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1.
Molecules ; 27(17):5502, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023945

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles with a variable protein cargo in consonance with cell origin and pathophysiological conditions. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterized by different levels of chronic low-grade inflammation and vascular dysfunction;however, there are few data characterizing the serum exosomal protein cargo of GDM patients and associated signaling pathways. Eighteen pregnant women were enrolled in the study: 8 controls (CG) and 10 patients with GDM. Blood samples were collected from patients, for exosomes’ concentration. Protein abundance alterations were demonstrated by relative mass spectrometric analysis and their association with clinical parameters in GDM patients was performed using Pearson’s correlation analysis. The proteomics analysis revealed 78 significantly altered proteins when comparing GDM to CG, related to complement and coagulation cascades, platelet activation, prothrombotic factors and cholesterol metabolism. Down-regulation of Complement C3 (C3), Complement C5 (C5), C4-B (C4B), C4b-binding protein beta chain (C4BPB) and C4b-binding protein alpha chain (C4BPA), and up-regulation of C7, C9 and F12 were found in GDM. Our data indicated significant correlations between factors involved in the pathogenesis of GDM and clinical parameters that may improve the understanding of GDM pathophysiology. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD035673.

2.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022727

ABSTRACT

Numerous publications have underlined the link between complement C5a and the clinical course of COVID-19. We previously reported that levels of C5a remain high in the group of severely ill patients up to 90 days after hospital discharge. We have now evaluated which complement pathway fuels the elevated levels of C5a during hospitalization and follow-up. The alternative pathway (AP) activation marker C3bBbP and the soluble fraction of C4d, a footprint of the classical/lectin (CP/LP) pathway, were assessed by immunoenzymatic assay in a total of 188 serial samples from 49 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Unlike C5a, neither C3bBbP nor C4d readouts rose proportionally to the severity of the disease. Detailed correlation analyses in hospitalization and follow-up samples collected from patients of different disease severity showed significant positive correlations of AP and CP/LP markers with C5a in certain groups, except for the follow-up samples of the patients who suffered from highly severe COVID-19 and presented the highest C5a readouts. In conclusion, there is not a clear link between persistently high levels of C5a after hospital discharge and markers of upstream complement activation, suggesting the existence of a non-canonical source of C5a in patients with a severe course of COVID-19.

3.
Journal of virology ; : e0102422, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008764

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic coronaviruses represent an ongoing threat to public health. The classical porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) first appeared in the early 1970s. Since 2010, outbreaks of highly virulent PEDV variants have caused great economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. However, the strategies by which PEDV variants escape host immune responses are not fully understood. Complement component 3 (C3) is considered a central component of the three complement activation pathways and plays a crucial role in preventing viral infection. In this study, we found that C3 significantly inhibited PEDV replication in vitro, and both variant and classical PEDV strains induced high levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in Huh7 cells. However, the PEDV variant strain reduces C3 transcript and protein levels induced by IL-1β compared with the PEDV classical strain. Examination of key molecules of the C3 transcriptional signaling pathway revealed that variant PEDV reduced C3 by inhibiting CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBP-β) phosphorylation. Mechanistically, PEDV nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1) inhibited C/EBP-β phosphorylation via amino acid residue 50. Finally, we constructed recombinant PEDVs to verify the critical role of amino acid 50 of NSP1 in the regulation of C3 expression. In summary, we identified a novel antiviral role of C3 in inhibiting PEDV replication and the viral immune evasion strategies of PEDV variants. Our study reveals new information on PEDV-host interactions and furthers our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of this virus. IMPORTANCE The complement system acts as a vital link between the innate and the adaptive immunity and has the ability to recognize and neutralize various pathogens. Activation of the complement system acts as a double-edged sword, as appropriate levels of activation protect against pathogenic infections, but excessive responses can provoke a dramatic inflammatory response and cause tissue damage, leading to pathological processes, which often appear in COVID-19 patients. However, how PEDV, as the most severe coronavirus causing diarrhea in piglets, regulates the complement system has not been previously reported. In this study, for the first time, we identified a novel mechanism of a PEDV variant in the suppression of C3 expression, showing that different coronaviruses and even different subtype strains differ in regulation of C3 expression. In addition, this study provides a deeper understanding of the mechanism of the PEDV variant in immune escape and enhanced virulence.

