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1.
Clinical Laboratory News ; 48(10):24-25, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2169107
2.
Eurosurveillance ; 28(2):1, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2167570

ABSTRACT

As the new year begins, one cannot help but recall the start of 2020, when the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China and public health experts and scientists realized that a situation with possible major impact worldwide was emerging. At this time, there were many uncertainties about the virus itself, its abilities to spread and the disease it might cause. Much progress has been made since and the impact of SARS-CoV-2 and the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is much better understood and mitigated. Irrespectively, at the start of 2023 there are new challenges. Following the lifting of the stringent COVID-19 measures (zero-COVID strategy) in Sep 2022 in China, the country is experiencing a massive surge of cases while the new, highly transmissible Omicron variant sublineage XBB.1.5 continues to spread at a high pace in parts of the US. Public health experts are watching and analyzing the situation in both China and the US closely. Based on 564 sequences collected since Dec 1, 2022 from China and deposited by Jan 3, 2022 in the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) EpiCoV database, there are no clear signs of new variants circulating in the country.

4.
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development ; 14(1):74-78, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2206447

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mortality data reveals much about the health of the population. Traditionally and universally, most epidemiological studies begin with mortality data. Mortality characteristics and the audit give a myriad of information. This helps to identify trends of mortality. Mortality audit of mortality data is essential to improve hospital services and helps in proper allocation of resources. Hence this study was conducted to identify the mortality characteristics of the patients admitted in the year 2021 in the Tertiary care hospital in South India. Material(s) and Method(s): This retrospective study was conducted after Institutional ethical clearance with mortality records pertaining to the patients admitted to Hangal Sri Kumareshwar Hospital and Medical Research Center, Bagalkot, Karnataka during the year 2021. The data retrieved included demographic characteristics like age and sex, place of residence, ward of admission and causes of death classified according to ICD 10th revision and analysed using percentages and chi-square test and a p value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant in all the tests. Result(s): Out of 592 deaths in 2021, 64.19% were males and 35.81% were females. Majority of the deaths (34.46%) occurred between the ages of 41 to 60 years followed by 61 to 80 years (27.20%). Communicable diseases contributed to 54.56% of the total deaths (p= 0.0022). Conclusion(s): Statistical analysis of causes of death from mortality statistics is the backbone of National health policy and planning of health programs. It monitors the trend in public health issues like infant mortality, maternal mortality, infectious diseases, accidents and suicides. Copyright © 2023, Institute of Medico-legal Publication. All rights reserved.

5.
Problemy Sotsialnoi Gigieny i Istoriia Meditsiny ; 30(6):1184-1194, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205963

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of new coronavirus infection continues affecting many areas of public life. Against the background of arising variations, occur changes in people's psychological condition and in belief systems and attitudes to many fields of human knowledge, including medicine. The purpose of the study is to evaluate potential effect of COVID-19 pandemic on developing civil liability of the population of the Russian Federation regarding anti-epidemic activities to fight infectious diseases.

6.
Bali Medical Journal ; 11(3):1987-1995, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2204174

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Telemedicine is a form of healthcare that uses technology to provide various health services. This method has been widely used during the COVID-19 pandemic when physical distancing is called. This systematic review aimed to review various uses of telemedicine on 11 databases using the PRISMA flowchart from January 1(st), 2020, to December 31(st), 2021. Methods: This review has been registered in PROSPERO (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record. php?RecordID=269809). The search terms are: "COVID-19," "Coronavirus," 'SARS-CoV-2," "2019-nCoV," "Telemedicine," "Telehealth," "Teleconsultation," "Telemonitoring,' "Telemanagement," "Teleconferencing," "Video conferencing," "Video consultation,""Virtual care,""Virtual service,""Virtualtreatment,""Remote treatment,""Remoteservice,""Remote consultation," "Digital care," 'Digital treatment," "Mobile health, and "E-health." The quality assessment used indexed databases for the SCOPUS, Web of Science (ESCI), and PubMed (PMC and Medline). Results: On initial scrutiny, 2.031.242 articles were obtained;after screening with inclusion and exclusion criteria, 17 articles were included. Only 4 articles reported the use of telemedicine for respiratory-related diseases patients;3 of these were COVID-19-related cases. Other 13 articles reported the use of telemedicine for admission, anamnesis, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and monitoring purposes for non-respiratory-related diseases. Methods applied include voice calls, video conferences, and specific software on computers and smartphones. There were no significant differences between telemedicine and the face-to-face method, although the lack of health providers' presence has been complained about in the prior method. Conclusion: From this review, telemedicine is a beneficial tool for delivering health services during the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Bioscience Trends ; 16(6):381-385, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202796

