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1.
Children & Youth Services Review ; 142:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2060989

ABSTRACT

• A parenting program established in a developed country could be transferred to a developing country with minimal adaptation, despite minimum resources and engagement barriers. • With some modifications, it is still feasible to deliver a group-based parenting program during a pandemic period. • A modified version of School Age BASIC Incredible Years parenting program was effective in improving both children and parental outcomes among children with clinical levels of behavioral problems. Although parenting programs have been supported as an effective family-based intervention for children's behavioral problems, they are underutilized in developing countries. This randomized controlled study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Incredible Years parenting program (IYPP) in improving behavioral problems in children, parenting stress, and parental mental health. Seventy mother–child dyads from three tertiary hospitals in Malaysia were divided into the IYPP and waitlist control groups. Weekly parent training sessions were adjusted during the pandemic period. Child's total difficulty scores of the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ-TDS), Parental Stress Scale (PSS) scores, and parental DASS-21 scores were measured at pre- and post-intervention, and follow-up, and analyzed using generalized estimating equation (GEE). Compared to the control group at baseline, the intervention group showed a 4.2- and a 3.5-point significantly lower SDQ-TDS at 2 weeks post-intervention and 3 months follow-up, respectively (B = -4.20, 95 % CI: −6.68, −1.72, p = 0.001;B = -3.51, 95 % CI:-6.37, −0.66, p = 0.016), a 5.0-point significantly lower PSS at 3 months follow-up (B = -5.03, 95 % CI: −9.16, −0.90, p = 0.017), and a 4.1-point significantly lower general stress scores at 2 weeks post-intervention (B = -4.06, 95 % CI: −7.20, −0.92, p = 0.011). Effect sizes were small (d s = 0.28–0.40). There was no significant intervention effect on maternal anxiety and depression scores. The modified parenting program was effective in improving children's behavior, parenting stress, and general stress among mothers of children aged 6–12 years presented with borderline and abnormal levels of behavioral problems, with sustained effects demonstrated for child behavior. However, the interpretation of these findings requires careful consideration of potential pandemic-instigated challenges and implications. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Children & Youth Services Review is the property of Pergamon Press - An Imprint of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Journal of Mathematics ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2053433

ABSTRACT

The goal of the article is the inference about the parameters of the inverse power ishita distribution (IPID) using progressively type-II censored (Prog–II–C) samples. For IPID parameters, maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimates were obtained. Two bootstrap “confidence intervals” (CIs) are also proposed in addition to “approximate confidence intervals” (ACIs). In addition, Bayesian estimates for “squared error loss” (SEL) and LINEX loss functions are provided. The Gibbs within Metropolis–Hasting samplers process is used to provide Bayes estimators of unknown parameters also “credible intervals” (CRIs) of them by using the “Markov Chain Monte Carlo” (MCMC) technique. Then, an application of the suggested approaches is considered a set of real-life data this data set COVID-19 data from France of 51 days recorded from 1 January to 20 February 2021 formed of mortality rate. To evaluate the quality of the proposed estimators, a simulation study is conducted.

3.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1314-1315, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046551

