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1.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 55:16, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1716597

ABSTRACT

Social distancing, regular handwashing, and self-isolation are being touted as preventive measures to tackle the spread of COVID-19. But, for the majority of Indians, complying with such norms are privileges that they cannot afford.

2.
CAB Abstracts; 2022.
Preprint in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: ppcovidwho-345451

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 50 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed globally as of November 2020. Evidence is rapidly emerging on the epidemiology of COVID-19, and its impact on individuals and potential burden on health services and society. Between 10-35% of people with COVID-19 may experience post-acute long Covid. This currently equates to between 8,129 and 28,453 people in Scotland. Some of these people will require rehabilitation to support their recovery. Currently, we do not know how to optimally configure community rehabilitation services for people with long Covid.

3.
African Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 16(2):55-62, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056736

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare providers have been at the frontline of the response to the COVID-19 disease. Many of them have contracted the disease, and some of them already dead. This study assessed the knowledge, compliance with preventive measures and determined the relationship between knowledge and practice of preventive strategies to COVID-19 among nurses working in a selected hospital in South-South Nigeria. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design guided the study. Census method guided the recruitment of all the 378 nurses in the hospital who met the study's inclusion criteria.

4.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):802-806, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2055475

ABSTRACT

Objective: To introduce the principle and method ofa-Sutte model, establish a a-Sutte model by using software R, compare the fitting and prediction effects of thea-Sutte model and multiple seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model, SARIMA model and provides reference for the application of thea-Sutte model in epidemic prediction.

5.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):850-854, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055474

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and explore source of infection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases imported through an inbound air flight from Kenya to Guangzhou, China.

6.
Land ; 11(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055288

ABSTRACT

We investigated how the perceived quality of natural spaces influenced levels of visitation and felt benefits during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia via a nationally representative online and telephone survey conducted on 12-26 October (Social Research Centre's Life in AustraliaTM panel aged > 18 years, 78.8% response, n=3043). Our sample was restricted to those with complete information (n=2940). Likert scale responses to 18 statements regarding the quality of local natural spaces that participants preferred to visit were classified into eight quality domains: access;aesthetics;amenities;facilities;incivilities;potential usage;safety;and social. These domains were then summed into an overall nature quality score (mean=5.8, range=0-16). Associations between these quality variables and a range of nature visitation and felt benefits were tested using weighted multilevel models, adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic confounders. Compared with participants in the lowest perceived nature quality quintile, those in the highest quality quintile had higher odds of spending at least 2 h in their preferred local nature space in the past week (Odds Ratio [OR]=3.40;95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=2.38-4.86), of visiting their preferred nature space almost every day in the past four weeks (OR=3.90;2.77-5.47), and of reporting increased levels of nature visitation in comparison with before the COVID-19 pandemic (OR=3.90;2.54-6.00). Participants in the highest versus lowest perceived nature quality quintile also reported higher odds of feeling their visits to nature enabled them to take solace and respite during the pandemic (OR=9.49;6.73-13.39), to keep connected with their communities (OR=5.30;3.46-8.11), and to exercise more often than they did before the pandemic (OR=3.88;2.57-5.86). Further analyses of each quality domain indicated time in and frequency of visiting nature spaces were most affected by potential usage and safety (time in nature was also influenced by the level of amenity). Feelings of connection and solace were most affected by potential usage and social domains. Exercise was most influenced by potential usage, social and access domains. In conclusion, evidence reported in this study indicates that visits to nature and various health-related benefits associated with it during the COVID-19 pandemic were highly contingent upon numerous qualities of green and blue spaces.

