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1.
CFD Letters ; 15(1):26-38, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2218190

ABSTRACT

Air quality plays a significant role during the coronavirus pandemic. Air acts as a spreading media as well as a control measure for infection in polluted spaces. Insufficient ventilation around the building may lead to a rise of pollutants carrying the virus. One way to improve ventilation is by increasing the air change rate. This study investigates the air change rate effectiveness in reducing droplets spreading in a classroom. Cases with various layouts of inlet and outlet vents are considered, and the spread of droplets is studied. The airflow analysis shows the impact of the different ventilation layout configurations. The results show that the CFD model simulation indicates an optimum ventilation configuration to decrease the droplet spread. The discrete phase model results also determine the trajectory of droplets spread along the classroom. CFD results show that in the selected configuration, a significant number of droplets are expelled to the outside and reduce their concentration inside the classroom. © 2023, Penerbit Akademia Baru. All rights reserved.

2.
Pharmaceutics ; 15(1):160, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2216707

ABSTRACT

The extrathoracic oral airway is not only a major mechanical barrier for pharmaceutical aerosols to reach the lung but also a major source of variability in lung deposition. Using computational fluid dynamics, deposition of 1–30 µm particles was predicted in 11 CT-based models of the oral airways of adults. Simulations were performed for mouth breathing during both inspiration and expiration at two steady-state flow rates representative of resting/nebulizer use (18 L/min) and of dry powder inhaler (DPI) use (45 L/min). Consistent with previous in vitro studies, there was a large intersubject variability in oral deposition. For an optimal size distribution of 1–5 µm for pharmaceutical aerosols, our data suggest that >75% of the inhaled aerosol is delivered to the intrathoracic lungs in most subjects when using a nebulizer but only in about half the subjects when using a DPI. There was no significant difference in oral deposition efficiency between inspiration and expiration, unlike subregional deposition, which shows significantly different patterns between the two breathing phases. These results highlight the need for incorporating a morphological variation of the upper airway in predictive models of aerosol deposition for accurate predictions of particle dosimetry in the intrathoracic region of the lung.

3.
19th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology, IBCAST 2022 ; : 729-735, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2213195

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak in recent years has become a pandemic across the globe. Which has a significant risk on human health causing nearly 5 million deaths worldwide. Recent research has shown that aerosol transmission is the main cause of COVID-19 virus spread. Sanitization of hands or the 6 feet at a recommended distance by WHO can reduce the virus but people with greater occupancy are needed to be addressed. A vulnerable place for disease infection is a hospital room where many patients have been infected with COVID-19. Transmission of the virus is the main cause of COVID-19 spread. Thus, understanding the flow physics of virus transmission through CFD analysis is necessary. A Euler-Lagrangian model is used to investigate aerosol transmission from an infected person inside a hospital room under the effect of ventilation. Ventilation plays a great role in the removal of aerosols from an enclosed environment. UDF was applied to turn the ventilation on after the coughing. Results have shown that without ventilation the aerosols are reaching the outlets of the room faster, while due to the ventilation effect the same aerosols reach slower due to recirculation. Aerosols travel according to the dominant ventilation flow. If the ventilation is turned off and there is no steady downward movement of air, the particles do not fall to the ground but will evaporate with time. Evaporation of the particles depends on the ambient temperature and relative humidity. The existence of running ventilation is required to prevent the circulation of aerosols. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 87: 104232, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2183253

ABSTRACT

Under the global landscape of the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic, the number of individuals who need to be tested for COVID-19 through screening centers is increasing. However, the risk of viral infection during the screening process remains significant. To limit cross-infection in screening centers, a non-contact mobile screening center (NCMSC) that uses negative pressure booths to improve ventilation and enable safe, fast, and convenient COVID-19 testing is developed. This study investigates aerosol transmission and ventilation control for eliminating cross-infection and for rapid virus removal from the indoor space using numerical analysis and experimental measurements. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were used to evaluate the ventilation rate, pressure differential between spaces, and virus particle removal efficiency in NCMSC. We also characterized the airflow dynamics of NCMSC that is currently being piloted using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Moreover, design optimization was performed based on the air change rates and the ratio of supply air (SA) to exhaust air (EA). Three ventilation strategies for preventing viral transmission were tested. Based on the results of this study, standards for the installation and operation of a screening center for infectious diseases are proposed.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 444(Pt A): 130406, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2170572

