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1.
Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift ; 91(4):167-181, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072228

ABSTRACT

Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) is the leading health concern in calves during the first weeks of their lives. In this narrative review, the potential for pathogen-oriented approaches for NCD is discussed. The literature on NCD clearly shows substantial differences in spread and characteristics between the major NCD pathogens, making pathogen-oriented approaches possible, justifying the use of etiological diagnostics. For enterotoxic Escherichia coli, colostrum delivery and dam vaccination, biosecurity around calving and antimicrobial therapy are key. Both for bovine coronavirus (BCV) and bovine rotavirus (BRV), biosecurity and disinfection, dam vaccination in combination with adequate and prolonged colostrum delivery are the essentials. However, a different focus concerning biosecurity is necessary given the airborne spread of BCV and higher environmental persistence of BRV. For an effective Cryptosporidium spp. control, the use of disinfectants that kill oocysts is crucial. Evidence supporting the prophylactic use of halofuginone lactate to reduce shedding and diarrhea, is available, but in terms of biosecurity, attention should be placed on the proper use of this product. In case of a Salmonella enterica outbreak, antimicrobial use remains important, and biosecurity wise, attention should be paid to shedding of periparturient cows in the calving pen and administration of infected colostrum. Both for S. enterica and cryptosporidiosis, farm staff should be informed on how to protect themselves against these zoonotic infections. Nutritional factors play an additional role within NCD. Improper nutrition management can induce diarrhea or can further enhance infectious NCD through osmosis or dysbiosis. In conclusion, the suggested pathogen-oriented approaches can aid to economize labor and financial investments, limit the environmental impact of NCD control and prevention and valorize tailor-made farm advisory work.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010119

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a severe respiratory disease threatening pregnant women, which increases the possibility of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Several recent studies have demonstrated the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect the mother enterocytes, disturbing the gut microbiota diversity. The aim of this study was to characterize the entero-mammary microbiota of women in the presence of the virus during delivery. Fifty mother-neonate pairs were included in a transversal descriptive work. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in nasopharyngeal, mother rectal swabs (MRS) and neonate rectal swabs (NRS) collected from the pairs, and human colostrum (HC) samples collected from mothers. The microbiota diversity was characterized by high-throughput DNA sequencing of V3-16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from HC, MRS, and NRS. Data were analyzed with QIIME2 and R. Our results indicate that several bacterial taxa are highly abundant in MRS positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. These bacteria mostly belong to the Firmicutes phylum; for instance, the families Bifidobacteriaceae, Oscillospiraceae, and Microbacteriaceae have been previously associated with anti-inflammatory effects, which could explain the capability of women to overcome the infection. All samples, both positive and negative for SARS-CoV-2, featured a high abundance of the Firmicutes phylum. Further data analysis showed that nearly 20% of the bacterial diversity found in HC was also identified in MRS. Spearman correlation analysis highlighted that some genera of the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla were negatively correlated with MRS and NRS (p < 0.005). This study provides new insights into the gut microbiota of pregnant women and their potential association with a better outcome during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Bacteria/genetics , Female , Firmicutes/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nutrients ; 14(12)2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964041

ABSTRACT

Despite the well-known benefits of breastfeeding and the World Health Organization's breastfeeding recommendations for COVID-19 infected mothers, whether these mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed is under debate due to concern about the risk of virus transmission and lack of evidence of breastmilk's protective effects against the virus. Here, we provide a molecular basis for the breastfeeding recommendation through mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics and glycosylation analysis of immune-related proteins in both colostrum and mature breastmilk collected from COVID-19 patients and healthy donors. The total protein amounts in the COVID-19 colostrum group were significantly higher than in the control group. While casein proteins in COVID-19 colostrum exhibited significantly lower abundances, immune-related proteins, especially whey proteins with antiviral properties against SARS-CoV-2, were upregulated. These proteins were detected with unique site-specific glycan structures and improved glycosylation diversity that are beneficial for recognizing epitopes and blocking viral entry. Such adaptive differences in milk from COVID-19 mothers tended to fade in mature milk from the same mothers one month postpartum. These results suggest that feeding infants colostrum from COVID-19 mothers confers both nutritional and immune benefits, and provide molecular-level insights that aid breastmilk feeding decisions in cases of active infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Milk, Human , Breast Feeding/methods , Colostrum/chemistry , Female , Humans , Infant , Milk, Human/metabolism , Mothers , Pregnancy , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Pharmacognosy Journal ; 14(3):591-597, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957551