7.
Economic Journal of Development Issues ; 29(30):59-80, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2054875

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the COVID-19 and its shocks on macro-economic variables in Nepalese economy based on the secondary data sets of macroeconomics variable pre- and post-COVID-19 by applying descriptive statistical methods. The growth of COVID-19 is unpredictably spreading all over the world. Its hot spot has been in the South Asia, particularly in Delhi and Nepal. Its correlation between COVID 19 cases and per capita GDP is positive. In South Asia, its growth rate is higher than its recovery indicating inefficiency of health system. Similarly, its shocks are so strong to influence trend, pattern and structure of macro-economic variables. Economic growth declined at 0.1percent in 2020 with falling outputs of agriculture, industry and service sectors. Unemployment rate reaches at 27.8 percent from 11.4 percent. The poor population increased by 7.47 percent. Besides, residential income and household income has fallen along with sharp decline in labor and remittance income. Lastly, its negative implication is found in foreign exchange reserve and balance of payment, trade and revenue. Thus, the COVID-19 and its shocks are undesired fluctuations and impose implications in Nepalese economy. Therefore, Nepal should improve health care system and vaccine availability for reducing the effects of pandemic and the lockdown for stability and recovery of the economy and also for welfare of the poor.

8.
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare ; 15(3):257-275, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2051860

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Ostracism is being socially ignored or excluded by others. Ostracism leads to serious psychological distress and health issues in the young adults being ostracized. However, there are no psychometrically designed instruments to measure this phenomenon in young adults. This study aims to develop a scale that measures ostracism efficiently and establishes the scale's psychometric properties. Design/methodology/approach: The research design used for the study is "a mixed-method study using non-experimental research with an exploratory sequential approach and instrument development design." For the formation of the item pool, theoretical evidence was collected and focus group discussions were conducted. Afterward, content validity was established with the help of subject matter experts, followed by Velicer's minimum average partial method and maximum likelihood factor analysis to form the instrument's factorial structure. Findings: Velicer's minimum average partial method and maximum likelihood factor analysis made two factors as follows: ostracism experience and psychological effect. The instrument developed has a high value of alpha reliability i.e. a = 0.97 and a = 0.96, a = 0.92 for the subscales, respectively. Research limitations/implications: The sample used for the research was enough to run the analysis, but future studies can go for a more extensive and more diverse sample. The sample was based solely on university students. The current research focused only on the target of the phenomenon, and the whole research process was conducted online because of the Covid-19 pandemic going on. The scale developed can be used in several settings to find out if the individual is being ostracized or not. Practical implications: The scale's most important implication is in the colleges and universities where young adults are found and face this problem daily. Likewise, psychologists can also use it in clinical settings. The other important implication of this scale is that it is opening a route to future research as different variables can be studied in ostracism such as depression, physical health and anxiety. Social implications: Ostracism is a hidden evil in societies that is not usually talked about. When people are not given equal importance in groups or settings, it leads to serious psychological issues in those individuals. This scale will in the identification of the problem that will lead to a proper solution to this evil. Originality/value: This work is original and not copied from anywhere. The research was conducted with the sole purpose of developing a scale on the ostracism experiences in young adults. The data is collected in the form of online surveys. The current scale is an attempt at developing a more reliable and valid scale that can be used in social settings.

9.
Virus Evolution ; 8(veac080), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2051563

ABSTRACT

The first SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) to be designated was lineage B.1.1.7, later labelled by the World Health Organization as Alpha. Originating in early autumn but discovered in December 2020, it spread rapidly and caused large waves of infections worldwide. The Alpha variant is notable for being defined by a long ancestral phylogenetic branch with an increased evolutionary rate, along which only two sequences have been sampled. Alpha genomes comprise a well-supported monophyletic clade within which the evolutionary rate is typical of SARS-CoV-2. The Alpha epidemic continued to grow despite the continued restrictions on social mixing across the UK and the imposition of new restrictions, in particular, the English national lockdown in November 2020. While these interventions succeeded in reducing the absolute number of cases, the impact of these non-pharmaceutical interventions was predominantly to drive the decline of the SARS-CoV-2 lineages that preceded Alpha. We investigate the only two sampled sequences that fall on the branch ancestral to Alpha. We find that one is likely to be a true intermediate sequence, providing information about the order of mutational events that led to Alpha. We explore alternate hypotheses that can explain how Alpha acquired a large number of mutations yet remained largely unobserved in a region of high genomic surveillance: an under-sampled geographical location, a non-human animal population, or a chronically infected individual. We conclude that the latter provides the best explanation of the observed behaviour and dynamics of the variant, although the individual need not be immunocompromised, as persistently infected immunocompetent hosts also display a higher within-host rate of evolution. Finally, we compare the ancestral branches and mutation profiles of other VOCs and find that Delta appears to be an outlier both in terms of the genomic locations of its defining mutations and a lack of the rapid evolutionary rate on its ancestral branch. As new variants, such as Omicron, continue to evolve (potentially through similar mechanisms), it remains important to investigate the origins of other variants to identify ways to potentially disrupt their evolution and emergence.