ABSTRACT

People constantly move their heads during conversation, as such movement is an important non-verbal mode of communication. Head movement alters the direction of people's expired air flow, therefore affecting their conversational partners' level of exposure. Nevertheless, there is a lack of understanding of the mechanism whereby head movement affects people's exposure. In this study, a dynamic meshing method in computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate the head movement of a human-shaped thermal manikin. Droplets were released during the oral expiration periods of the source manikin, during which it was either motionless, was shaking its head or was nodding its head, while the head of a face-to-face target manikin remained motionless. The results indicate that the target manikin had a high level of exposure to respiratory droplets when the source manikin was motionless, whereas the target manikin's level of exposure was significantly reduced when the source manikin was shaking or nodding its head. The source manikin had the highest level of self-exposure when it was nodding its head and the lowest level of self-exposure when its head was motionless. People's level of exposure during close contact is highly variable, highlighting the need for further investigations in more realistic conversational scenarios.

6.
3rd International Conference on Computing in Mechanical Engineering, ICCME 2021 ; : 121-136, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173913

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 which is a respiratory disease spread by a virus of the coronavirus family has become a big problem leading to the closure of all academic as well as economic activities due to its capability to spread fast. In this study, we have investigated the effect to mix a disinfectant in aerosol form with air coming out from the air conditioning machine so it can reach all parts of the room to remove the virus and prevent the closure of certain necessary teaching–learning activities in the classroom. For this, the k-ε model which consists of two equations is used to numerically model the turbulent flow in the classroom. From the analysis, it can be found that high turbulent zones are formed in the room which can be an effective way of distributing the aerosol-based disinfectant in the classroom and from the particle tracker we can see the aerosol-based disinfectant reaching every corner. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

7.
Indoor and Built Environment ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2194549

ABSTRACT

Air distribution system could critically affect SARS-CoV-2 transmission in indoor space;therefore, this study aims at demonstrating numerical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 migration with varied air distribution system configurations. Seven cases were investigated regarding three major aspects: how fast suspended particles can be removed from the ventilated space or changed into deposited particles;how much particles are attached to various object surfaces which leads to an infection by touching fomite. All cases were analyzed through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Both different shapes (round or linear diffusers) and installation locations (ceiling or floor) of inlet and outlet diffusers were investigated. Results showed that different air distribution system would lead to different dispersion profiles of infectious particles and different deposition pattern of particles on interior surfaces. With the same air flow rate, linear-diffuser would perform better for CO2 extraction while requiring less time to remove or collide the same magnitude of suspended droplets compared to round-diffuser. However, how quickly removed or suspended droplets collide is not proportional to how less the number of total particles are remained. Two additional cases with double sized space possessing best ventilation configuration were also examined to explore potential application of the best-ventilated configuration to various spatial expansion cases.

8.
21st IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality Adjunct, ISMAR-Adjunct 2022 ; : 865-869, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191969

ABSTRACT

We have been developing an interactive and multimodal platform to facilitate learning fluid dynamics with the rationale of using an immersive environment as a visualisation medium. Before the pan-demic, we used our in-house virtual reality app to teach fluid dynamics (FD), significantly enhancing student engagement. Since the COVID-19 pandemic struck, we have explored AR and MR applications for scaling our remote online and hybrid teaching efforts. The work presented in this paper has two objectives. (i) Provide an AR learning medium for remotely located students. (ii) Provide a student-paced instructional learning medium using MR for the hy-brid or onsite students. To achieve this, we describe a methodology in four parts. (i) A computational fluid dynamics data processing and distribution pipeline for generating 3D models for AR and MR. (ii) A platform-independent FD learning platform that uses WebXR for rendering models in AR. (iii) Hololens-based instructional medium in MR for learning FD.(iv) A pedagogy design. We discuss the results of a feasibility study on 18 hybrid learning students to assess the effectiveness of the pedagogy design using MR. We conclude that by using our platform, students can interactively visualise our in-house fluid dynamics models aligned with the course work and acquire knowledge naturally and intuitively. © 2022 IEEE.

9.
Physics of Fluids ; 35(1), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2186668

ABSTRACT

The education sector has suffered a catastrophic setback due to the ongoing COVID pandemic, with classrooms being closed indefinitely. The current study aims to solve the existing dilemma by examining COVID transmission inside a classroom and providing long-term sustainable solutions. In this work, a standard 5 × 3 × 5 m3 classroom is considered where 24 students are seated, accompanied by a teacher. A computational fluid dynamics simulation based on OpenFOAM is performed using a Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. Based on the stochastic dose-response framework, we have evaluated the infection risk in the classroom for two distinct cases: (i) certain students are infected and (ii) the teacher is infected. If the teacher is infected, the probability of infection could reach 100% for certain students. When certain students are infected, the maximum infection risk for a susceptible person reaches 30%. The commonly used cloth mask proves to be ineffective in providing protection against infection transmission, reducing the maximum infection probability by approximately 26% only. Another commonly used solution in the form of shields installed on desks has also failed to provide adequate protection against infection, reducing the infection risk only by 50%. Furthermore, the shields serve as a source of fomite mode of infection. Screens suspended from the ceiling, which entrap droplets, have been proposed as a novel solution that reduces the infection risk by 90% and 95% compared to the no screen scenario besides being completely devoid of fomite infection mode. The manifestation of infection risk in the domain was investigated, and it was found out that in the case of screens the maximum infection risk reached the value of only 0.2 (20% infection probability) in 1325 s. © 2023 Author(s).