ABSTRACT

Targeting the 9 countries with the highest cumulative number of newly confirmed cases in the past year, we analyzed the case fatality ratio (CFR) among newly confirmed cases and the vaccination rate (two or more doses of vaccine per 100 people) in the United States of America (USA), India, France, Germany, Brazil, the Republic of Korea, Japan, Italy, and the United Kingdom (UK) for the period of 2020-2022. Data reveal a decrease in the CFR among newly confirmed cases since the beginning of 2022, when transmission of the Omicron variant predominates, and an increase in vaccination rates. The Republic of Korea had the lowest CFR among newly confirmed cases (0.093%) in 2022 and the highest vaccination rate (86.27%). Japan had the second highest vaccination rate (83.12%) and a decrease in the CFR among newly confirmed cases of 1.478% in 2020, 1.000% in 2021, and 0.148% in 2022;while the average estimated fatality ratio for seasonal influenza from 2015-2020 was 0.020%. Currently, most countries are now easing COVID-19-related restrictions and are exploring a shift in management of COVID-19 from an emerging infectious disease to a common respiratory infectious disease that can be treated as the equivalent of seasonal or regional influenza. However, compared to influenza, infection with the Omicron variant still has a higher fatality ratio, is more transmissible, and the size of future outbreaks cannot be accurately predicted due to the uncertainty of viral mutation. More importantly, as countries shift their response strategies to COVID-19, there is an urgent need at this time to clarify what the subsequent impacts on healthcare systems and new challenges will be, including the clinical response, the dissemination of scientific information, vaccination campaigns, the creation of future surveillance and response systems, the cost of treatments and vaccinations, and the flexible use of big data in healthcare systems.

8.
Viruses (1999-4915) ; 14(12):2603, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2200865

ABSTRACT

Freshwater mussels (Unionida) are among the world's most imperiled taxa, but the relationship between freshwater mussel mortality events and infectious disease is largely unstudied. We surveyed viromes of a widespread and abundant species (mucket, Actinonaias ligamentina;syn: Ortmanniana ligamentina) experiencing a mortality event of unknown etiology in the Huron River, Michigan, in 2019–2020 and compared them to viromes from mucket in a healthy population in the St. Croix River, Wisconsin and a population from the Clinch River, Virginia and Tennessee, where a mortality event was affecting the congeneric pheasantshell (Actinonaias pectorosa;syn: Ortmanniana pectorosa) population. We identified 38 viruses, most of which were associated with mussels collected during the Huron River mortality event. Viral richness and cumulative viral read depths were significantly higher in moribund mussels from the Huron River than in healthy controls from each of the three populations. Our results demonstrate significant increases in the number and intensity of viral infections for freshwater mussels experiencing mortality events, whereas individuals from healthy populations have a substantially reduced virome comprising a limited number of species at low viral read depths. [ FROM AUTHOR]

9.
Front Public Health ; 10:1066299, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199551

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has evolved beyond being a public health crisis as it has exerted worldwide severe economic impacts, triggering cascading failures in the global industrial network. Although certain powerful enterprises can remain its normal operation during this global shock, what's more likely to happen for the majority, especially those small- and medium-sized firms, is that they are experiencing temporary suspension out of epidemic control requirement, or even permanent closure due to chronic business losses. For those enterprises that sustain the pandemic and only suspend for a relatively short period, they could resume work and production when epidemic control and prevention conditions are satisfied and production and operation are adjusted correspondingly. In this paper, we develop a novel quantitative framework which is based on the classic susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) epidemiological model (i.e., the SIR model), containing a set of differential equations to capture such enterprises' reactions in response to COVID-19 over time. We fit our model from the resumption of work and production (RWP) data on industrial enterprises above the designated size (IEDS). By modeling the dynamics of enterprises' reactions, it is feasible to investigate the ratio of enterprises' state of operation at given time. Since enterprises are major economic entities and take responsibility for most output, this study could potentially help policy makers better understand the economic impact caused by the pandemic and could be heuristic for future prevention and resilience-building strategies against suchlike outbreaks of public health crises.