10.
Gender and Development ; 30(1/2):217-246, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2050957

ABSTRACT

India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), in the last 15 years, has evolved as the world's largest employer of the last resort. This social protection, specifically designed as a demand-driven automatic employment stabiliser to enable households to cope with livelihood shocks, offers 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to all rural households. The budget for this unique legislative entitlement in a developing country was nearly doubled from US$8 billion in 2019-20 to $15 billion in 2020-21 to partially offset the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns. After the first pandemic wave, NREGA provided employment to 76 million households - more than a third of all rural Indian families. Even though women have consistently worked more than half the NREGA person-days annually, in the midst of the pandemic women's share of employment declined by 2 per cent in 2020-21. However, this may have been a temporary decrease due to the unprecedented mass reverse exodus of urban migrants to their rural villages. Still, state-level analysis in this research highlights the persistent under-utilisation of NREGA by women in the poorer states of the Indo-Gangetic plain. On the other hand, the southern states have higher participation of women due to a combination of factors including better human development outcomes, higher wages, and sometimes better child-care facilities at worksites, which are necessary nationwide remedies. In particular, in the state of Kerala the novel integration of the government-initiated Kudumbashree community self-help women's groups with NREGA has led to the feminisation of the programme. This convergence provides important insights on the significance of women's participation in the decentralised management of NREGA to dilute both gender-intensive and gender-exclusive barriers, which could be fruitfully replicated nationwide.

11.
South African Geographical Journal ; 104(3):382-396, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2050816

ABSTRACT

The Parkrun, a community-based, shared leisure-time activity, allows people to come together to run, jog or walk, and interact socially, in park-like surroundings. Although the Parkrun started with only 13 participants in 2004, at Bushy Park, London, United Kingdom, it is now staged in 23 countries across the world, making it is a global 'social movement'. Growth has been driven by its inclusive policy, notably its focus on attracting people with traditionally low levels of physical activity. Other factors contributing to sustained interest are accessibility, the supportive social environment, the natural setting and the volunteer system. Parkrun offers opportunities beyond fitness: for socializing, creating a vibrant community life and supporting community involvement. All of which instil a sense of place in the participant and make for its popularity. Despite this, the Parkrun movement suffers from academic neglect with most sport literature focussing on mega events. This study seeks to partly address that gap by scrutinizing the four largest Parkrun events in South Africa, with a specific focus on data from 2019 and 2020, incorporating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and allowing the voices of Parkrun participants, as recorded in the relevant blogs, to be heard.

12.
Development Southern Africa ; 39(5):722-737, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2050752

ABSTRACT

This article presents the results of the five waves of the National Income Dynamics Study - Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM) on food security between May 2020 and May 2021. Despite significant investments in social protection, food insecurity and household and child hunger remained stubbornly high. We conclude that given the protracted nature of the pandemic, slow economic recovery, household and child hunger have stabilised at higher levels than before the pandemic. The phasing out of emergency relief coupled with the constrained economic situation, are some of the reasons why levels of food insecurity and hunger are likely to remain high in the near future. Strict lockdown regulations also reduced employment and income from informal economic activities. Social support for vulnerable individuals and households remain an urgent priority. Continuing support targeted at households with children is particularly important given the dire consequences of enduring hunger for stunting, and on children's long-term development.