10.
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization ; 13:S102-S108, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2186236

ABSTRACT

As we are probably aware of certain infectious diseases that transmit from body to body because of perspiration or respiration of air from a human being containing strains of the infection, the goal of this investigation is to see how the infection is getting spread from a human residing in a closed area provided with air conditioner and with an appropriate ventilation framework that need to be involved to diminish infection dissemination in this enclosed area. Considering the present COVID-19 situation, it is important to discover the effect of infection spread to an individual contagion source. An appropriate CFD-model giving analysis of infection transmission from individual to individual in an air-conditioned room would give results to understand such situations. Likewise, this examination would help in determining the velocity, temperature, and particle contours in a characterized walled area. Besides, we have displayed various nooks utilizing different ventilation frameworks to discover which framework would give better outcomes to decrease infection transmission. Our investigation would provide how varying flow rates in a room at an outlet could be effective in reducing virus dissemination, as this model could be applied to cafes, cinemas, inns, and above all emergency clinics where individuals remain in an enclosed air-conditioned room. © C. Manas et al., Published by EDP Sciences, 2022.

11.
IABSE Congress Nanjing 2022 - Bridges and Structures: Connection, Integration and Harmonisation ; : 2048-2049, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2147424

ABSTRACT

In order to control the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic across the country, China has used all available resources to build infectious disease hospitals in various ways. These hospitals include three modes and adapt to different disease levels: temporary emergency hospitals;makeshift hospitals by transforming public buildings;and existing general wards transformed into infectious wards. Through the practice of several projects, on the basis of the original standard system, China urgently issued a series of relevant standards and guidelines to guide the construction of temporary hospitals. As one of the earliest cases of temporary emergency infectious disease hospital, the Thunder God Mountain Hospital adopted a prefabricated modular design concept in plan design, plane design and component design, and also combined the application of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology. Based on industrialized module processing and manufacturing, combined with an efficient on-site construction management system, the problem was solved of completing the construction in a very short time, which played a key role in controlling the epidemic situation. © IABSE Congress Nanjing 2022 - Bridges and Structures: Connection, Integration and Harmonisation, Report. All rights reserved.

12.
Indoor Air ; 32(11): e13146, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136900

ABSTRACT

Computational fluid dynamics models have been developed to predict airborne exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus from a coughing person in a mechanically ventilated room. The models were run with three typical indoor air temperatures and relative humidities (RH). Quantile regression was used to indicate whether these have a statistically significant effect on the airborne exposure. Results suggest that evaporation is an important effect. Evaporation leads to respiratory particles, particularly those with initial diameters between 20 and 100 µm, remaining airborne for longer, traveling extended distances and carrying more viruses than expected from their final diameter. In a mechanically ventilated room, with all of the associated complex air movement and turbulence, increasing the RH may result in reduced airborne exposure. However, this effect may be so small that other factors, such as a small change in proximity to the infected person, could rapidly counter the effect. The effect of temperature on the exposure was more complex, with both positive and negative correlations. Therefore, within the range of conditions studied here, there is no clear guidance on how the temperature should be controlled to reduce exposure. The results highlight the importance of ventilation, face coverings and maintaining social distancing for reducing exposure.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Humans , Humidity , Temperature , SARS-CoV-2 , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Respiration, Artificial
13.
ASME Turbo Expo 2022: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, GT 2022 ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2137306

