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1.
Curr Drug Targets ; 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054725

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus expanded worldwide, generating a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome called "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19), which resulted in a global health crisis. The spectrum of COVID-19 manifestations ranges from none or mild symptoms to severe respiratory failure associated with systemic manifestations, mostly gastrointestinal symptoms. Hypercoagulability is an important feature of COVID-19 disease, which can potentially influence patients' prognosis. Therefore, gastroenterologists should focus on subjects with concomitant hypercoagulable gastrointestinal disorders as they may display a higher risk of thrombotic complications during SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the interplay of the prothrombotic pathogenetic mechanisms of both COVID-19 and hypercoagulable digestive diseases and the possible clinical implications. We summarized the potential interplay of prothrombotic mechanismsof both COVID-19 and hypercoagulable digestive diseases in the graphical abstract.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024324

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The identification of vaccination status and attitudes towards vaccines among celiac disease (CD) patients is of great importance, but it has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate coverage against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), attitudes towards vaccinations, and its determinants among CD patients. (2) Methods: An anonymous web-based validated questionnaire was sent to a mailing list of CD adult patients. Patients were asked to self-report their previous vaccinations and attitudes towards vaccinations, which were defined as positive, negative, and partially positive/negative. The influencing factors towards vaccinations were investigated, and crude and adjusted odds ratios (AdjORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. (3) Results: The questionnaire was sent to 412 patients, with a response rate of 31.6% (130 patients, 105 women, median age 40 years, interquartile range 36-51). Patients self-reported vaccination against the following diseases: 73.8% tetanus, 42.3% flu, 20% measles, mumps and rubella, 19.2% meningitis, and 16.2% pneumococcus. Thirty-two people (24.6%) did not remember all of their previous vaccinations. In total, 104 (80%) respondents had a positive attitude towards vaccines, 25 (19.2%) a partially positive/negative one, and 1 a negative one. The determinants significantly influencing the positive attitude were being a graduate (AdjORs 7.49) and a belief in the possible return of VPDs with declining vaccination coverage rates (AdjORs 7.42), while the use of complementary and alternative medicines (AdjORs 0.11) and past negative experience (AdjORs 0.16) were associated with a negative attitude. (4) Conclusions: Despite four out of five CD patients showing a strong positive attitude towards vaccinations, one out of five had a partially negative one. Only a minority (16-20%) reported being vaccinated against some VPDs potentially harmful to their CD because of hyposplenism, such as meningitis and pneumococcus. The low vaccination rate against some VPDs, in spite of the 80% of CD patients stating a positive attitude towards vaccination, may be explained in part by patients' vaccine hesitancy and in part by a possible role of physicians in under-prescribing vaccinations to these patients. These results may be a starting point for developing specific vaccination campaigns to increase vaccination rates against VPDs in CD patients.

3.
Frontline Gastroenterology ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1993040

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveEmergency interim guidance from the British Society for Gastroenterology (BSG) states that a no-biopsy strategy is possible to diagnose coeliac disease (CD) in adults with elevated transglutaminase IgA antibody (TGA-IgA) levels. We aimed to determine if the suggested TGA-IgA ≥10× ULN is safe and robust in making the diagnosis in adult patients in Scotland. We also aimed to establish if any important co-diagnoses would be missed if no biopsy was performed.MethodAll positive coeliac serology results for patients aged >15 years in Scotland in 2016 (Grampian 2019) were accessed. Data were collected on demographics, TGA-IgA titres, D1 sampling, histology and macroscopic findings at upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy.Results1037/1429 patients with positive serology proceeded to biopsy, of which 796/1037 (76.8%) were diagnosed as CD. A total of 320/322 (99.37%) patients with TGA-IgA ≥10× ULN were diagnosed as CD giving the cut-off a positive predictive value of 99.38%. No significant co-pathology was found at endoscopy in these patients.ConclusionOur results show that a no-biopsy strategy using a cut-off of TGA-IgA ≥10× ULN is safe to diagnose CD and that no important pathology would be missed. The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition 2020 and BSG COVID-19 interim guidelines are applicable to adult patients in Scotland.