10.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:1056036, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198897

ABSTRACT

Humans have been challenged by infectious diseases for all of their recorded history, and are continually being affected even today. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled identification of, i) culture independent microbes, ii) emerging disease-causing pathogens, and iii) understanding of the genome architecture. This, in turn, has highlighted that pathogen/s are not a monolith, and thereby allowing for the differentiation of the wide-ranging disease symptoms, albeit infected by a primary pathogen. The conventional 'one disease - one pathogen' paradigm has been positively revisited by considering limited yet important evidence of the co-presence of multiple transcriptionally active microbes (TAMs), potential pathogens, in various infectious diseases, including the COVID-19 pandemic. The ubiquitous microbiota presence inside humans gives reason to hypothesize that the microbiome, especially TAMs, contributes to disease etiology. Herein, we discuss current evidence and inferences on the co-infecting microbes particularly in the diseases caused by the RNA viruses - Influenza, Dengue, and the SARS-CoV-2. We have highlighted that the specific alterations in the microbial taxonomic abundances (dysbiosis) is functionally connected to the exposure of primary infecting pathogen/s. The microbial presence is intertwined with the differential host immune response modulating differential disease trajectories. The microbiota-host interactions have been shown to modulate the host immune responses to Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infection, wherein the active commensal microbes are involved in the generation of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cells following the influenza virus infection. Furthermore, COVID-19 dysbiosis causes an increase in inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta, which might be one of the important predisposing factors for severe infection. Through this article, we aim to provide a comprehensive view of functional microbiomes that can have a significant regulatory impact on predicting disease severity (mild, moderate and severe), as well as clinical outcome (survival and mortality). This can offer fresh perspectives on the novel microbial biomarkers for stratifying patients for severe disease symptoms, disease prevention and augmenting treatment regimens.

11.
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 13(12):4-10, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2198401

ABSTRACT

Background: In times of an epidemic such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the public's knowledge and attitude toward the disease affects the ability to abide to different preventive measures. Aims and Objectives: (1) to assess the knowledge and awareness of the domestic helpers in a tribal population, (2) whether the domestic helpers practice appropriate preventative measures that are recommended by WHO. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was designed and carried out using questionnaire among rural domestic workers in Mizoram, above 14 years of age belonging to both Mizo and Non-Mizo ethnicity. Data were collected from 105 participants and analyzed through t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: Majority of the respondents had higher secondary level of education (78.1%) and 95.2% could identify COVID-19 as a communicable disease. Almost all the participants (97.1%) were afraid of infection and the majority (92.4%) had fear of dying with the disease. Three-fourth of the participants were working during the pandemic of which 44.8% had volunteered. Media (68.6%) was the most common source of information about the disease. The education level was significantly associated with knowledge and attitude scores whereas there were no significant differences with respect to the practice (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate an overall good KAP of the rural domestic workers. Since these workers move from house to house and also take care of the vulnerable, and that they themselves and the families, they work for may be at an increased risk of infection with COVID-19, these findings are important from a health campaign perspective. [ FROM AUTHOR]

12.
Eurosurveillance ; 28(2):1, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198368

ABSTRACT

With numbers of COVID-19 cases having substantially increased at the end of 2022 in China, some countries have started or expanded testing and genomic surveillance of travellers. We report screening results in Italy in late December 2022 of 556 flight passengers in provenance from two Chinese provinces. Among these passengers, 126 (22.7%) tested SARS-CoV-2 positive. Whole genome sequencing of 61 passengers' positive samples revealed Omicron variants, notably sub-lineages BA.5.2.48, BF.7.14 and BQ.1.1, in line with data released from China.

13.
Eurosurveillance ; 28(1):1, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198367

ABSTRACT

In 2022, a sevenfold increase in the number of notifiable invasive Streptococcus pyogenes (iGAS) infections among children aged 0–5 years was observed in the Netherlands compared with pre-COVID-19 pandemic years. Of 42 cases in this age group, seven had preceding or coinciding varicella zoster infections, nine were fatal. This increase is not attributable to a specific emm type. Vigilance for clinical deterioration as iGAS sign is warranted in young children, especially those with varicella zoster infection.

14.
Eurosurveillance ; 28(1):1, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198366

ABSTRACT

In the autumn of 2022, Denmark witnessed the second out-of-season epidemic of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) following widespread societal preventive measures implemented against the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic during 2020 and 2021. Admissions peaked at twice the level of pre-pandemic seasons. Especially infants below 6 months of age were affected, but also adults over 45 years of age. The current epidemic is dominated by RSV subtype B, unlike the major RSV summer epidemic in 2021 dominated by RSV subtype A.