4.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases ; 79(4):S56, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1996891

ABSTRACT

Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is a rare but potentially devastating complication of systemic sclerosis as it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present an interesting case of a patient who developed SRC following infection with COVID-19. A 37-year-old female presented with new-onset hypertension, AKI, anemia and thrombocytopenia. She had a history of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis diagnosed 8 years ago, that had been well controlled with immunosuppression. The patient had contracted COVID-19 infection about 2 weeks ago but had remained largely asymptomatic except for a sore throat. Urinalysis revealed sub-nephrotic proteinuria but was otherwise bland. Peripheral blood smear was notable for 12-15 schistocytes per HPF. ADAMTS13 and complement levels were normal. Serologies for ANA, ANCA, anti-Scl70, anti-Jo1, anti-Sm, lupus anticoagulant, anti-beta2-glycoprotein I, anti-RNA polymerase III, RF, cryoglobulin, RPR, hepatitis and HIV, all returned negative. Renal biopsy revealed an arterial predominant thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) (Figure) consistent with a diagnosis of SRC. The patient was treated with anti-hypertensives including an ACE-inhibitor, but her AKI continued to worsen, ultimately leading to dialysis dependence. SRC classically develops in patients with early or progressive diffuse cutaneous disease or positivity for anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies. Our patient did not have any such risk factors and rather developed SRC following infection with COVID-19. COVID-19 has been reported to cause TMA by inducing immune dysregulation via an overactive complement system. It is plausible that infection with COVID-19 triggered an exaggerated immune response, in turn leading to the development of SRC in our patient. COVID-19 may trigger SRC in patients with systemic sclerosis in the absence of other risk factors. (Figure Presented)

5.
Molecular Immunology ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1996438

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a clinical spectrum ranging from asymptomatic carriers to critically ill patients with complications including thromboembolic events, myocardial injury, multisystemic inflammatory syndromes and death. Since the beginning of the pandemic several therapeutic options emerged, with a multitude of randomized trials, changing the medical landscape of COVID-19. The effect of various monoclonal antibodies, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulation drugs have been studied, and to some extent, implemented into clinical practice. In addition, a multitude of trials improved the understanding of the disease and emerging evidence points towards a significant role of the complement system, kallikrein-kinin, and contact activation system as drivers of disease in severe COVID-19. Despite their involvement in COVID-19, treatments targeting these plasmatic cascades have neither been systematically studied nor introduced into clinical practice, and randomized studies with regards to these treatments are scarce. Given the multiple-action, multiple-target nature of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), the natural inhibitor of these cascades, this drug may be an interesting candidate to prevent disease progression and combat thromboinflammation in COVID-19. This narrative review will discuss the current evidence with regards to the involvement of these plasmatic cascades as well as endothelial cells in COVID-19. Furthermore, we summarize the evidence of C1-INH in COVID-19 and potential benefits and pitfalls of C1-INH treatment in COVID-19.

6.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993661

ABSTRACT

In Covid-19, the pathological effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection is arbitrated through direct viral toxicity, unusual immune response, endothelial dysfunction, deregulated renin-angiotensin system [RAS], and thrombo-inflammation leading to acute lung injury [ALI], with a succession of acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] in critical conditions. C1 esterase inhibitor [C1INH] is a protease inhibitor that inhibits the spontaneous activation of complement and contact systems and kinin pathway, clotting, and fibrinolytic systems. So, targeting of complement system through activation of C1INH might be a novel therapeutic modality in the treatment of Covid-19. Therefore, this study aims to illustrate the potential nexus between C1INH and the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection. C1INH is highly dysregulated in Covid-19 due to inflammatory and coagulation disorders. C1INH is up-regulated in Covid-19 and sepsis as an acute phase response, but this increase is insufficient to block the activated complement system. In addition, the C1INH serum level predicts the development of ARDS in Covid-19 patients, as its up-regulation is associated with the development of cytokine storm. In Covid-19, C1INH might be inhibited or dysregulated by SARS-CoV-2, leading to propagation of complement system activation with subsequent uncontrolled immunological stimulation due to activation of bradykinin and FXII with sequential activation of coagulation cascades and polymerization of fibrin. Thus, suppression of C1INH by SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to thrombosis and excessive inflammation due to uncontrolled activation of complements and contact systems.