4.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ; 2(184), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1905766

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major cause of disability and the leading cause of death worldwide. To reduce mortality and morbidity, prevention strategies such as following an optimal diet are crucial. In recent years, low-gluten and gluten-free diets have gained strong popularity in the general population. However, study results on the benefits of a gluten-reduced or gluten-free diet are conflicting, and it is unclear whether a gluten-reduced diet has an effect on the primary prevention of CVD. Objectives: To determine the effects of a gluten-reduced or gluten-free diet for the primary prevention of CVD in the general population. Search methods: We systematically searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and Web of Science up to June 2021 without language restrictions or restrictions regarding publication status. Additionally, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing or unpublished trials and checked reference lists of included studies as well as relevant systematic reviews for additional studies. Selection criteria: We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies of interventions (NRSIs), such as prospective cohort studies, comparing a low-gluten or gluten-free diet or providing advice to decrease gluten consumption with no intervention, diet as usual, or a reference gluten-intake category. The population of interest comprised adults from the general population, including those at increased risk for CVD (primary prevention). We excluded cluster-RCTs, case-control studies, studies focusing on participants with a previous myocardial infarction and/or stroke, participants who have undergone a revascularisation procedure as well as participants with angina or angiographically-defined coronary heart disease, with a confirmed diagnosis of coeliac disease or with type 1 diabetes. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently assessed eligibility of studies in a two-step procedure following Cochrane methods. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool (RoB2) and the 'Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions' (ROBINS-I) tool, and the certainty of evidence was rated using the GRADE approach. Main results: One RCT and three NRSIs (with an observational design reporting data on four cohorts: Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), Nurses' Health Study (NHS-I), NHS-II, UK Biobank) met the inclusion criteria. The RCT was conducted in Italy (60 participants, mean age 41 +or- 12.1 years), two NRSIs (three cohorts, HPFS, NHS-I, NHS II) were conducted across the USA (269,282 health professionals aged 24 to 75 years) and one NRSI (Biobank cohort) was conducted across the UK (159,265 participants aged 49 to 62 years). Two NRSIs reported that the lowest gluten intake ranged between 0.0 g/day and 3.4 g/day and the highest gluten intake between 6.2 g/day and 38.4 g/day. The NRSI reporting data from the UK Biobank referred to a median gluten intake of 8.5 g/day with an interquartile range from 5.1 g/day to 12.4 g/day without providing low-and high-intake categories. Cardiovascular mortality: From a total of 269,282 participants, 3364 (1.3%) died due to cardiovascular events during 26 years of follow-up. Low-certainty evidence may show no association between gluten intake and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for low- versus high-gluten intake 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.06;2 NRSIs (3 cohorts)). All-cause mortality: From a total of 159,265 participants, 6259 (3.9%) died during 11.1 years of follow-up. Very low-certainty evidence suggested that it is unclear whether gluten intake is associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted HR for low vs high gluten intake 1.00, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.01;1 NRSI (1 cohort)). Myocardial infarction: From a total of 110,017 participants, 4243 (3.9%) participants developed non-fatal myocardial infarction within 26 years. Low-certainty evidence suggested that gluten intake may not be associated with the development of non-fatal myocardial infarction (adjust

5.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 617-621, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), is emerging as a worldwide public health emergency. Several scientific contributions reported the potential relevance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphism and susceptibility to viruses, such as SARS-CoV. In our study, we examined a population of coeliac subjects presenting the HLA haplotype DQ2 and/or DQ8. Our aim was to evaluate whether HLA DQ2 and/or DQ8 haplotype play a role in SARS-CoV-2-infection. The aim was also to evaluate the difficulty in following the gluten-free diet due to all the adversities produced by the pandemic, such as the food supply disruption, and the difficulties in managing the clinical follow-up. METHODS: 191 consecutive coeliac patients completed a questionnaire on their current clinical status, psychological effects, and management of the gluten-free diet experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic and questions regarding possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Out of the 191 patients who participated in the study, 42 were full-blown coeliac and 149 were in remission. From the answers provided, 84.8% of patients declared that they no longer consider themselves vulnerable to COVID-19 as they suffer from coeliac disease; 94.2% of patients did not encounter any difficulties in managing the gluten-free diet or in acquiring specific foods and 64.9% of patients in our study underwent diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2. Out of this number, 31.5% did so due to contacts with subjects affected by COVID-19, 26.6% for work related reasons, 11.3% due to flu-like symptoms and 30.6% for other reasons. Only 5.8% of the enrolled patients received a diagnosis of COVID-19. Out of all the patients in our population who were diagnosed with COVID-19, 94.8% developed no symptoms and none of them needed hospitalization or intensive care. CONCLUSION: The hypothesis that the HLADQ2 and/or DQ8 haplotype plays a protective role against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as against other viral infections, is intriguingly suggestive.KEY MESSAGESCOVID-19 as a public health emergency;SARS-CoV-2 and possible complications in coeliac disease;Role of HLA DQ2 and/or DQ8 in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Celiac Disease , HLA-DQ Antigens/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/genetics , Critical Care , Haplotypes , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Frontline Gastroenterol ; 13(2): 119-125, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673460