ABSTRACT

The present research focuses on analyzing the feasibility of manufacturing complex turbomachinery geometries in a preassembled manner through an uninterrupted additive manufacturing process, absent of internal support structures or post-processing. In the context of the present COVID-19 pandemic, the concept is illustrated by a 3D-printable turbinedriven blower-type medical ventilator, which solely relies on availability of high-pressure oxygen supply and a conventional plastic-printer. Forming a fully pre-assembled turbomachine in its final form, the architecture consists of two concentric parts, a static casing with an embedded hydrostatic bearing surrounding a rotating monolithic shell structure that includes a radial turbine mechanically driving a centrifugal blower, which in turn supplies the oxygen enriched air to the lungs of the patient. Although the component level turbomachinery design of the described architecture relies on well-established guidelines and computational fluid dynamics methods, this approach has the capability to shift the focus of additive manufacturing methods to design for preassembled turbomachinery systems. Upon finalizing the topology, the geometry is manufactured from PETG plastic using a simple tabletop extrusion-based machine and its performance is evaluated in a test facility. The findings of the experimental campaign are reported in terms of flow and loading coefficients and are compared with simulation results. A good agreement is observed between the two data sets, thereby fully corroborating the applied design approach and the viability of additively manufactured pre-assembled turbomachines. Eliminating long and costly processes due to presence of numerous parts, different manufacturing methods, logistics of various subcontractors and complex assembly procedures, the proposed concept has the potential to reduce the cost of a turbomachine to capital equipment depreciation and raw material. Copyright © 2022 by ASME.

14.
European Journal of Mechanics B: Fluids ; 97:93-110, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2130821

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 global pandemic has reshaped the requirements of healthcare sectors worldwide. Following the exposure risks associated with Covid-19, this paper aims to design, optimise, and validate a wearable medical device that reduces the risk of transmission of contagious droplets from infected patients in a hospital setting. This study specifically focuses on those receiving high-flow nasal oxygen therapy. The design process consisted of optimising the geometry of the visor to ensure that the maximum possible percentage of harmful droplets exhaled by the patient can be successfully captured by a vacuum tube attached to the visor. This has been completed by deriving a number of concept designs and assessing their effectiveness, based on numerical analysis, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and experimental testing. The CFD results are validated using various experimental methods such as Schlieren imaging, particle measurement testing and laser sheet visualisation. Droplet capturing efficiency of the visor was measured through CFD and validated through experimental particle measurement testing. The results presented a 5% deviation between CFD and experimental results. Also, the modifications based on the validated CFD results improved the visor effectiveness by 47% and 38% for breathing and coughing events, respectively [ FROM AUTHOR]

15.
Indian J Anaesth ; 66(9): 657-664, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119771

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: This study describes the functional analysis of a negative pressure canopy unit developed to reduce infective aerosol and droplet spread in ad-hoc wards created to handle patients suffering from infective respiratory illnesses such as those recently encountered in the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An experimental study was conducted to verify the functional analysis of a canopy unit for the following variables: a) Quantitative and qualitative analysis of aerosol generation, b) Efficacy of canopy as containment device and c) Aerosol clearance from canopy over a period. We describe the process in the form of a problem statement, a discussion of design considerations (including Computer Aided Design modelling and a functional analysis of the system using a variety of simulated conditions which included various experiments for the purpose of testing the safety and efficiency of the system. We also incorporated Computational Fluid Dynamics analyses to assist us in design modifications of the unit using Euler-Lagrange approach for aerosol tracking. Results: As demonstrated by the series of experiments, it was seen that the aerosol load under the testing conditions reduced significantly. The canopy unit restricted the aerosol particles which either got adhered to the canopy walls or went into recirculation inside the canopy. In experimental conditions, the fan-filter unit was able to operate at >95% efficiency. Conclusion: This device exhibited 95-99% efficiency in eliminating aerosols which would reduce the exposure of health care workers to infective aerosols, which is not only specific to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, but also to other airborne transmitted diseases.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156518, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The literature includes many studies which individually assess the efficacy of protective measures against the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study considers the high infection risk in public buildings and models the quality of the indoor environment, related safety measures, and their efficacy in preventing the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. METHODS: Simulations are created that consider protective factors such as hand hygiene, face covering and engagement with Covid-19 vaccination programs in reducing the risk of infection in a university foyer. Furthermore, a computational fluid dynamics model is developed to simulate and analyse the university foyer under three ventilation regimes. The probability of transmission was measured across different scenarios. FINDINGS: Estimates suggest that the Delta variant requires the air change rate to be increased >1000 times compared to the original strain, which is practically not feasible. Consequently, appropriate hygiene practices, such as wearing masks, are essential to reducing secondary infections. A comparison of different protective factors in simulations found the overall burden of infections resulting from indoor contact depends on (i) face mask adherence, (ii) quality of the ventilation system, and (iii) other hygiene practices. INTERPRETATION: Relying on ventilation, whether natural, mechanical, or mixed, is not sufficient alone to mitigate the risk of aerosol infections. This is due to the internal configuration of the indoor space in terms of (i) size and number of windows, their location and opening frequency, as well as the position of the air extraction and supply inlets, which often induce hotspots with stagnating air, (ii) the excessive required air change rate. Hence, strict reliance on proper hygiene practices, namely adherence to face coverings and hand sanitising, are essential. Consequently, face mask adherence should be emphasized and promoted by policymakers for public health applications. Similar research may need to be conducted using a similar approach on the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilation
17.
Geoscience Frontiers ; 13(6), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2104982

