 4DVAR system was then applied to obtain the SO2 emissions during the early period of COVID-19 pandemic (from 17 January to 7 February 2020), and the same period in 2019 over China. The results showed that the average MEIC_2016, 2019, and 2020 emissions were42.2×106, 40.1×106, and 36.4×106 kg d-1. The emissions in 2020 decreased by 9.2 % in relation to the COVID-19 lockdown compared with those in 2019. For central China, where the lockdown measures were quite strict, the mean 2020 emission decreased by 21.0 % compared with 2019 emissions. Three forecast experiments were conducted using the emissions of MEIC_2016, 2019, and 2020 to demonstrate the effects of optimised emissions. The root mean square error (RMSE) in the experiments using 2019 and 2020 emissions decreased by 28.1 % and 50.7 %, and the correlation coefficient increased by 89.5 % and 205.9 % compared with the experiment using MEIC_2016. For central China, the average RMSE in the experiments with 2019 and 2020 emissions decreased by 48.8 % and 77.0 %, and the average correlation coefficient increased by 44.3 % and 238.7 %, compared with the experiment using MEIC_2016 emissions. The results demonstrated that the 4DVAR system effectively optimised emissions to describe the actual changes in SO2 emissions related to the COVID lockdown, and it can thus be used to improve the accuracy of forecasts.

6.
Chest ; 162(4):A2258, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060923

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Autoimmune Diseases Gone Wild: Rare Cases of Pulmonary Manifestations SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a complex entity related to autoimmune dysfunction and inflammation that can cause mass-like lesions and fibrosis of a variety of organs, including pancreas and/or lungs. IgG4-RD in the lung can have diverse clinical and radiographic presentations. We present a case of suspected IgG4-RD that manifested as idiopathic pancreatitis and interstitial lung disease that mimicked coal workers' pneumoconiosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72 year-old male with a decades-long coal mining history and a presumptive diagnosis of coal-worker's pneumoconiosis was admitted to the hospital for necrotizing pancreatitis. There was no evidence of gallstones, elevated triglycerides, history of alcohol use or medication known to precipitate pancreatitis. Two years prior, a presumptive diagnosis of coal-worker's pneumoconiosis had been reached largely on the basis of history and chest imaging (Figure 1) showing a progressive massive pulmonary fibrosis pattern. His hospital course was protracted and complicated by nosocomial COVID-19 treated with remdesivir and a 10-day course of dexamethasone. He then had persistent hypoxemia that worsened after dexamethasone was discontinued. Empiric high-dose methylprednisolone was given and the hypoxemia improved dramatically. However, the hypoxemia and pancreatitis repeatedly worsened with significant dose decrease. Inpatient CT chest showed worsening interstitial reticulation and ground-glass opacities superimposed on prior fibrosis (Figure 2). Serum IgG subclass levels were checked;IgG4 and IgG4:IgG ratio were mildly elevated at 93mg/dL and 0.09, respectively. In the setting of idiopathic pancreatitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and steroid-sensitive hypoxemia, he was diagnosed with probable IgG4-RD involving pancreas and lungs. An association between inhaled occupational exposures and development of IgG4-RD has been observed. To confirm the diagnosis of pulmonary IgG4-RD, a tissue biopsy will be necessary. He is now discharged from hospital on a long steroid taper. DISCUSSION: A serum IgG4 level >125mg/dL or an IgG4:total IgG ratio >0.08 support the diagnosis, as does clinical response to steroids. However, these criteria are nonspecific and will be in the normal range in a substantial minority of cases. Lymphocytes and a predominance of IgG4-positive plasma cells infiltrating fibrotic tissue in involved organs are pathologic hallmarks of IgG4-RD. Lung involvement in patients with pancreatitis due to IgG4-RD is common and likely under recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary involvement in IgG4-RD can show a wide array of radiographic patterns, but that seen in this case with pseudotumor and fibrosis is among the most commonly reported. Given the overlap in risk factors and radiographic appearance between IgG4-RD and pneumoconiosis, vigilance for IgG4-RD is warranted. Reference #1: Hirano K., Kawabe T., Komatsu Y., et al. High-rate pulmonary involvement in autoimmune pancreatitis. Internal Medicine Journal. 2006;36(1):58–61. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2006.01009.x Reference #2: Kamisawa T, Zen Y, Pillai S, Stone JH. IgG4-related disease. Lancet. 2015 Apr 11;385(9976):1460-71. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60720-0. Epub 2014 Dec 4. PMID: 25481618. Reference #3: de Buy Wenniger, L. J., Culver, E. L., & Beuers, U. (2014). Exposure to occupational antigens might predispose to IgG4-related disease. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 60(4), 1453–1454. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.26999 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Jordan Minish, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Robert Ousley, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Meagan Reif, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Derek Russell, source=Web Response