7.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 202, 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of complement inhibition in COVID-19 patients is unclear. METHODS: A multicenter randomized controlled, open-label trial. Hospitalized COVID-19 patients with signs of systemic inflammation and hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 below 350 mmHg) were randomized (2:1 ratio) to receive standard of care with or without the C5 inhibitor zilucoplan daily for 14 days, under antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary outcome was improvement in oxygenation at day 6 and 15. RESULTS: 81 patients were randomly assigned to zilucoplan (n = 55) or the control group (n = 26). 78 patients were included in the safety and primary analysis. Most were men (87%) and the median age was 63 years. The mean improvement in PaO2/FiO2 from baseline to day 6 was 56.4 mmHg in the zilucoplan group and 20.6 mmHg in the control group (mean difference + 35.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) - 9.4 to 80.9; p = 0.12), an effect also observed at day 15. Day 28 mortality was 9% in the zilucoplan and 21% in the control group (odds ratio 0.4; 95% CI 0.1 to 1.5). At long-term follow up, the distance walked in a 6-min test was 539.7 m in zilucoplan and 490.6 m in the control group (p = 0.18). Zilucoplan lowered serum C5b-9 (p < 0.001) and interleukin-8 (p = 0.03) concentration compared with control. No relevant safety differences between the zilucoplan and control group were identified. CONCLUSION: Administration of zilucoplan to COVID-19 patients in this proof-of-concept randomized trial was well tolerated under antibiotic prophylaxis. While not reaching statistical significance, indicators of respiratory function (PaO2/FiO2) and clinical outcome (mortality and 6-min walk test) suggest that C5 inhibition might be beneficial, although this requires further research in larger randomized studies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement C5 , Complement Inactivating Agents/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptides, Cyclic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology ; 95(6), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1968193

ABSTRACT

Novel vaccine platforms against SARS-CoV- 2 are in large-scale use, but interactions of complement with the 3 major vaccines have been little studied. In this work, we studied whether ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca), mRNA-1273 (Moderna) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccines activate the human complement system. Complement C3 activation by the vaccine preparations was determined by Western blotting (WB) and the terminal complement complex (TCC) levels by ELISA in sera from individuals with different vaccination status or disease history. Antibody (IgG) titers against ChAdOx1 vector and the human adenovirus 2 hexon (hAdV2) protein were measured by EIA, and IgGs from high-and low-titre sera were purified by MelonGel filtration ChAdOx1 strongly activated C3 and TCC in a dose-dependent manner. Activation was inhibited by Mg-EGTA indicating classical pathway activation. Sera containing antibodies to hAdV2 or with vaccination-induced antibodies against ChAdOx1 enhanced complement activation in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA-1273 activated C3, but to a lesser extent. Activation occurred via the AP but did not lead to TCC formation. No C3 activation or TCC formation by BNT162b2 was detected. The three studied vaccines differed in their ability to activate complement. ChAdOx1 induced a robust complement activation, which correlated with the amount of anti-vector antibodies in the individual sera. Surprisingly, the two lipid nanoparticle mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2) differed in their ability to activate complement. In addition to the role of complement as an endogenous adjuvant in vaccination, complement activation by vaccines may be involved in potential side effects or in determining variations in vaccine efficacy.