ABSTRACT

With the prevalence of COVID-19, the phenomenon of viruses spreading through aerosols has become a focus of attention. Diners in university dining halls have a high risk of exposure to respiratory droplets from others without the protection of face masks, which greatly increases the risk of COVID-19 transmis-sion. Therefore, the transmission mechanism of respiratory droplets in extremely crowded dining envi-ronments should be investigated. In this study, a numerical simulation of coughing at dining tables under two conditions was performed, namely the presence and absence of protective partitions, and the evaporation and condensation of aerosol droplets in the air were examined. By using the numerical method, we analyzed and verified the isolation effect of dining table partitions in the propagation of aero-sol droplets. The effect of changes in room temperature on the diffusion of coughed aerosols when par-titions were present was analyzed. We demonstrated how respiratory droplets spread through coughing and how these droplets affect others. Finally, we proposed a design for a dining table partition that min-imizes the transmission of COVID-19.(c) 2021 China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University. Production and hosting by

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099549

ABSTRACT

The supply of fresh air for underground rail transit systems is not as simple as opening windows, which is a conventional ventilation (CV) measure adopted in aboveground vehicles. This study aims to improve contaminant dilution and air purification in subway car ventilation systems and the safety of rail transit post-coronavirus disease pandemic era. We designed an air conditioning (AC) terminal system combined with stratum ventilation (SV) to enable energy consumption reduction for subway cars. We experimentally tested the effectiveness of a turbulence model to investigate ventilation in subway cars. Further, we compared the velocity fields of CV and SV in subway cars to understand the differences in their airflow organizations and contaminant removal efficiencies, along with the energy savings of four ventilation scenarios, based on the calculations carried out using computational fluid dynamics. At a ventilation flow rate of 7200 m3/h, the CO2 concentration and temperature in the breathing areas of seated passengers were better in the SV than in the CV at a rate of 8500 m3/h. Additionally, the energy-saving rate of SV with AC cooling was 14.05%. The study provides new ideas for reducing the energy consumption of rail transit and broadens indoor application scenarios of SV technology.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Railroads , Automobiles , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Ventilation
19.
7th International Conference on Ship and Offshore Technology, ICSOT Indonesia 2021 ; : 9-15, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2099969

ABSTRACT

The tourism sector is one of the economic supports in Banyuwangi Regency. So with Covid-19 pandemic, tourist visits decreased drastically. To help the problem, they need an innovation that can attract visitors to visit. One solution is a Flat Plate Bottom Glass designed with safety, comfortable, efficient and sophisticated for underwater panoramic tourism facilities. This paper shows the Ducted Nozzle Propeller thrust vectoring ship propulsion innovation. This can be a solution for the thrust to focus and be used entirely to move the ship. Then the propulsion system on the ship becomes effective. The method used in this study used CFDs (Computational Fluid Dynamic). From the simulation results of 12 it's models we know the average thrust increase is as large as 47%. © 2021, Royal Institution of Naval Architects. All rights reserved.

20.
29th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computing, INTERCON 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2063266

ABSTRACT

Mechanical ventilators and high-flow machines are medical devices with important measuring instruments for monitoring patients with respiratory failure. The most common monitoring parameters are lung proximal pressure, inspiratory flow, expiratory flow, inspiratory oxygen fraction, etc. The present work delves into the design, fabrication, and experimental measurement of a proximal flow sensor based on the theory of capillary tubes and stereolithography. The design was carried out in Inventor Professional 2020 software and then the computational study by CFD ANSYS to compare the dynamic pressure states of the geometric measurement points. The manufacturing was carried out using SLA 3D printing technology on an ANYCUBIC FHOTON MONO X.The fabricated FM SLA prototype has radially positioned latex tubing lines to achieve differential pressure measurement at two points separated by capillary tubes. These hoses are connected to a developmental embedded system based on a HONEYWELL 001PG7A5 differential pressure sensor and Arduino Uno Microcontroller. Finally, experimental tests of the Flow Meter Stereolithography (FM SLA) protype measurements were performed with flow rates from 0 to 44.5 lpm in 1 lpm increments. From the collected data we have an R2: 0.9983 in quadratic polynomial approximation with the actual measurement data. © 2022 IEEE.

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