ABSTRACT

Objective: The analysis of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) by flow cytometry of duodenal biopsies-the 'IEL' lymphogram-has been proposed as a diagnostic test for coeliac disease. However, its clinical applicability has been limited due to variability in methods and definitions. This study set out to define useful parameters for the application of the IEL lymphogram to the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Design: Flow cytometry was performed on 117 sets of duodenal biopsies in 107 adult patients with active coeliac disease, long-term coeliac disease on a gluten free diet and a control group. The initial 95 samples were used for hypothesis generation for the subsequent samples comprising 12 patients with coeliac disease and 10 controls. Results: Rather than using single linear cut-offs for CD3 and T-cell receptor γδ (TCRγδ)+ve IELs, a discriminant function was identified as %CD3+ve IELs+2x(%TCRγδ+IELs)>100. This differentiated coeliac disease from control biopsies in the hypothesis generating group. These results were replicated in the validation group and found to be independent of histology in patients on long-term gluten free diet up to 12 years (combined sensitivity, 98.5%; specificity, 97.7%). Conclusions: Flow cytometric analysis of IELs is a highly sensitive and specific adjunct to serology and histological examination for the diagnosis of coeliac disease, even in individuals with coeliac disease following a gluten free diet who exhibit normal duodenal histology.

7.
J Psychosom Res ; 153: 110711, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Psychosocial factors likely play a substantial role in the well-being of those living with coeliac disease, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, however, little research has examined well-being in this cohort using an integrated socio-cognitive model. This study had two aims: (1) Examine changes in gastrointestinal symptoms, psychosocial factors, and well-being outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, quality of life [QoL]) associated with the pandemic, (2) Examine the interrelationship of these variables across timepoints using the Common Sense Model (CSM). METHODS: 1697 adults with coeliac disease (Time 1, pre-pandemic; 83.1% female, mean age = 55.8, SD = 15.0 years) and 674 follow-up participants (Time 2, pandemic; 82.8% female, mean age = 57.0, SD = 14.4 years) completed an online questionnaire. Hypotheses were tested using repeated measures MANOVA and cross-lagged panel model analyses. RESULTS: Participants reported improved QoL, and reduced gastrointestinal symptoms, negative illness perceptions and maladaptive coping from pre-pandemic to during the pandemic. There was no significant change in pain catastrophising or psychological distress. Cross-lagged effects showed gastrointestinal symptoms to predict negative illness perceptions, which in turn were predictive of poorer outcomes across all variables except pain catastrophising. Consistent with the CSM, there was a reciprocal relationship between illness perceptions and QoL over time. Maladaptive coping and pain catastrophising demonstrated limited predictive utility. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic appears to have had a small beneficial effect across several indices of well-being among adults with coeliac disease. Cross-lagged relationships highlight illness perceptions as a predictor of well-being outcomes and a potential target for psychosocial interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Celiac Disease , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Frontline Gastroenterol ; 13(1): 73-76, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561106

ABSTRACT

Recent interim guidance from the British Society of Gastroenterology, aligned to historical paediatric practice, advises a no-biopsy protocol (NBP) for adults with high anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG-IgA) titres and other clinical factors. A 7-year retrospective review identified 433 patients with positive tTG-IgA. Of these 433, 98 (23%) fulfilled the high titre criteria for an NBP which may have reduced endoscopic burden on the service. A high titre versus low titre translated in a 95% versus 75% histological confirmation of coeliac disease (p<0.01). The addition of anti-endomysial antibody analyses impacted minimally on these predictive rates. Our data support an NBP approach for selected patients. Of concern, however, was the finding that a third of patients with positive titres were not referred for a biopsy despite national guidance at the time advocating it. A clear message needs to be transmitted that the NBP is only for those with high titre, as opposed to any tTG-IgA positivity.