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare autoimmune hemorragic condition (1-2 cases/million person/year)1. Several cases of AHA diagnosed following the administration of the COVID19 vaccines were described. Incidence of AHA diagnoses possibly higher than expected was also reported2,3. Indeed, higher attention to, and/or screening for, coagulation disorders during the vaccination campaign (i.e. notoriety/detection bias) might have increased the probability of AHA diagnosis and reporting compared to the past. Objective: To observe the utilization of AHA laboratory tests and incidence of AHA cases in Tuscany region during 2017-2021 and compare the rate of AHA in patients tested for AHA during COVID19 immunization campaign (2021) with that observed in 2019-2017. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using population-based administrative data from Tuscany region (3.7million inhab), Italy. Per each year between 2017 and 2021, patients active into the database at 1st January, with > 5 years of age and 2 years of look-back were included. Subjects with > 1 laboratory tests used for diagnosing AHA1 were identified. Due to the absence of a AHA ICD9CM codes, possible AHA cases were identified combining information from different databanks. Cumulative annual incidence of both patients tested for AHA and possible AHA cases was respectively calculated. The rates of incident AHA cases on patients tested for AHA observed in 2021 and in 2017-2019 were calculated. All estimates were standardized by age and sex (std.). 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated with Poissons method (statistical difference = no 95% CIs overlap). Results: A total of 126 possible AHA cases and 1.081.878 incident patients with > 1 laboratory test for AHA were identified between 2017 and 2021. Calendar year 2020 was clearly non-representative of the pre-immunizazion campaign period due to pandemic waves, thus it was excluded from the analyses. In 2021, std. incidence of tested patients (6067/million inhab/year;95% CI 60412-60913) and std. Incidence of possible AHA cases (5.6/million inhab/year;95% CI 3.4-8.7) showed the lowest point estimates, though only the former was statistically significant compared to any other year of the observation period. The std. rate of possible AHA cases on patients tested for AHA in 2021 was 5,6/100milion (95% CI 3.4-8.7) was not statistically different from that observed in 2017-2019 (7.6/100milion;95% CI 5-11). Conclusion: No increased incidence of possible AHA cases during the COVID19 immunization campaign was observed in Tuscany. Findings from this study do not suggest neither a possible detection bias nor a possible safety signal. Notority of other known vaccineinduced coagulation disorders may explain the increased reporting of AHA following COVID19 vaccines.

4.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1175, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046530

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Rare or serious Adverse Events (AEs) in the reproductive sphere have been reported following the administration of the COVID-19 vaccine, especially mRNA vaccines. Although several fertility Societies have announced that COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are unlikely to affect fertility, pregnancy, or breastfeeding, there is no denying that the current evidence is very limited [1]. Objective: Aim of this study was a post-marketing assessment of the safety profile of COVID-19 vaccines, through the analysis of the Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) collected in EudraVigilance in 2021 year, by focusing on reproductive disorders. Methods: We analyzed all ICSRs that contained at least one COVID-19 vaccine as suspected and at least one AE belonging to the Standardized MedDRA Query (SMQ) level 1 "Fertility disorders" or "Pregnancy and neonatal conditions". We performed a descriptive analysis and all AEs have been coded as Preferred Term (PT) according to MedDRA. Finally, we used the Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR) with a 95% of Confidence Interval (95% CI) to investigate disproportional reporting of AEs belonging to the SMQs of interest among the vaccines included in the analysis. Results: During the study period, 27,089 ICSR were collected and the total number of AEs was found to be 31,337;of these, 62.8% were referred to Comirnaty®, 20.8% to Spikevax®, 12.7% to Vaxzevria®, and 3.7% to Janssen®. For each of the four COVID-19 vaccines, 96.4% were related to female patients, aged between 18-64 years (88.1%), 71.5% were not serious, 46.0% were not resolved yet and 82.3% were reported by non-healthcare professionals. Regardless of the type of vaccine, the most reported PTs were amenorrhea, irregular menstruation, and delayed menstruation. The ROR showed that the probability to report an AE belonging to the SMQ "Fertility disorders" is greater for Comirnaty® (ROR: 4.20, 95% CI 4.08-4.32) while no statistically significant difference was observed to the SMQ "Pregnancy and neonatal conditions". Conclusion: In this study, no potential signs of reproductive system safety were found regarding fertility, pregnancy or breastfeeding. Most of the reported events were related to changes in the menstrual cycle, although these disorders are temporary and normally common in the female population. At the time, the EMA's PRAC concluded that the evidence did not support a causal link between these vaccines and menstrual disorders, however, it decided to further studies collecting data from real life contexts are strongly needed to assess their safety profile in relation to reproductive function.