9.
Semin Immunol ; : 101644, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956344

ABSTRACT

Hyperactivated local tissue is a cardinal feature of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases of various organs such as the joints, the gut, the skin, or the lungs. Tissue-resident structural and stromal cells, which get primed during repeated or long-lasting bouts of inflammation form the basis of this sensitization of the tissue. During priming, cells change their metabolism to make them fit for the heightened energy demands that occur during persistent inflammation. Epigenetic changes and, curiously, an activation of intracellularly expressed parts of the complement system drive this metabolic invigoration and enable tissue-resident cells and infiltrating immune cells to employ an arsenal of inflammatory functions, including activation of inflammasomes. Here we provide a current overview on complement activation and inflammatory transformation in tissue-occupying cells, focusing on fibroblasts during arthritis, and illustrate ways how therapeutics directed at complement C3 could potentially target the complosome to unprime cells in the tissue and induce long-lasting abatement of inflammation.

10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 960809, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952337
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841759, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952324

ABSTRACT

A high incidence of secondary Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus infection were observed in patients with severe COVID-19. The cause of this predisposition to infection is unclear. Our data demonstrate consumption of complement in acute COVID-19 patients reflected by low levels of C3, C4, and loss of haemolytic activity. Given that the elimination of Gram-negative bacteria depends in part on complement-mediated lysis, we hypothesised that secondary hypocomplementaemia is rendering the antibody-dependent classical pathway activation inactive and compromises serum bactericidal activity (SBA). 217 patients with severe COVID-19 were studied. 142 patients suffered secondary bacterial infections. Klebsiella species were the most common Gram-negative organism, found in 58 patients, while S. aureus was the dominant Gram-positive organism found in 22 patients. Hypocomplementaemia was observed in patients with acute severe COVID-19 but not in convalescent survivors three months after discharge. Sera from patients with acute COVID-19 were unable to opsonise either K. pneumoniae or S. aureus and had impaired complement-mediated killing of Klebsiella. We conclude that hyperactivation of complement during acute COVID-19 leads to secondary hypocomplementaemia and predisposes to opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Staphylococcal Infections , Complement System Proteins , Hereditary Complement Deficiency Diseases , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Staphylococcus aureus
12.
Semin Immunol ; : 101640, 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937203

ABSTRACT

Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) often straddle the divide between life and death. Understanding the complex underlying pathomechanisms relevant to such situations may help intensivists select broadly acting treatment options that can improve the outcome for these patients. As one of the most important defense mechanisms of the innate immune system, the complement system plays a crucial role in a diverse spectrum of diseases that can necessitate ICU admission. Among others, myocardial infarction, acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), organ failure, and sepsis are characterized by an inadequate complement response, which can potentially be addressed via promising intervention options. Often, ICU monitoring and existing treatment options rely on massive intervention strategies to maintain the function of vital organs, and these approaches can further contribute to an unbalanced complement response. Artificial surfaces of extracorporeal organ support devices, transfusion of blood products, and the application of anticoagulants can all trigger or amplify undesired complement activation. It is, therefore, worth pursuing the evaluation of complement inhibition strategies in the setting of ICU treatment. Recently, clinical studies in COVID-19-related ARDS have shown promising effects of central inhibition at the level of C3 and paved the way for prospective investigation of this approach. In this review, we highlight the fundamental and often neglected role of complement in the ICU, with a special focus on targeted complement inhibition. We will also consider complement substitution therapies to temporarily counteract a disease/treatment-related complement consumption.