13.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management ; 52:275-284, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2049492

ABSTRACT

This study set out to investigate the effects of country image (CI), subjective knowledge (SK) of COVID-19, and destination trust (DT) and their relationship to travel attitude and visit intention during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research used Canada and the USA as cases to investigate people's domestic and international travel intentions. It tested the travel attitude and visit intention of domestic residents and international travellers, specifically Canadians travelling domestically versus Americans travelling domestically, and Canadians travelling to the USA versus Americans travelling to Canada. Two timeframes (i.e., one year vs. two years) were examined to further reveal the underlying relationships between those important constructs. First, this study supports findings that CI positively influences travel attitude and that DT is more prominent compared to CI under the adverse conditions of an ongoing pandemic. The indirect impact of CI through DT on travel attitude is significantly greater than the direct impact of CI. Second, it confirms that SK of COVID-19 negatively influences both domestic and international travel attitude. However, the impact of SK on DT varies with the risk of the domestic environment. Third, there were no direct impacts of CI, SK, and DT on domestic visit intention.

14.
Companion ; : 17-19, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046845
15.
Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 70(February):20-22, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2046405

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines have been rolled out recently in several parts of the world. Little is known about the post-vaccination experience outside of clinical trial conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the adverse effects and infection rate of vaccinated people in a community scenario. It will help to educate the public, dispel misinformation and reduce vaccine hesitancy. Aim and Objectives: Assessing total beneficiaries of COVID-19 vaccination and finding among them COVID-19 infection and AEFI after vaccination. Subject and Methods: Cross sectional Study at COVID-19 Vaccination centre at DCH in Mumbai, since 1st February2021-31st July 2021, Data was collected by calling telephonically the registered beneficiaries in Vaccination Centre, data was collected and analysed in MS-excel sheet and SPSS using CHI-square test.

16.
Africa Health ; 43(3):10-11, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046311

ABSTRACT

In Africa, there is frequently an extreme need for nurses and other healthcare professionals. Overcrowding, a lack of administrative oversight, and a lack of resources are all problems in health settings. Health professionals may develop psychological damage referred to as "insufficient resource trauma" as a result of these difficulties, which can lower morale and motivation. Such trauma reduces the standard of treatment provided and causes professional "burn-out," a problem that has become more significant in the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. One of the nurses who received training in PSBH-N in 2006 was promoted to the position of MoH Nursing Director by 2019. This nurse reflected on her personal experience and said, "The nurses trained in PSBH are among the top nurses in the country today," when she learned of the new PSBH training for MoH QAU employees. In order to train all 877 registered nurses and 373 licensed practical nurses (LPNs) in the nation during the following three to five years, the director requested that LeBoHA host PSBH-N workshops. The countrywide rollout's training and evaluation are now under progress. Priority setting may result from centralized, "top-down," problem-solving techniques that are not always appropriate for the district. A poll of healthcare professionals in South African hospitals revealed that administrators of hospitals were regarded as effective leaders if their leadership style encouraged engagement and problem-solving. An emphasis on a decentralised and egalitarian (equity-fostering) approach, where problem-solving is the duty of all health workers, is emphasized in a national quality assurance plan that includes PSBH.