5.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1233-1234, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046318

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Initial knowledge on the COVID-19 vaccines' safety from randomised clinical trials was limited and concerned mostly common adverse events related to vaccine immunogenicity occurring rapidly after vaccination [1,2]. Since these vaccines have been approved and used in large scale, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products Swissmedic has been conducting an intensive surveillance activity on their safety, based on the collection and analysis of spontaneous reports from healthcare professionals and patients. Objective: Signal detection in spontaneous reports associated with COVID-19 vaccines first relies on a case-by-case analysis by clinically qualified assessors who take into account detailed information provided by reporters. However, with the number of reports increasing, the clinical review could benefit from the use of statistical methods for signal detection, such as disproportionality analysis [3]. Methods: In light of this, the Institute of Pharmacological Sciences of Southern Switzerland, in close collaboration with Swissmedic, set up and routinely perform a signal detection activity by disproportionality analysis in VigiBase, the global database of the World Health Organization (WHO) Programme for International Drug Monitoring, using spontaneous reports originating from Switzerland and concerning adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) associated with the Moderna (Spikevax) and Pfizer/BioNTech (Comirnaty) COVID-19 vaccines. These included the measurement of the reporting odds ratios (RORs) for COVID-19 vaccine/AEFI combinations meeting two predefined statistical signal detection criteria, namely a minimum of 5 reports concerning a COVID-19 vaccine/AEFI combination and a ROR lower limit of the 95% confidence interval[1. Excluding AEFIs either already labelled in the Swiss information for healthcare professionals, or already debated internationally, a panel of pharmacovigilance and clinical pharmacology experts are examining and discussing findings on novel and unexpected COVID-19 vaccine/AEFI combinations, in order to promptly detect potential safety signals that could warrant further investigation. Results: Since the start of the signal detection activity in August 2021, an early signal of disproportionate reporting in VigiBase for paraesthesia with the Moderna (Spikevax) vaccine was detected in Switzerland. This occurred a few months before the same signal was assessed and validated by the European Medicines Agency, which ultimately added paraesthesia to the European summary of product characteristics for the Moderna (Spikevax) vaccine [4]. Conclusion: Disproportionality analysis has some limitations such as lack of information about incidence rate of the adverse event in the population, and the existence of reporting biases. Nevertheless, continued research on newly identified safety signals can provide valuable information to support public health, guide regulatory decisions and design specific follow-up confirmatory studies.

6.
Practising Midwife ; 25(8):26-30, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2026913

ABSTRACT

The perinatal period is a high risk for onset and relapse of mental health problems. The COVID-19 pandemic is a particularly stressful occurrence with reported negative impacts on perinatal mental health, hence the need to understand these impacts on pregnant and post-partum childbearing women and people, and prioritise interventions to alleviate them. This is the first of two articles.

7.
Scientia Iranica. Transaction D, Computer Science & Engineering, Electrical ; 29(4):1904-1913, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2026304

ABSTRACT

An approach is proposed to construct fuzzy confidence intervals for unknown parameters in statistical models. In this approach, a family of confidence intervals of the unknown crisp parameters is considered. Such confidence intervals are used to obtain a fuzzy confidence interval for the parameter of interest. The proposed approach enjoys a wide range of confidence intervals to obtain a trapezoidal shaped fuzzy set of the parameter space as the fuzzy confidence interval for the parameter of interest. By using the resolution identity, it is shown that the constructed fuzzy confidence intervals are really fuzzy sets of the parameter space. Some numerical examples are provided to explain the functionality of the approach at one-sided and two-sided fuzzy confidence intervals. Moreover, the application of this proposed approach in health sciences is provided for the case of the recovery time of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions for COVID-19 patients.

8.
Global Change Biology. Bioenergy ; 13(8):1260-1274, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2019261

ABSTRACT

Tropical and subtropical acidic soils have been well documented as hotspots of global soil nitrogen (N) oxide (i.e., nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions). While the effectiveness of possible mitigation options has been extensively examined in croplands, little is known about their effectiveness in reducing N‐oxide emissions from acidic soils of rapidly expanding tea plantations in China. Here, we conducted a 2‐year field experiment to investigate how organic substitution for synthetic fertilizer and biochar amendment affect soil N‐oxide emissions from a subtropical tea plantation. Across the 2‐year measurement period, full organic substitution for synthetic fertilizer significantly increased N2O emissions by an average of 17% while had a lower NO emission compared to synthetic fertilizer alone. Our global meta‐analysis further revealed that full or partial organic fertilizer substitution resulted in a 29% (95% confidence interval: 5%–60%) increase of N2O emissions from acidic soils. In contrast, irrespective of fertilizer type, biochar amendment significantly reduced N2O emissions by 14% in the first but not second experimental year, suggesting a transient effect. The trade‐off effect of full organic substitution on N2O and NO emissions may be attributed to the favorable conditions for N2O production due to the stimulated activity of nitrifiers and denitrifiers. The suppression of N2O emission following biochar amendment was probably due to promoted further reduction of N2O to dinitrogen. The fertilizer‐induced emission factor (EF) of N2O (2.1%) in the tea plantation was greater than the current IPCC default value, but the EF of NO (0.8%) was comparable to the global estimate. Taken together, while biochar amendment could have mitigation potential, cautions are needed when applying organic substitution for synthetic fertilizer as mitigation options for acidic soils as hotspots of N‐oxide emissions.