13.
Medical Immunology (Russia) ; 24(2):351-366, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1918189

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2, may predispose to thrombotic events, especially when combined with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). However, there are limited data on prevalence and antigenic specificity of aPL in COVID-19. Complement activation is assumed to play an important role in pathogenesis of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it is necessary to identify important biomarkers for predicting severe course of COVID-19 and risk of thrombotic complications. Our objective was to evaluate the aPL profile, quantitative content and activity of complement and its components in COVID-19 patients graded by severity in the course of time. IgM and IgG antibodies to cardiolipin (CL), phosphatidylserine (PS), β2-glycoprotein-I (β2-GP-I), prothrombin (PT), annexin V (An V), as well as C1q complement component, content of its C3 and C4 components and total complement activity were determined in blood serum using ELISA approach. 141 patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. Group 1 consisted of 39 patients with mild form, group 2 (65 patients) presented with moderate form, and group 3 included 37 patients with severe form of COVID-19. Blood samples were obtained on day 3-7 of the disease (1st point) and after 14-28 days (2nd point). The results were as follows: aPL were detected in 29.1% of the total COVID-19 cohort, frequency of aPL detection by the severity grade did not differ (33.3%, 24.6% and 32.4%). In 8.5% of the patients, aPL were detected only at the 1st time point;in 14.2%, only at the 2nd point;and in 6.4% of the cases, at the both time points. Antibodies to PT (16.3%) and An V (11.3%) were revealed more frequently. The detection frequency of antibodies to PT was significantly higher than antibodies to CL and PS (7.1%), β2-GP-I (7.8%). The prevalence of aPL in groups 1 and 3 did not differ. At the 1st point in group 3, increased levels of C4 (89.2%) and C3 (24.3%) in blood, and a decrease in complement activity (35.1%) were more often observed than in group 1. At the 2nd time point in group 3, a decrease in complement activity was often detected (59.5%). The C3 levels exceeding 720 μg/ml were found to predict a 2.6-fold increased risk of severe COVID-19, and this risk became 3.3 times higher at C4 levels of > 740 μg/ml. The antibodies to PT and An V are often detected in COVID-19 patients, along with low prevalence of antibodies to CL and β2-GP-I. These antibodies can be involved in pathogenesis of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, being detectable at the late stage of the disease, and they may trigger APS in predisposed patients and reconvalescents. Although presence of aPL antibodies is not associated with COVID-19 severity, their persistence over the period of convalescence may be an additional risk factor for thromboembolic complications. The COVID-19 patients are characterized by activation of the complement system, which increases in severe cases, and manifests with increased or decreased levels of C3 complement component, increased levels of C4 component in blood, and a decreased total complement activity. Quantitative determination of C3 and C4 complement components over the period of COVID-19 progression is of prognostic value, with respect to severity of the disease.

14.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 18(7): 731-745, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890482

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is classified according to the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and thermal characteristics of the autoantibody into warm and cold forms, and in primary versus secondary depending on the presence of associated conditions. AREAS COVERED: AIHA displays a multifactorial pathogenesis, including genetic (association with congenital conditions and certain mutations), environmental (drugs, infections, including SARS-CoV-2, pollution, etc.), and miscellaneous factors (solid/hematologic neoplasms, systemic autoimmune diseases, etc.) contributing to tolerance breakdown. Several mechanisms, such as autoantibody production, complement activation, monocyte/macrophage phagocytosis, and bone marrow compensation are implicated in extra-/intravascular hemolysis. Treatment should be differentiated and sequenced according to AIHA type (i.e. steroids followed by rituximab for warm, rituximab alone or in association with bendamustine or fludarabine for cold forms). Several new drugs targeting B-cells/plasma cells, complement, and phagocytosis are in clinical trials. Finally, thrombosis and infections may complicate disease course burdening quality of life and increasing mortality. EXPERT OPINION: Beyond warm and cold AIHA, a gray-zone still exists including mixed and DAT negative forms representing an unmet need. AIHA management is rapidly changing through an increasing knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms, the refinement of diagnostic tools, and the development of novel targeted and combination therapies.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , COVID-19 , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive complement activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, but the mechanisms leading to this response remain unclear. METHODS: We measured plasma levels of key complement markers, SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and common cold coronaviruses (CCC) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 of moderate (n=18) and critical severity (n=37), and healthy control subjects (n=10). RESULTS: We confirmed that complement activation is systemically increased in COVID-19 patients and is associated with a worse disease outcome. We showed that plasma levels of C1q and circulating immune complexes (CIC) were markedly increased in severe COVID-19 patients and correlated with higher IgG titers, greater complement activation and higher disease severity score. Additional analyses showed that the classical pathway was the main arm responsible for augmented complement activation in severe patients. In addition, we demonstrated that a rapid IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 and an anamnestic IgG response to the nucleoprotein of the CCC were strongly correlated with CIC levels, complement activation, and disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that early, non-neutralizing IgG responses may play a key role in complement overactivation in severe COVID-19. Our work underscores the urgent need to develop therapeutic strategies to modify complement overactivation in COVID-19 patients.