ABSTRACT

Currently, Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is an enteric pathogen of the Alphacoronavirus-1 species that causes mild to severe diarrhea in puppies. The pathogenesis of this infection will cause severe lymphopenia and lead to death in puppies. This study aimed to determine the administration of probiotics on TNF-α expression, histological findings of the liver and lung in mice infected with CCoV. A total of 28 mice were randomly assigned into seven treatment groups, i.e. (C-) placebo;(C+) active CCoV vaccine induction;(T1) CCov + Isopronosin;(T2) CCoV + Lactobacillus acidophilus probiotic;(T3) CCoV + Lactobacillus Acidophylus and Bifidobacterium probiotics;(T4) CCoV + colustrum fermentation probiotic;(T5) CCoV + ginger, turmeric and ginger probiotics. Thereafter, the expression of TNF-α in the duodenum was stained using immunohistochemistry, liver and lung were stained using hematoxylin eosin. The data were analyzed using the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey test with a significance level (p<0.05). TNF-α expression on T4 and T5 decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to C+, T1, T2 and T3. Histologic findings of the liver in the C- and T4 groups showed normal features in the central vein. On the other hand, glycogen accumulation was found in hepatocyte cells, hemorrhage with sinusoid dilation, lymphocyte infiltration in centro lobular area in group C+. Lung histology showed normal features of sinusoids and alveolar septa in groups C- and T4. Meanwhile, intra-alveolar hemorrhage was found with neutrophil cell infiltration and fibrin plasma accumulation in group C+. In conclusion, colostrum fermentation probiotics can reduce TNF-α expression in the duodenum and improve the liver and lung physiology in mice infected with CCoV.

5.
International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research ; 14(3):1-8, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1929014

ABSTRACT

The Covid sickness (COVID19) pandemic is quickly expanding across the world. There is no legitimate therapy for this illness except for by supporting our resistance we can battle with this infection so to battle Coronavirus contamination the famous dietary enhancement bovine colostrums having bunches of utilization to battle against viral disease. It go about an immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, Antibacterial effect. The most significant part found in colostrum is lactoferrin which is a 80 KDA glycoprotein containing around 703 amino corrosive and having its capacity to tie with iron by restricting with iron, lactoferrin retain iron from the climate and forestalls viral heap of pathogens. The Covid didn't get authoritative therapy because of viral transformation;this review is accommodating for helping the invulnerable framework in coronavirus patient.

6.
Clinical Nutrition Open Science ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1914872

ABSTRACT

This review focused on compiling, summarizing, updating the information available on the colostrum and its health benefits. Colostrum is the first milk secreted by the mammary gland of female mammals immediately after birth during the first few days, and its composition differs from the mature milk. It ensures immune support for newborns in the early stages of life. It is a divine immune gift from the Creator. Mammalian colostrum contains unique components rich in nutritional macronutrients (proteins, fat, carbohydrates) and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants) and many bioactive substances like antimicrobial factors (Igs, LF, LP, LZ, cytokines) and growth factors (EGF, TGFα and β, IGF-1 and 2, FGF, PDGF, GH), which are necessary to stimulate the immune systems that newborns need for health and survival life. Physicochemical composition changes dramatically in the first few days that distinguish it from mature milk. This reverses an essential difference in their biological function as fractional sources or for health-promotion. So it is considered one of the best natural food supplements consumed within various life stages. Colostrum is used to treat cancer, AIDS, polio, heart disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Hyper-immune colostrum or milk collected from cows immunized by SARS-CoV-2, it can grant protection short-term from infection in humans and can be used as an alternative way to produce specific antibodies against CoVID-19 until effective excess vaccines against new mutations can be available. Likewise, colostrum and its components contribute as a non-drug alternative to the clinical management of CoVID-19. Also, lactoferrin and its supplements are effective in preventing and treating people with coronavirus infection. Therefore, due to these previous multiple functions, colostrum is considered as a natural food, called miracle immune milk, and used as a medicine.