9.
Operational Research ; 22(4):3411-3434, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2014541

ABSTRACT

Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a popular non-parametric approach to examine performance and productivity of airlines;however, it could not provide statistical information such as confidence intervals on the estimated efficiency scores. We combined stochastic frontier analysis and DEA into a single framework to disentangle noise and ‘pure’ inefficiency from the DEA inefficiency scores and accordingly provide confidence intervals for the estimated efficiency scores. Monte-Carlo simulation verified that our novel model is a good alternative for the conventional DEA as well as the bootstrap DEA. Empirical application using Asia-Pacific airlines’ data (2008‒2015) shows that after accounting for the ‘pure’ random errors, the sampled Asia-Pacific airlines performed well during the study period but their ‘pure’ efficiency was declining, hence, there is still room for improvement.

10.
Journal on Developmental Disabilities ; 27(1):1-10, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1970497

ABSTRACT

This brief report describes the demographic and clinical profiles of 190 adult home care users with intellectual and developmental disabilities tested for COVID-19 from March 2020 to May 2021. A crosssectional study design (n=190) was conducted. ChiSquare tests, Fisher’s Exact tests, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals are reported. Older age and congregate living increased the odds of having a positive COVID-19 test, while dependence in personal dressing was associated with decreased odds. These findings provide useful data from the first 15 months of the pandemic;trends over time should be investigated.  Alternate :Ce rapport bref décrit les profils démographiques et cliniques de 190 résidents adultes recevant des soins à domicile et ayant un trouble développemental ou une déficience intellectuelle qui ont été testés pour la COVID-19 entre mars 2020 et mai 2021. Un devis d’étude transversale (n = 190) a été mené. Des tests du Chi carré, des tests selon la méthode exacte de Fischer, et des rapports des cotes ayant un intervalle de confiance à 95% sont présentés. Un âge avancé et la vie en habitation collective a augmenté la probabilité d’obtenir un résultat positif au test de la COVID19, tandis que la dépendance pour l’habillage était associée à une probabilité moins élevée. Ces  résultats offrent des données utiles issues des 15 premiers mois de la pandémie;les tendances au fil du temps devraient être étudiées. Mots-clés : COVID-19, trouble du développement, déficience intellectuelle, soins à domiciles, interRAI, adultes.

11.
International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics ; 14(2):344-357, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964796

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the COVID-19 virus in the world and Indonesia since March 2020 has made it difficult for all elements of society. At the same time, there is one alternative solution to provide an overview to the public and the government so that they can take further action in dealing with the pandemic, that is by modeling the spread of COVID-19. One of the known disease modeling is SIR model, which is a model that divides individuals into certain groups/compartments. The SIR model and one of its derivatives, namely SIR-D, was developed to analyze and simulate several scenarios of the spread of a pandemic. There are 3 simulation scenarios made, namely a scenario without vaccination, a scenario with vaccination, and a scenario with vaccination without being accompanied by strict health protocols. The simulations of the models show that the vaccination process has an impact on reducing the spread of COVID-19, although it is less significant due to the vaccination process that is not optimal and comprehensive. Meanwhile, if the vaccination process is not carried out according to health protocols, then the spread of the pandemic will increase rapidly and form a second wave in Indonesia. This indicates that the vaccination process cannot be underestimated, and the public must continue to keep following health protocol. In general, it can be concluded that the epidemiological model used can provide an overview of the COVID-19's spread simulation with accuracy level MAPE, 0.41198 for the SIR model and 0.01712 for the SIR-D model.