7.
Romanian Review of Social Sciences ; (22)2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046804

ABSTRACT

The macroeconomic evolution since the beginning of 2022, worldwide, but also at regional and national level, marks major imbalances, caused by several factors, among which the vulnerability of the energy system as a whole is a major one. Demand and supply in all forms of energy, both in terms of production and distribution, have unsustainable gaps, which implies the need the need for public authorities to intervene through the design and implementation of appropriate strategies to address the challenges of the transition in energy resources and, at the same time, to remove the effects of the crisis of the energy system, a crisis that is felt in the vast majority of the states of the world.

8.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(18):12153-12166, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040263

ABSTRACT

A knowledge gap exists concerning how chemical composition and sources respond to implemented policy control measures for aerosols, particularly in a semi-arid region. To address this, a single year's offline measurement was conducted in Hohhot, a semi-arid city in northern China, to reveal the driving factors of severe air pollution in a semi-arid region and assess the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown measures on chemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5. Organic matter, mineral dust, sulfate and nitrate accounted for 31.5 %, 14.2 %, 13.4 % and 12.3 % of the total PM2.5 mass, respectively. Coal combustion, vehicular emission, crustal source and secondary inorganic aerosols were the main sources of PM2.5 in Hohhot, at 38.3 %, 35.0 %, 13.5 %, and 11.4 %, respectively. Due to the coupling effect of emission reduction and improved atmospheric conditions, the concentration of secondary inorganic components, organic matter and elemental carbon declined substantially from the pre-lockdown (pre-LD) period to the lockdown (LD) and post-lockdown (post-LD) periods. The source contribution of secondary inorganic aerosols increased (from 21.1 % to 37.8 %), whereas the contribution of vehicular emission reduced (from 35.5 % to 4.4 %) due to lockdown measures. The rapid generation of secondary inorganic components caused by unfavorable meteorological conditions during lockdown led to serious pollution. This study elucidates the complex relationship between air quality and environmental policy.

9.
Resources Policy ; 79:102968, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031663

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we investigate the volatility spillovers among major energy stocks, the electricity index, and fossil fuel energy commodities (crude oil, natural gas, and coal) using firm-level data in an emerging market, Turkey over the period July 18, 2006–December 31, 2021, which covers important economic events worldwide. To do this, we employ Diebold and Yilmaz's (2012) approach to examine both time-varying and invarying volatility spillovers among markets. Our findings reveal that Turkish energy stocks and the fossil fuel energy markets have high interdependencies, which are significantly affected by global political, financial, and extreme events. The volatility spillovers among markets during the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 exceeded the 2008 global financial crisis. We also examine the volatility connectedness between markets based on frequency domain using various frequency bands (short term, medium term, long term). To do so, we adopt Barunik and Krehlik’s (2018) approach and find that the highest performance is recorded in the long horizon compared to short and medium horizons, implying that the impact of volatility spillover transmission from one market to others is persistent (long-lasting) in the Turkish market. Finally, we discuss policy implications for global investors and policymakers based on our results.

10.
Journal of Cleaner Production ; 375:134061, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031428

ABSTRACT

This paper refers to the current energy situation in the European Union (EU) countries with a particular focus on energy produced from renewable energy sources and coal – sources that provide opportunities for balancing the energy of the region. The strengths and weaknesses of coal mining in Poland were also identified, along with its opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis). Innovative and sustainable development based on the Triple Helix Model (THM), as well as the Open innovation (OI) concept and Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) principles were identified as opportunities for its sustainable development. The combination of these solutions should enable sustainable development of the industry, preserving its economic and social importance and reducing its negative impact on the environment. The use of new clean technologies in the operation and combustion of coal should reduce emissions of harmful substances into the environment. Intensive and government-supported cooperation between the scientific and research community and industry should significantly facilitate these processes. Another aspect important for the changes to be introduced is the social factor, for which the current situation represents an opportunity to preserve jobs in the mining industry, but also a challenge for its sustainable development. These seemingly mutually exclusive elements should form the basis of a new opening for Polish and European mining as an innovative industry based on knowledge and preserving the basic principles of ESG. The paper also outlines the most significant challenges facing the Polish mining industry on its way to innovative development. The article provides a new and relevant to the current reality perspective on the Polish mining industry in the context of the entire EU, for which the current geopolitical situation forces the necessity of setting a new direction of development. The geopolitical changes that have recently taken place in the global economy such as the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic and the armed conflict within Ukraine have caused very great turbulence in the energy market. Enthusiasm and uncritical adoption of green concepts in the EU has caused, along with the reduction of gas and coal imports from Russia, turbulence in the energy market. This situation has created a great opportunity for the development of the mining industry in Poland, which has not yet managed, following the example of other EU countries, to extinguish the industry. In order to take advantage of this opportunity and obtain a permanent place in the energy mix in the EU, it is necessary to rapidly develop the mining industry in a sustainable manner based on innovative solutions.