17.
JCO Global Oncology ; 7(1286-1305):1286-1305, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046267

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There are scarce data to aid in prognostication of the outcome of critically ill cancer patients with COVID-19. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the mortality of critically ill cancer patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We searched online databases and manually searched for studies in English that reported on outcomes of adult cancer patients with COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) or those with severe COVID-19 between December 2019 and October 2020. Risk of bias was assessed by the Modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. We also determined the odds of death for cancer patients versus noncancer patients, as also outcomes by cancer subtypes, presence of recent anticancer therapy, and presence of one or more comorbidities. Random-effects modeling was used. RESULTS: In 28 studies (1,276 patients), pooled mortality in cancer patients with COVID-19 admitted to an ICU was 60.2% (95% CI, 53.6 to 6.7;I2 = 80.27%), with four studies (7,259 patients) showing higher odds of dying in cancer versus noncancer patients (odds ratio 1.924;95% CI, 1.596 to 2.320). In four studies (106 patients) of patients with cancer and severe COVID-19, pooled mortality was 59.4% (95% CI, -39.4 to 77.5;I2 = 72.28%);in one study, presence of hematologic malignancy was associated with significantly higher mortality compared with nonhematologic cancers (odds ratio 1.878;95% CI, 1.171 to 3.012). Risk of bias was low. CONCLUSION: Most studies were reported before the results of trials suggesting the benefit of dexamethasone and tocilizumab, potentially overestimating mortality. The observed mortality of 60% in cancer patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU is not prohibitively high, and admission to the ICU should be considered for selected patients (registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020207209).

18.
Forced Migration Review ; 67:33-35, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046152

ABSTRACT

Significant variations in access to fundamental public health services during the COVID-19 epidemic have been revealed by recent study conducted in a number of different nations. States have an obligation to apply what they have learned from the present pandemic to remove existing obstacles. In many aspects, the COVID-19 pandemic fostered cooperation across nations and within communities in an effort to address dangers to the public's health and lessen the socioeconomic effects of the virus. Some good practices have emerged as a result of extensive advocacy and engagement with governments by a variety of actors. These include expanding free access to COVID-19 testing, treatment, and vaccines for all migrants, regardless of status, and allowing stranded migrants and those without visas to access basic services. They must consider the impact of this extraordinary situation and global public health emergency on those who continue to face barriers to accessing basic services, such as COVID-19 vaccines, as well as how this intersects with both individual and public health, even though these policy developments are to be welcomed, championed, and replicated. Public health initiatives could be jeopardized by enduring access impediments as well as fresh difficulties brought on by movement restrictions and lockdowns. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies conducted the study in eight nations: Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Sudan, Sweden, and the UK (and data from the Sahel region was also taken into consideration). The findings suggest that, in order to end the pandemic and guarantee that everyone has the chance to receive assistance in a respectful and supportive manner, inclusive approaches for connecting with and supporting migrants and refugees must be incorporated into national and local pandemic preparedness, response, and recovery plans. Public health hazards will persist if inclusive policies are not accompanied by operational guidelines to overcome barriers in practice.

19.
Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 70(February):14-19, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2045936

ABSTRACT

Background: Preliminary data highlights the importance of anticoagulation therapy in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism in SARS CoV-2 infection. There is insufficient data comparing the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and subcutaneous enoxaparin in the prophylactic management of COVID-19 associated thromboembolic disease, particularly in mild to moderate cases of COVID-19 infection. Objectives: The study was designed to investigate the efficacy of oral rivaroxaban as a prophylactic anticoagulant in mild to moderate SARS CoV-2 infection.

20.
Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research ; 13(3):709-719, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2045618

ABSTRACT

Background: World health organization declared covid-19 pandemic worldwide. Efforts are being made to increase the awareness about covid-19 in the general public and as well as in patients through various health education programs. Material and Methods: The study included 1000 individuals and was conducted by The Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Government Medical College, Patiala during the 6-month period from January 2021 to June 2021. Patient intentions, apprehensions, and reasons for not getting vaccinated were be assessed by questionnaire. All walk-in patients above 18yr of age were included. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the participants, 18 questions (including for knowledge, attitude, for practice) were included. The questions were directly asked from patients in their vernacular language along with demographic details and responses noted. Need of study: To spread the Knowledge about vaccination and the need for getting vaccinated so that hesitancy for covid-19 vaccination can be decreased and the severity of infection can be controlled. Awareness about vaccination is vitally important for developing effective control measures in a public health crisis.

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