16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 796109, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847182

ABSTRACT

Background: Dysregulation of complement system is thought to be a major player in development of multi-organ damage and adverse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to examine associations between complement system activity and development of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: In this multicenter, international study, complement as well as inflammatory and thrombotic parameters were analyzed in COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization at one US and two Hungarian centers. The primary endpoint was development of severe AKI defined by KDIGO stage 2+3 criteria, while the secondary endpoint was need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Complement markers with significant associations with endpoints were then correlated with a panel of inflammatory and thrombotic biomarkers and assessed for independent association with outcome measures using logistic regression. Results: A total of 131 hospitalized COVID-19 patients (median age 66 [IQR, 54-75] years; 54.2% males) were enrolled, 33 from the US, and 98 from Hungary. There was a greater prevalence of complement over-activation and consumption in those who developed severe AKI and need for RRT during hospitalization. C3a/C3 ratio was increased in groups developing severe AKI (3.29 vs. 1.71; p < 0.001) and requiring RRT (3.42 vs. 1.79; p < 0.001) in each cohort. Decrease in alternative and classical pathway activity, and consumption of C4 below reference range, as well as elevation of complement activation marker C3a above the normal was more common in patients progressing to severe AKI. In the Hungarian cohort, each standard deviation increase in C3a (SD = 210.1) was independently associated with 89.7% increased odds of developing severe AKI (95% CI, 7.6-234.5%). Complement was extensively correlated with an array of inflammatory biomarkers and a prothrombotic state. Conclusion: Consumption and dysregulation of complement system is associated with development of severe AKI in COVID-19 patients and could represent a promising therapeutic target for reducing thrombotic microangiopathy in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

17.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 88(2): e13559, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831916

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: We evaluated eculizumab, a complement protein C5 inhibitor, for treatment of severe COVID-19 in pregnant and postpartum individuals. METHOD OF STUDY: Protocol ECU-COV-401 (clinicaltrials.gov NCT04355494) is an open label, multicenter, Expanded Access Program (EAP), evaluating eculizumab for treatment of severe COVID-19. Participants enrolled at our center from August 2020 to February 2021. Hospitalized patients were eligible if they had severe COVID-19 with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and oxygen requirement. Eculizumab was administered on day 1 (1200 mg IV) with additional doses if still hospitalized (1200 mg IV on Days 4 and 8; 900 mg IV on Days 15 and 22; optional doses on Days 12 and 18). The primary outcome was survival at Day 15. Secondary outcomes included survival at Day 29, need for mechanical ventilation, and duration of hospital stay. We evaluated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data, safety, and adverse outcomes. RESULTS: Eight participants were enrolled at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, six during pregnancy (mean 30 ± 4.0 weeks) and two in the postpartum period. Baseline oxygen requirement ranged from 2 L/min nasal cannula to 12 L/min by non-rebreather mask. The median number of doses of eculizumab was 2 (range 1-3); the median time to hospital discharge was 5.5 days (range 3-12). All participants met the primary outcome of survival at Day 15, and all were alive and free of mechanical ventilation at Day 29. In three participants we demonstrated that free C5 and soluble C5b-9 levels decreased following treatment. There were no serious adverse maternal or neonatal events attributed to eculizumab at 3 months. CONCLUSION: We describe use of eculizumab to treat severe COVID-19 in a small series of pregnant and postpartum adults. A larger, controlled study in pregnancy is indicated.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement System Proteins , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Oxygen , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
Genet Med ; 24(8): 1653-1663, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819495