11.
International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management ; 25(5):406-426, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2029802

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate and assess how restrictive COVID-19 precautions affect air quality in Zonguldak, as well as to determine the relationship between air quality and meteorological variables under these conditions. Daily PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NOx concentrations and meteorological data, from 1 March to 31 May 2018, 2019, and 2020 were collected for this research. During the 2020 restrictive COVID-19 precautions, it was determined that concentrations of air pollutants were different and low based on the 95% confidence interval by using paired t-test samples. Meteorological variables were found to be similar to previous years, and the correlation between them and air pollutants was found to be significant (P < 0.01) but low according to Pearson correlations. As a result, meteorological variables were determined to have no direct effect on the low concentrations of air quality emissions during the 2020 pandemic. The overall findings revealed that anthropogenic impact has a negative impact on air quality and the air quality had improved during the COVID pandemic. Furthermore, the restriction on the region's coalmines during the COVID-19 pandemic has significant impact on the improvement of air quality.

12.
Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy ; 11(2):27-48, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2025176

ABSTRACT

The sharp decline in fossil fuel demand related to the Covid-19 pandemic put in evidence some of the impacts that can be created by the energy transition. By putting into conversation the literature on economic decline in extractive regions and debates on stranded fossil fuel assets, this paper presents the case of the region of Cesar, Colombia, which in 2020 experienced a 33% decline in coal production and an unexpected idling of some of its largest coal mines. We identify various economic impacts for workers, communities, and local governments caused by the structural crisis faced by this activity. Eight challenges identified can be of relevance to other coal-dependent regions in the Global South. We argue that in such regions, many of the impacts recognized by the literature on the Global North are exacerbated. More importantly, additional challenges of a decline in coal pro-duction, particularly the precariousness of local economies based on high levels of informal and low value-added activities, the role of coal companies in social spending, and limited available data and institutional capacity, increase the risk of coal regions becoming stranded.

13.
Natural Gas Industry ; 42(7):1-6, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024390

ABSTRACT

Natural gas will play more and more important role in the sustainable low-carbon development mode characterized by low energy consumption, low pollution and low emission. It has been and will continue to be the focus of attention. The 28th World Gas Conference (WGC2022) was held on May 23-27, 2022 in Daegu, South Korea. The conference summarized the progress of world natural gas in the past four years, analyzed and judged the future development trend, and reached seven consensuses: (1) Natural gas is not only a transitional fuel, but also a basic fuel for future development. (2) Supply and demand value chain of natural gas has high flexibility and adaptability, and supply diversification has become a development advantage. (3) With the effect of the rapid increase of oil and gas price, the reversal of natural gas to coal has intensified the rapid growth of global carbon emissions. (4) Structural tension is emerging in the global LNG market, and the number of long-term agreement contracts will show an increasing trend. (5) The coordinated development of natural gas and hydrogen will accelerate the arrival of the low-carbon era. (6) Methane monitoring and leakage measurement technology in the natural gas industry will become the next important innovation. (7) Governments of various countries have continuously raised the minimum level of underground gas storage, and successively issued incentive policies to increase gas reserves and production. Based on the experience, the following suggestions are put forward for the development of China's natural gas: (1) Continue to highlight the important position of the natural gas industry, increase exploration and development, and improve supply capacity and voice;(2) To adapt to the new setup of international natural gas supply caused by the COVID-19 and the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, and to formulate overall strategies for natural gas import and export trade;(3) Attach importance to LNG business, scientifically arrange the construction of LNG import supporting facilities, and take the initiative to cooperate with natural gas resource countries;(4) The whole industrial chain of natural gas and hydrogen business should be planned and deployed together, and hydrogen and natural gas infrastructure construction should be linked up effectively;(5) Increase policy support, strengthen infrastructure construction such as underground gas storage and LNG terminal, reserve more energy to develop confidence, and build a strong defense line for energy security. © 2022 Natural Gas Industry Journal Agency. All rights reserved.