7.
J Virol ; 96(14): e0047722, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909579

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms of colostrum-mediated virus transmission are difficult to elucidate because of the absence of experimental animal models and the difficulties in tissue sample collection from mothers in the peripartum period. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a reemerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that has catastrophic impacts on the global pig industry. PEDV primarily infects neonatal piglets by multiple routes, especially 1- to 2-day-old neonatal piglets. Here, our epidemiological investigation and animal challenge experiments revealed that PEDV could be vertically transmitted from sows to neonatal piglets via colostrum, and CD3+ T cells in the colostrum play an important role in this process. The results showed that PEDV colonizing the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of orally immunized infected sows could be transferred to CD3+ T cells located just beneath the IECs. Next, PEDV-carrying CD3+ T cells, with the expression of integrin α4ß7 and CCR10, migrate from the intestine to the mammary gland through blood circulation. Arriving in the mammary gland, PEDV-carrying CD3+ T cells could be transported across mammary epithelial cells (MECs) into the lumen (colostrum), as illustrated by an autotransfusion assay and an MECs/T coculture system. The PEDV-carrying CD3+ T cells in colostrum could be interspersed between IECs of neonatal piglets, causing intestinal infection via cell-to-cell contact. Our study demonstrates for the first time that colostrum-derived CD3+ T cells comprise a potential route for the vertical transmission of PEDV. IMPORTANCE The colostrum represents an important infection route for many viruses. Here, we demonstrate the vertical transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) from sows to neonatal piglets via colostrum. PEDV colonizing the intestinal epithelial cells could transfer the virus to CD3+ T cells located in the sow intestine. The PEDV-carrying CD3+ T cells in the sow intestine, with the expression of integrin α4ß7 and CCR10, arrive at the mammary gland through blood circulation and are transported across mammary epithelial cells into the lumen, finally leading to intestinal infection via cell-to-cell contact in neonatal piglets. Our study not only demonstrates an alternative route of PEDV infection but also provides an animal model of vertical transmission of human infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Colostrum , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Colostrum/virology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Female , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/transmission , Swine Diseases/virology , T-Lymphocytes/virology
8.
J Anim Sci ; 100(8)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890963

ABSTRACT

Passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins from the cow to the calf is essential for calf health. The objective of this study was to determine if prepartum administration of a vaccine stimulates increased concentrations of colostral immunoglobulins of dairy cows beyond what is explained by vaccine-specific immunoglobulins. A prospective cohort study was conducted on a spring-calving commercial dairy farm that had a policy of only vaccinating cows with even ear tag numbers with a calf diarrhea vaccine, whereas cows with odd ear tag numbers were left unvaccinated. Cows in the vaccinated group (even ear tag numbers, n = 204) received a sensitizer and booster vaccination with a vaccine against bovine rotavirus (serotypes G6 and G10), bovine coronavirus, and E. coli having the K99 pili adherence factor. A sensitizer was given because the study vaccine was different from the vaccine previously used. Cows in the control group (odd ear tag numbers, n = 194) received a 2-mL subcutaneous sterile saline solution. Both groups received two treatments at a 3-wk interval, completing the treatments approximately 2 wk prior to the planned start of calving. During the calving period, technicians separated calves from cows immediately after parturition and prior to suckling, and cows were completely milked out within 6 h of parturition. Vaccine-specific, total, and nonvaccine-specific (total minus vaccine-specific) concentrations of immunoglobulin classes A, G1, G2a, and M (IgA, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgM, respectively) were quantified by mass spectrometry for 20 colostrum samples from each treatment group. Predicted mean non-vaccine-specific colostral IgM concentrations were 8.76 (95% CI = 7.18-10.67) and 5.78 (95% CI = 4.74-7.05) mg/mL for vaccinated and control cows, respectively (P = 0.005). Predicted mean non-vaccine-specific colostral IgG1 concentrations were 106.08 (95% CI = 92.07-120.08) and 95.30 (95% CI = 81.30-109.31) mg/mL among vaccinated and control cows, respectively; however, these means were not significantly different (P = 0.278). It is thus possible that the vaccine, in addition to specifically managing infectious calf diarrhea, may also have non-specific benefits by improving colostrum quality through increased non-vaccine-specific colostrum IgM concentrations. Further research is necessary to determine the mechanism for these preliminary findings, whether the effect may occur in other immunoglobulin classes, and what impacts it may have on calf health outcomes.