12.
Statistical Science ; 37(3):306-321, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1933181

ABSTRACT

This paper concerns the construction of confidence intervals in standard seroprevalence surveys. In particular, we discuss methods for constructing confidence intervals for the proportion of individuals in a population infected with a disease using a sample of antibody test results and measurements of the test’s false positive and false negative rates. We begin by documenting erratic behavior in the coverage probabilities of standard Wald and percentile bootstrap intervals when applied to this problem. We then consider two alternative sets of intervals constructed with test inversion. The first set of intervals are approximate, using either asymptotic or bootstrap approximation to the finite-sample distribution of a chosen test statistic. We consider several choices of test statistic, including maximum likelihood estimators and generalized likelihood ratio statistics. We show with simulation that, at empirically relevant parameter values and sample sizes, the coverage probabilities for these intervals are close to their nominal level and are approximately equi-tailed. The second set of intervals are shown to contain the true parameter value with probability at least equal to the nominal level, but can be conservative in finite samples. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2022

13.
Energy Science & Engineering ; 10(7):1998-2021, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1929805

ABSTRACT

Natural gas load forecasting provides decision‐making support for natural gas dispatch and management, pipeline network construction, pricing, and sustainable energy development. To explain the uncertainty and volatility in natural gas load forecasting, this study predicts the natural gas load volatility. As the natural gas load volatility has the time‐series features, along with long‐term memory, volatility aggregation, asymmetry, and nonnormality, this study proposes a natural gas load volatility prediction model by combining generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) family models, XGBoost algorithm, and long short‐term memory (LSTM) network. The model first takes the GARCH family models parameters of sliding estimation and meteorological factors as the influencing factors of volatility, and then it screens these influencing factors through the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) algorithm. Finally, the selected important features are input into the LSTM network to predict the volatility, and the 90% confidence interval of the volatility is calculated. Compared with a variety of single and combined models, the model proposed in this study has an average reduction of 45.404% in the evaluation index of mean squared error. The experimental results show that the model proposed in this study has a good performance and accuracy in predicting the volatility of natural gas load.

14.
South African Journal of Science ; 118(5/6):1-14, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1912361

ABSTRACT

Older age, male sex, and non-white race have been reported to be risk factors for COVID-19 mortality. Few studies have explored how these intersecting factors contribute to COVID-19 outcomes. This study aimed to compare demographic characteristics and trends in SARS-CoV-2 admissions and the health care they received. Hospital admission data were collected through DATCOV an active national COVID-19 surveillance programme. Descriptive analysis was used to compare admissions and deaths by age, sex, race, and health sector as a proxy for socio-economic status. COVID-19 mortality and healthcare utilisation were compared by race using random effect multivariable logistic regression models. On multivariable analysis, black African patients (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 1.3), coloured patients (aOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.3), and patients of Indian descent (aOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2, 1.3) had increased risk of in-hospital COVID-19 mortality compared to white patients;and admission in the public health sector (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.5, 1.6) was associated with increased risk of mortality compared to those in the private sector. There were higher percentages of COVID-19 hospitalised individuals treated in ICU, ventilated, and treated with supplemental oxygen in the private compared to the public sector. There were increased odds of non-white patients being treated in ICU or ventilated in the private sector, but decreased odds of black African patients being treated in ICU (aOR 0.5;95% CI 0.4, 0.5) or ventilated (aOR 0.5;95% CI 0.4, 0.6) compared to white patients in the public sector. These findings demonstrate the importance of collecting and analysing data on race and socio-economic status to ensure that disease control measures address the most vulnerable populations affected by COVID-19.