9.
Frontline Gastroenterol ; 12(7): 543-544, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533065
10.
Frontline Gastroenterol ; 12(7): 586-592, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A gluten-free (GF) diet is the only treatment for coeliac disease (CD), non-adherence to the diet is associated with greater morbidity. The study aimed to examine the effect of a telephone clinic, designed to increase GF dietary knowledge and adherence, in adults with CD. METHODS: A prospective study of 125 patients with histologically confirmed CD. Patients, not adhering to a GF diet (n=30), engaged in a personalised telephone clinic. Validated questionnaires were used to assess GF dietary adherence (Coeliac Disease Adherence Test; CDAT), knowledge of GF foods and CD-related quality of life (QoL). GF dietary adherence was assessed up to 12 months post telephone clinic. The control group completed the questionnaires only. RESULTS: GF dietary adherence (CDAT) median scores significantly improved at 3 and 6 months after the telephone clinic compared with baseline (16, 13 and 13, respectively, p<0.01). Reassuringly, the dietary burden QoL score remained similar to baseline values. No change in CDAT scores were observed in the control group. Change in GF dietary knowledge score was associated with improved GF dietary adherence CDAT score (r=-0.22; p=0.039). At 9 and 12 months, CDAT scores were similar to baseline values. CONCLUSIONS: Telephone clinics have a positive impact on dietary knowledge and GF dietary adherence in adults with CD, promoting health-benefitting behaviours in those previously not adhering to a GF diet. The study highlights the need for patients to have regular follow-up, with targeted reviews for those not adhering to a GF diet.

12.
J Transl Autoimmun ; 4: 100120, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on global health. DESIGN: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with coeliac disease was assessed in the present review. RESULTS: The incidence of coeliac disease and the problems associated with coeliac disease increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adherence to the diet is crucial for the patient's health and quality of life since the only approved therapy for coeliac disease is a gluten withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: A gluten-free diet should be promoted by the therapeutic team and implemented among these categories of patients.

13.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(2): 127-130, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357645

ABSTRACT

Coeliac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune-mediated gluten sensitive enteropathy, with a prevalence of around 1%. While the incidence of CD has increased over the last 2 decades, many cases still remain undiagnosed. The presentation of CD is variable and can be subtle, with it being important to explore both gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal features. The cornerstone of management is adherence to a strict gluten free diet, which requires support and education from an expert gastrointestinal dietitian. Persisting symptoms in individuals requires re-evaluation, with repeat duodenal biopsies sometimes required. Refractory CD affects a small subset of individuals with CD, requiring specialist input.


Subject(s)
Celiac Disease , Biopsy , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/therapy , Diet, Gluten-Free , England/epidemiology , Humans , State Medicine
14.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(7): 2771-2791, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333087

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) is the latest global pandemic. COVID-19 is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets and, apart from respiratory symptoms, patients often present with gastrointestinal symptoms and liver involvement. Given the high percentage of COVID-19 patients that present with gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS), in this review, we report a practical up-to-date reference for the physician in their clinical practice with patients affected by chronic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases (inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease, chronic liver disease) at the time of COVID-19. First, we summarised data on the origin and pathogenetic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2. Then, we performed a literature search up to December 2020 examining clinical manifestations of GI involvement. Next, we illustrated and summarised the most recent guidelines on how to adhere to GI procedures (endoscopy, liver biopsy, faecal transplantation), maintaining social distance and how to deal with immunosuppressive treatment. Finally, we focussed on some special conditions such as faecal-oral transmission and gut microbiota. The rapid accumulation of information relating to this condition makes it particularly essential to revise the literature to take account of the most recent publications for medical consultation and patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastroenterologists , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325744

ABSTRACT

Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare autoimmune disease characterised by axial stiffness and episodic painful spasms. It is associated with additional autoimmune diseases and cerebellar ataxia. Most patients with SPS have high levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies. The aetiology of SPS remains unclear but autoimmunity is thought to play a major part. We have previously demonstrated overlap between anti-GAD ataxia and gluten sensitivity. We have also demonstrated the beneficial effect of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in patients with anti-GAD ataxia. Here, we describe our experience in the management of 20 patients with SPS. The mean age at symptom onset was 52 years. Additional autoimmune diseases were seen in 15/20. Nineteen of the 20 patients had serological evidence of gluten sensitivity and 6 had coeliac disease. Fourteen of the 15 patients who had brain imaging had evidence of cerebellar involvement. Twelve patients improved on GFD and in seven GFD alone was the only treatment required long term. Twelve patients had immunosuppression but only three remained on such medication. Gluten sensitivity plays an important part in the pathogenesis of SPS and GFD is an effective therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Food Intolerance/complications , Glutens/adverse effects , Stiff-Person Syndrome/complications , Adult , Aged , Female , Food Intolerance/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Stiff-Person Syndrome/diagnostic imaging
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