Unlike human babies, calves do not receive protective immune proteins (immunoglobulins) from the mother before birth, so a sufficient volume of immunoglobulin-rich colostrum of adequate quality must be consumed within hours of birth. It can be a challenge to meet this requirement for all dairy calves. Prior to calving, cows can be vaccinated with a vaccine against specific infectious causes of calf diarrhea to stimulate elevated concentrations of specific immunoglobulins in their colostrum, which is consumed by their calves to protect them until their own immune systems develop. We enrolled cows that were either vaccinated or not with a calf diarrhea vaccine and, using novel laboratory techniques, measured concentrations of immunoglobulin classes A, G, and M in their colostrum. As expected, vaccinated cows had elevated concentrations of vaccine-specific immunoglobulins in their colostrum. However, they also had elevated non-vaccine-specific concentrations of immunoglobulin M. The vaccine may therefore have stimulated a nonspecific increase in colostral immunoglobulin M concentrations. Further research is necessary to confirm the preliminary findings of the present study and determine the mechanism for this apparent nonspecific increase in colostral immunoglobulin M concentrations, whether it may occur in other immunoglobulin classes, and whether it may benefit calf health and growth.


Subject(s)
Colostrum , Vaccines , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cattle , Colostrum/chemistry , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/veterinary , Escherichia coli , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies
9.
Med Arch ; 76(1): 66-71, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792004

ABSTRACT

Background: Myalgia reflects generalized inflammation and cytokine response and can be the onset symptom of 36% of patients with COVID-19. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) levels in plasma and upper respiratory secretions directly correlate with the magnitude of viral replication, fever, and respiratory and systemic symptoms, including musculoskeletal clinical manifestations. Objective: The aim of our work is to report literature scientific investigation clinical protocol to reduce the immunomodulation and inflammatory response nutraceutical therapy associated with dexamethasone and how can reduce the expression of Interlukina-6(IL-6) and myalgia due to COVID-19. Methods: We searched in Pubmed and Cochrane the nautriceutical drugs to treat the immune modulation of organism to COVID-19. We put these keywords: immune inflammation, desease descriptions, epidemiology COVID-19; immunomodulations; IL-6; Rheumatic Symptoms; Joint; Musculoskeletal Disorders; dexamethasone; Polydatin; Zinc; Melatonin; N- Acetyl Cysteine; Colostrum; L- Glutamine; Vitamin D3. Results: We found 61 papers. All the authors analyze them. After the Analyze we suggest the use of response nutraceutical therapy associated with dexamethasone can reduce the expression of Interlukina-6(IL-6) and myalgia due to COVID-19. Conclusion: According the scientific literature nutraceutical therapy associated with dexamethasone can reduce the expression of Interlukina-6(IL-6) and myalgia due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Myalgia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 8, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breastmilk hand expression (BMHE) is recommended to promote lactation, relieve breast engorgement, and collect milk for future infant feedings. Resources to teach this skill are limited and infrequently developed in partnership with the obstetrical population. In collaboration with maternity care experts and individuals with recent breastfeeding experience, we designed a one-page toolkit that describes the process of BMHE and includes step-by-step instructions and images to illustrate the technique. This study aimed to evaluate the readability, clarity of content, layout, and informational value of this BMHE toolkit. METHODS: Individuals who intended to breastfeed, were currently breastfeeding, or had recently breastfed were electronically surveyed and completed a two-part survey that consisted of radio, multi-select, Likert scale, and open-ended questions. Part one captured sociodemographic factors, obstetrical history, and breastfeeding practices. Part two collected feedback on the BMHE toolkit. Participants were recruited electronically through social media and posters were circulated in antenatal and postnatal care settings in Ottawa, Canada between November 2020 and February 2021. RESULTS: Of the 123 participants, 117 (95.1%) had heard of hand expression prior to reviewing the toolkit and 99 (80.5%) had hand expressed before. Among the 48 participants who were no longer exclusively breastfeeding at the time of the survey, 22 (45.8%) had exclusively breastfed their infant for at least six months and 7 (14.6%) had discontinued exclusive breastfeeding within the first month. When asked about the BMHE toolkit, 118 (95.9%) participants said it was informative, 115 (93.5%) said it was easy to understand, and 114 (92.7%) said it was well laid-out. When asked about information seeking behaviours, participants indicated a preference for online resources (58.5%) and video resources (22.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The BMHE toolkit was well received by participants and the feedback was favourable overall. The survey feedback will be used to create a revised version of the toolkit that has been validated by the obstetrical patient population. Future research should focus on identifying implementation strategies to optimize the use of the toolkit and increase its effectiveness as an educational resource to teach participants correctly BMHE.