15.
Biomedical Engineering ; 34(3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1911816

ABSTRACT

The increase in aged population is a global trend. Inculcating healthy behaviors such as regular exercises in the elderly has a significant impact on the financial and medical burden globally. Moreover, air pollution and the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pose a serious threat to public health. In order to improve the health conditions of the population, this study developed a motion feedback system named MoveV that can be used for several indoor training exercises. This system provides instant motion feedback by synchronizing exercise training videos on the website using a motion analysis algorithm that is applicable on smartphones, and a cloud database platform is used to record health behaviors. Feature extraction is performed based on force intensity, motion velocity, and exercise direction. The resultant accuracy of the motion feedback system was tested by a motion science expert and presented as the confidence level. For perfect movement, a confidence level of up to 90.5% was achieved, indicating that the MoveV system was able to record users’ exercise frequency and distinguish whether the user was performing well in the exercise movements. The proposed system is convenient and does not incur additional expenditure by purchasing any new device. Furthermore, it provides visual and voice feedback, companionship, and exercise motivation to the users, all of which are important factors when using online exercise platforms.

16.
World ; 3(2):344, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1911748

ABSTRACT

The new Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic was responsible for one of the worst public health crises in Brazil, which led to the implementation of economic policies to keep social distance. Our aim is to perform an epidemiological analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, in 2021, highlighting the impact of government commercial policies on pandemic control. This is an epidemiological, observational, and analytical study with secondary data. We constructed a regression for count data using the Poisson model. Data adherence to the regression was verified by Cameron & Trivedi and the Likelihood Ratio tests. According to the Poisson model, there was a statistically significant association (p < 0.001) between the adoption of rigid commercial interventions and the drop in deaths. Moreover, we revealed a consistency between the economic policies and the number of screening tests applied, which may have contributed to the deaths behavior. This study shows the importance of institutionalizing economic policies and their positive impacts on pandemic control;however, it raises the discussion about the serious repercussions of these measures on population vulnerability.

18.
Nutrition and Food Science ; 52(5):765-777, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1909161

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This study aims at determining the risk of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors on overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 10–13 years in Tanzania.Design/methodology/approach>A case-control study was conducted from January to March 2020 involving 69 overweight/obese children as cases and 138 normal weight children as controls. Cases were identified as having body mass index-for-age ≥ +1 standard deviation (SD) and controls as those having BMI-for-age range between −2 SD to <+1 SD. A validated questionnaire was used for data collection on daily physical activities and sedentary behavior types, frequency duration and activity score. An independent sample t-test was used to compare means of activity score between cases and controls. Binary logistic regression was used to predict risk factors for overweight/obesity.Findings>Risk factors for overweight/obesity were listening to music and/or radio for >2 h/week (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–6.1) and walking for exercise <2 h/week (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–4.1). On the other hand, rope skipping for >2 h/week (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03–0.7) was a protective factor against overweight/obesity. Controls had a significantly higher mean score of being active during lunch breaks compared to cases (p = 0.012). Cases had higher weight, height and percentage body fat than controls (p < 0.001). The home environment provided more avenues for physical activity than the school environment.Originality/value>To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is original research work and the first case-control study to predict physical activity and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for overweight and obesity in Tanzanian school children.

19.
Journal of Mathematics ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1891970

ABSTRACT

This article investigates a survival analysis under randomly censored mortality distribution. From the perspective of frequentist, we derive the point estimations through the method of maximum likelihood estimation. Furthermore, approximate confidence intervals for the parameters are constructed based on the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimators. Besides, two parametric bootstraps are implemented to construct the approximate confidence intervals for the unknown parameters. In Bayesian framework, the Bayes estimates of the unknown parameters are evaluated by applying the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, and highest posterior density credible intervals are also carried out. In addition, the Bayes inference based on symmetric and asymmetric loss functions is obtained. Finally, Monte Carlo simulation is performed to observe the behavior of the proposed methods, and a real data set of COVID-19 mortality rate is analyzed for illustration.

20.
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal ; 28(5):329-335, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1877339

ABSTRACT

By this date, the World Health Organization had officially acknowledged the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic, with a 13-fold increase in the number of cases within just 2 weeks (7). The closure of social gathering venues (parks, restaurants, masjids, gymnasiums, etc.), the public transport system, and educational institutions had a significant impact on residents, in quarantine and during the lockdown period (16). The sample size was 344, calculated with the Raosoft calculator, using a 5% margin of error, 95% confidence level, 20 000 population size and 65% of response distribution (18). Instrument The English language version of the McGill questionnaire was used for data collection to determine the physical, emotional, spiritual, financial and social impact of COVID-19 on quality of life among various individuals during the lockdown.

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