15.
Eurosurveillance ; 28(1):1, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198365

ABSTRACT

Background During the COVID-19 pandemic, large-scale diagnostic testing and contact tracing have proven insufficient to promptly monitor the spread of infections. Aim To develop and retrospectively evaluate a system identifying aberrations in the use of selected healthcare services to timely detect COVID-19 outbreaks in small areas. Methods Data were retrieved from the healthcare utilisation (HCU) databases of the Lombardy Region, Italy. We identified eight services suggesting a respiratory infection (syndromic proxies). Count time series reporting the weekly occurrence of each proxy from 2015 to 2020 were generated considering small administrative areas (i.e. census units of Cremona and Mantua provinces). The ability to uncover aberrations during 2020 was tested for two algorithms: the improved Farrington algorithm and the generalised likelihood ratio-based procedure for negative binomial counts. To evaluate these algorithms' performance in detecting outbreaks earlier than the standard surveillance, confirmed outbreaks, defined according to the weekly number of confirmed COVID-19 cases, were used as reference. Performances were assessed separately for the first and second semester of the year. Proxies positively impacting performance were identified. Results We estimated that 70% of outbreaks could be detected early using the proposed approach, with a corresponding false positive rate of ca 20%. Performance did not substantially differ either between algorithms or semesters. The best proxies included emergency calls for respiratory or infectious disease causes and emergency room visits. Conclusion Implementing HCU-based monitoring systems in small areas deserves further investigations as it could facilitate the containment of COVID-19 and other unknown infectious diseases in the future.

16.
Infection and Drug Resistance ; 15:7651-7652, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2197663

ABSTRACT

Wenjing Liu,1 Yajie Wang,2 Hongli Sun1 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing Key Laboratory for Mechanisms Research and Precision Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Diseases, Beijing 100730, People's Republic of China;2Department of Clinical Laboratory, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100015, People's Republic of China Correspondence: Hongli Sun, Peking Union Medical College Hospital (Dongdan Campus), No. 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, People's Republic of China, Tel +86-1069159788, Fax +86-1069159766, Email [email protected] Yajie Wang, Department of Clinical Laboratory, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100015, People's Republic of China, Tel +86-13611269270, Email [email protected] View the original paper by Dr Liu and colleagues This is in response to the Letter to the Editor

17.
Science Advances ; 8(51):eadd7197, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193380

ABSTRACT

The oral protease inhibitor nirmatrelvir is of key importance for prevention of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To facilitate resistance monitoring, we studied severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) escape from nirmatrelvir in cell culture. Resistant variants harbored combinations of substitutions in the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). Reverse genetics revealed that E166V and L50F + E166V conferred high resistance in infectious culture, replicon, and Mpro systems. While L50F, E166V, and L50F + E166V decreased replication and Mpro activity, L50F and L50F + E166V variants had high fitness in the infectious system. Naturally occurring L50F compensated for fitness cost of E166V and promoted viral escape. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that E166V and L50F + E166V weakened nirmatrelvir-Mpro binding. Polymerase inhibitor remdesivir and monoclonal antibody bebtelovimab retained activity against nirmatrelvir-resistant variants, and combination with nirmatrelvir enhanced treatment efficacy compared to individual compounds. These findings have implications for monitoring and ensuring treatments with efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 and emerging sarbecoviruses.

18.
New England Journal of Medicine ; 387(24):2258-2267, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2186522

ABSTRACT

The article offers information on risks of infectious disease in Xenotransplantation. Topics include information on the shortage of transplantable human organs;function of pig-to-nonhuman primate xenografts;and use of clinically applicable immunosuppressive regimens, development of genetically modified swine with advantageous immunologic and microbiologic traits, and transplantation of porcine kidneys in a deceased human.

19.
Applied Clinical Informatics ; 14(1):16-27, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is 30 years since evidence-based medicine became a great support for individual clinical expertise in daily practice and scientific research. Electronic systems can be used to achieve the goal of collecting data from heterogeneous datasets and to support multicenter clinical trials. The Ligurian Infectious Diseases Network (LIDN) is a web-based platform for data collection and reuse originating from a regional effort and involving many professionals from different fields.

20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1):22573, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2186051

ABSTRACT

In this work, we focus on the dispersion of COVID-19-laden droplets using the transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and simulation of the coughing process of virus carriers in an enclosure room, aiming to set up the basic prototype of popular precautionary strategies, i.e., face mask, upward ventilation, protective screen, or any combination thereof, against the indoor transmission of COVID-19 and other highly contagious diseases in the future. A multi-component Eulerian-Lagrangian CFD particle-tracking model with user-defined functions is utilized under 8 cases to examine the characteristics of droplet dispersion concerning the mass and heat transfer, droplet evaporation, air buoyancy, air convection, air-droplet friction, and turbulent dispersion. The result shows that implementing upward ventilation is the most effective measure, followed by wearing face masks. Protective screens can restrict the movement of the coughing droplets (though it will not reduce viral load). However, applying protective screens arranged with lean can be counterproductive in preventing the spread of COVID-19 when it is inappropriately placed with ventilation. The soundest solution is the combination of the face mask and upward ventilation, which can reduce the indoor infectious concentration by nearly 99.95% compared with the baseline without any precautionary strategies. With the resumption of school and work in the post-epidemic era, this study would provide intelligence-enhancing advice for the masses and rule-makers to curb the pandemic.

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