14.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10173, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024144

ABSTRACT

For many decades, the Region of Western Macedonia has been Greece’s energy hub, contributing significantly to electricity supply and national growth with the exploitation of lignite deposits for power generation. Lignite, though, has been banned from EU energy source policies towards achieving CO2 emissions reduction, with profound implications on the economy of the region. Despite the importance of this energy transition, a combinatorial analysis for the area in the coal phase-out regime is missing. Therefore, a combined analysis is performed here, and more specifically, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis in all the affected sectors, in combination with the examination of the degree of satisfaction with the EU’s energy priorities. The results of the study show that the Region of Western Macedonia has profound strengths and offers many new opportunities during its transition to a new production model. On the other hand, it has high unemployment rates and low rates of competitiveness and innovation. The main threat is the Region’s desertification due to the inability to find sufficient jobs. Considering the Energy Union’s priorities, the Region of Western Macedonia satisfactorily follows the priorities of Europe in its transition to the new production model, with plenty of room for improvement. The analysis performed allows for a just transition strategic planning to minimize social, economic and energy challenges while maximizing sustainable power generation and has implications for all relevant stakeholders, contributing to the implementation of Energy Union governance and climate actions.

15.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10099, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024132

ABSTRACT

The implementation of measures to limit electricity consumption in many provinces of China has caused coal prices to rise irrationally, further aggravating the financing problems of small and medium-sized enterprises in the supply chain. Small and medium-sized enterprises lacking funds cannot effectively participate in the green transformation and development of the coal industry, which slows down the sustainable development process of the coal industry. Under the current background of low-carbon advocacy, blockchain technology can reasonably allocate resources and efficiently process information, thereby providing a solution for this financing problem. This paper first proposes a coal accounts receivable financing model based on blockchain technology, then builds a coal accounts receivable financing system dominated by ports through blockchain technology. Finally, the Stackelberg yield–benefit model is used to analyze the income function of each participant in the process of accounts receivable financing. The results show that the use of blockchain technology can reduce the financing condition of financial institutions and improve the maximum income of cooperative enterprises in the chain while solving the financing problems of small and medium-sized enterprises in the coal supply chain. This study provides practical significance and theoretical value for promoting the transformation and upgrading of coal enterprises and accelerating the opening of the sustainable development model of the coal industry.

16.
Energies ; 15(16):6089, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023312

ABSTRACT

In recent years, one of the key postulates in the European Union’s policy has become the development of renewable energy sources. In order to achieve the desired synergy effect, the idea of combining two selected sources of energy appeared. This article presents a technical and economic analysis of a hybrid connection of a ground source heat pump with a photovoltaic installation. Taking into account the heat demand of the building, a ground heat pump with a catalog nominal heating power of 25 kW was selected. This article presents the problem of the economic profitability of using a hybrid combination of a heat pump and photovoltaic panels in domestic hot water and central heating systems. The justification for the use of such heat sources in these installations is due to global trends and the gradual departure from conventional energy sources such as oil or gas boilers. This paper presents the economic and ecological results of using the pump heat connected together with photovoltaic panels. In the economic analysis, with the assumed installation costs related to the use of the considered heat pump and PV, two parameters commonly used in the investment analysis (static and dynamic) were used, namely, the simple payback period and the net present value of the investment. For the adopted assumptions, the usable area of the facility and the number of years of use were indicated, at which the investment in question is competitive with other alternative investment interest methods and will start to bring tangible benefits. The performed analysis also has measurable environmental benefits in the form of a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions at the level of 2893 kg/year into the atmosphere. The presented solution will help future investors understand the investment profitability mechanism for their households.

17.
Atmosphere ; 13(8):1231, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023116

ABSTRACT

Brick kilns add enormous quantities of organic pollutants to the air that can cause serious health issues, especially in developing countries;poor air quality is associated with community health problems, yet receives no attention in Northern Pakistan. The present study, therefore, assessed the chemical composition and investigated the impacts of air pollution from brick kilns on public health. A field-based investigation of air pollutants, i.e., PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, H2S, and NH3 using mobile scientific instruments was conducted in selected study area locations. Social surveys were conducted to investigate the impacts of air pollution on community health. The results reveal the highest concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10, i.e., 3377, 2305, and 3567.67 µg/m3, respectively, in specific locations. Particulate matter concentrations in sampling points exceeded the permissible limits of the Pakistan National Environmental Quality Standard and, therefore, may risk the local population’s health. The highest mean value of CO2 was 529 mg/L, and other parameters, such as CO, NO, NO2, H2S, and NH3 were within the normal range. The social survey’s findings reveal that particulate matter was directly associated with respiratory diseases such as asthma, which was reported in all age groups selected for sampling. The study concluded by implementing air pollution reduction measures in brick kiln industries to protect the environment and community health. In addition, the region’s environmental protection agency needs to play an active role in proper checking and integrated management to improve air quality and protect the community from air hazards.