Subject(s)
Breast Milk Expression , Maternal Health Services , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant , Lactation , Milk, Human , Pregnancy
11.
Breastfeed Med ; 16(12): 987-994, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560382

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in colostrum from women who tested positive for the virus. Methods: Between March and September 2020 we obtained bilateral colostrum samples collected on spot cards within 48 hours of delivery from 15 new mothers who had previously tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Four of 15 women provided liquid colostrum, which was used for validating results obtained from spot cards. Archived bilateral colostrum samples collected from 8 women during 2011-2013 were used as pre-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) controls. All samples were tested for reactivity to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that measures SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgA, IgG, and IgM and for levels of 10 inflammatory cytokines (interferon-gamma [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin [IL]-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13) using a multiplex electrochemiluminescent sandwich assay. Results: Our validation studies indicate that the levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies and the associated cytokines measured in liquid colostrum are comparable to levels eluted from spot cards. Bilateral colostrum samples from 73%, 73%, and 33% of the 15 COVID-19 mothers exhibited IgA, IgG, and IgM reactivity to RBD, respectively. In addition, symptomatic COVID-19 mothers had statistically significant elevated levels of 4 of the 10 inflammatory markers (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12) compared to asymptomatic COVID-19 mothers. Conclusions: A strong humoral immune response is present in the colostrum of women who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 before delivering. The evolution and duration of the antibody response, as well as dynamics of the cytokine response, remain to be determined. Our results also indicate that future large-scale studies can be conducted with milk easily collected on paper spot cards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colostrum/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-4, 2021 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Early human milk provides protection against viral infections due to its high nutritional value, abundance of maternal antibodies and the specific role of lactoferrin (Lf). Lf blocks the early interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host cells by binding to specific cell receptors and has been proposed as a preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. This preliminary report aimed to investigate concentrations of Lf in early milk of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers versus non-infected controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a cohort of 13 SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers and 15 controls, breast milk concentrations of Lf were determined by ELISA on day 3 postpartum. Additionally, colostrum samples of infected mothers were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG determination using RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: No differences were found in breast milk Lf concentrations between SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers and controls. In a subgroup analysis, however, symptomatic mothers (n = 7) presented with lower breast milk Lf concentrations, as compared to asymptomatic mothers (p = .041) and healthy controls (p = .029). All milk samples tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Early human milk of infected mothers displayed IgA and IgG SARS-CoV-2 specific reactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed a different early breast milk Lf "profile" between COVID-19 symptomatic and asymptomatic mothers with the latter being at non-COVID levels (control group). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in any breast milk sample. Early human milk Lf levels are potentially influenced by the severity of maternal COVID-19 infection during pregnancy.

13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1888, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719732

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes severe respiratory tract infections in humans (COVID-19), has become a global health concern. Currently, several vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 are in clinical trials but approval of these vaccines is likely to take a long time before they are available for public use. In a previous report, the importance of passive immunity and how immunoglobulin (Ig)G collected from recovered coronavirus patients could help in the protection against COVID-19 and boost the immune system of new patients was reported. Passive immunity by immunoglobulin transfer is a concept employed by most mammals and bovine IgG has a role to play in human therapy. IgG is one of the major components of the immunological activity found in cow's milk and colostrum. Heterologous transfer of passive immunity associated with the consumption of bovine immune milk by humans has been investigated for decades for its immunological activity against infections. This short review focuses on passive immunity and how microfiltered raw immune milk or colostrum collected from cows vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 could provide short-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and could be used as an option until a vaccine becomes commercially available.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drinking/immunology , Immunization, Passive/methods , Milk/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Vaccination , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Cattle , Colostrum/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/immunology
14.
Breastfeed Med ; 15(8): 492-494, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639739

ABSTRACT

Aim: The objective of our study was to determine whether the SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers transmit the virus to their hand-expressed colostrum. Methods: This is an observational prospective study that included pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR test on a nasopharyngeal swab at the moment of childbirth and who wanted to breastfeed their newborns. A colostrum sample was obtained from the mothers by manual self-extraction. To collect the samples, the mothers wore surgical masks, washed their hands with an 85% alcohol-based gel, and washed their breast with gauze that was saturated with soap and water. Results: We obtained seven colostrum samples from different mothers in the first hours postdelivery. SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any of the colostrum samples obtained in our study. Conclusion: In our study, breast milk was not a source of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Hand expression (assuring that a mask is used and that appropriate hygienic measures are used for the hands and the breast), when direct breastfeeding is not possible, appears to be a safe way of feeding newborns of mothers with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Breast Feeding/methods , Breast Milk Expression/methods , Colostrum/virology , Coronavirus Infections , Milk, Human/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Neonatal Screening/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
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