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Emerging evidence suggest that infection-dependent hyperactivation of complement system (CS) may worsen COVID-19 outcome. We investigated the role of predicted high impact rare variants - referred as qualifying variants (QVs) - of CS genes in predisposing asymptomatic COVID-19 in elderly individuals, known to be more susceptible to severe disease. METHODS: Exploiting exome sequencing data and 56 CS genes, we performed a gene-based collapsing test between 164 asymptomatic subjects (aged ≥60 years) and 56,885 European individuals from the Genome Aggregation Database. We replicated this test comparing the same asymptomatic individuals with 147 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: We found an enrichment of QVs in 3 genes (MASP1, COLEC11, and COLEC10), which belong to the lectin pathway, in the asymptomatic cohort. Analyses of complement activity in serum showed decreased activity of lectin pathway in asymptomatic individuals with QVs. Finally, we found allelic variants associated with asymptomatic COVID-19 phenotype and with a decreased expression of MASP1, COLEC11, and COLEC10 in lung tissue. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that genetic rare variants can protect from severe COVID-19 by mitigating the activity of lectin pathway and prothrombin. The genetic data obtained through ES of 786 asymptomatic and 147 hospitalized individuals are publicly available at http://espocovid.ceinge.unina.it/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , Collectins/genetics , Collectins/metabolism , Germ Cells , Humans , Lectins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Whole Exome Sequencing
19.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-333417

ABSTRACT

Background: The complement system plays a role in hyperinflammation due to COVID-19, and C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) is a key inhibitor. Recombinant human C1-INH (rhC1-INH) treatment could impact the clinical course by limiting this hyperinflammatory response. This trial evaluated if rhC1-INH + COVID-19 standard of care (SOC) administered early during hospitalization could positively impact the clinical course. Methods: In a phase 2, open-label trial in adults hospitalized with COVID-19, patients were randomized (2:1) to rhC1-INH 50 U/kg (maximum, 4200 U) every 12 hours for 4 days + SOC or SOC alone. The primary endpoint was Day 7 clinical status (World Health Organization scale). Results: Thirty-eight patients (rhC1-INH + SOC [n=27];SOC alone [n=11]) were included, with a significant difference at Day 7 favoring rhC1-INH + SOC for percentage of patients by clinical status (p=0.002). No patients in rhC1INH + SOC group and 2/11 (18.2%) in SOC alone group were admitted to intensive care unit. In rhC1-INH + SOC group, 26/27 patients (96.3%) had ≥1 level improvement in clinical status versus 8/11 patients (72.7%) in SOC alone group (p = 0.03);no clinical status deterioration was observed in rhC1-INH + SOC group. Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels in rhC1-INH + SOC group remained low versus substantial elevations in SOC alone group. Most common adverse events in rhC1-INH + SOC group included transaminitis, dyspnea, and hypertension. One death occurred in SOC alone group. Conclusion: These data support that early treatment with rhC1INH + SOC provided clinical benefit to hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

20.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 797116, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785321

ABSTRACT

Animal C-reactive protein (CRP) has a widespread existence throughout phylogeny implying that these proteins have essential functions mandatory to be preserved. About 500 million years of evolution teach us that there is a continuous interplay between emerging antigens and components of innate immunity. The most archaic physiological roles of CRP seem to be detoxication of heavy metals and other chemicals followed or accompanied by an acute phase response and host defense against bacterial, viral as well as parasitic infection. On the other hand, unusual antigens have emerged questioning the black-and-white perception of CRP as being invariably beneficial. Such antigens came along either as autoantigens like excessive tissue-stranded modified lipoprotein due to misdirected food intake linking CRP with atherosclerosis with an as yet open net effect, or as foreign antigens like SARS-CoV-2 inducing an uncontrolled CRP-mediated autoimmune response. The latter two examples impressingly demonstrate that a component of ancient immunity like CRP should not be considered under identical "beneficial" auspices throughout phylogeny but might effect quite the reverse as well.

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