18.
Atmosphere ; 13(8):1178, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023111

ABSTRACT

The present study investigates the response of natural gas consumption to temperature on the basis of observations during heating season (middle November–middle March) for the period 2002–2021 in Beijing, China, and then estimates temperature-related changes in the gas consumption under future scenarios by using climate model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6. Observational evidence suggests that the daily natural gas consumption normalized by gross domestic product is linearly correlated with the daily average temperature during heating season in the past two decades in Beijing. Hence, a linear regression model is built to estimate temperature-related changes in the natural gas consumption under future scenarios. Corresponding to a rising trend in the temperature, the natural gas consumption shows a decrease trend during 2015–2100 under both the SSP245 and the SSP585 scenarios. In particular, the temperature would increase rapidly from early 2040s to the end of 21st century under the SSP585 scenario, leading to an obvious reduction in the natural gas consumption for heating in Beijing. Relative to that in the present day (1995–2014), the natural gas consumption would show a reduction of approximately 9% (±4%) at the end of 21st century (2091–2100) under the SSP245 scenario and approximately 22% (±7%) under the SSP585 scenario.

19.
4th International Conference on Nuclear Energy Technologies and Sciences, ICoNETS 2021 ; 2501, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2017012

ABSTRACT

The covid-19 pandemic has altered the course of the economy all over the world, including Indonesia. Government policy to resort to social restriction and working from home has increased household consumption of energy but reduce the commercial use of energy. Economic growth is greatly affected by the pandemic and had surged to -5.32% during the pandemic but has been increased before the second wave of the pandemic strikes. In the long-term, the economy and electricity consumption are expected to recover. The recent plan to phase out coal from the energy generation sector has provided the pathway for New and Renewable Energy (NRE) in providing more environmentally friendly electricity to support the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Electricity demand-supply analysis is performed using LEAP and the result demonstrated that full utilization of NRE will reduce GHG emission by more than 700 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent in 2050 and renewable energy mix goal may be achieved in 2050. However, development of smart grid and energy storage should also be developed to compensate the intermittency of wind and solar electricity. Factors such as power generation cost, land requirement, externalities, and grid stability should be carefully studied in order to assure that the electricity produced is affordable and do not pose burden in form of government subsidies. © 2022 American Institute of Physics Inc.. All rights reserved.

20.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(15):10319-10351, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994379

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to highlight how TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) trace gas data can best be used and interpreted to understand event-based impacts on air quality from regional to city scales around the globe. For this study, we present the observed changes in the atmospheric column amounts of five trace gases (NO2, SO2, CO, HCHO, and CHOCHO) detected by the Sentinel-5P TROPOMI instrument and driven by reductions in anthropogenic emissions due to COVID-19 lockdown measures in 2020. We report clear COVID-19-related decreases in TROPOMI NO2 column amounts on all continents. For megacities, reductions in column amounts of tropospheric NO2 range between 14 % and 63 %. For China and India, supported by NO2 observations, where the primary source of anthropogenic SO2 is coal-fired power generation, we were able to detect sector-specific emission changes using the SO2 data. For HCHO and CHOCHO, we consistently observe anthropogenic changes in 2-week-averaged column amounts over China and India during the early phases of the lockdown periods. That these variations over such a short timescale are detectable from space is due to the high resolution and improved sensitivity of the TROPOMI instrument. For CO, we observe a small reduction over China, which is in concert with the other trace gas reductions observed during lockdown;however, large interannual differences prevent firm conclusions from being drawn. The joint analysis of COVID-19-lockdown-driven reductions in satellite-observed trace gas column amounts using the latest operational and scientific retrieval techniques for five species concomitantly is unprecedented. However, the meteorologically and seasonally driven variability of the five trace gases does not allow for drawing fully quantitative conclusions on the reduction in anthropogenic emissions based on TROPOMI observations alone. We anticipate that in future the combined use of inverse modeling techniques with the high spatial resolution data from S5P/TROPOMI for all observed trace gases presented here will yield a significantly improved sector-specific, space-based analysis of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures as compared to other existing satellite observations. Such analyses will further enhance the scientific impact and societal relevance of the TROPOMI mission.

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