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1.
GMS Hyg Infect Control ; 18: Doc12, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241363

ABSTRACT

The consensus-based guideline "SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and (early) rehabilitation" for Germany has two sections: In the first part, the guideline addresses infection protection-related procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the second part, it provides practice recommendations for rehabilitation after COVID-19. The specific recommendations for rehabilitation after COVID-19 as issued by 13 German medical societies and two patient-representative organizations are presented together with general background information for their development.

2.
Early Intervention in Psychiatry ; 17(Supplement 1):180, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243274

ABSTRACT

Qualitative methods are used to capture stakeholder perspectives within learning healthcare systems (LHS), but there is a need to specify methods that balance rigour and pragmatic approaches to inform quality improvement (QI). Utilizing examples from two QI projects within the OTNY LHS, we illustrate methods and strategies that build team capacity and flexibility to respond to an evolving LHS. Method(s): Qualitative methods were tailored to fit each project's timelines and goals, to inform both practice and research. Tools to facilitate rapid cycle feedback included interview/focus group summary templates, aggregate summaries that synthesize findings by stakeholder group, case matrix templates for rapid extraction and systematic categorization of data along topic areas, and dissemination materials adapted for stakeholder audience and project phases. Strategies to maintain rigour included processes for data reduction and interpretation, a multi-disciplinary approach for analysis, frequent consensus-based meetings, data triangulation, and member checks. Result(s): Rapid cycle approaches yielded interim results that reshaped research questions or identified critical gaps. Case summary analysis exploring the impact of COVID-19 revealed limited information on telehealth challenges amongst OTNY participants, necessitating a shift in recruitment and interview focus. For another project, analytic methods were sequenced to rapidly inventory suggestions from interview summaries on how to enhance OTNY practice to better address racism, while subsequent thematic analysis of transcripts captured participants' experiences of racism for context. Challenges included concurrent alignment of data collection and analysis, tailoring summary templates to maximize utility for rapid analysis, and maintaining flexibility to respond to evolving findings and LHS stakeholder input. Conclusion(s): The diverse methods and strategies illustrated by these projects offer guidance for balancing.

3.
Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde ; 83(5):517-546, 2022.
Article in English, German | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241160

ABSTRACT

Objective This S2k guideline of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) and the German Society of Perinatal Medicine (DGPM) contains consensus-based recommendations for the care and treatment of pregnant women, parturient women, women who have recently given birth, and breastfeeding women with SARS-CoV-2 infection and their newborn infants. The aim of the guideline is to provide recommendations for action in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic for professionals caring for the above-listed groups of people. Methods The PICO format was used to develop specific questions. A systematic targeted search of the literature was carried out using PubMed, and previously formulated statements and recommendations issued by the DGGG and the DGPM were used to summarize the evidence. This guideline also drew on research data from the CRONOS registry. As the data basis was insufficient for a purely evidence-based guideline, the guideline was compiled using an S2k-level consensus-based process. After summarizing and presenting the available data, the guideline authors drafted recommendations in response to the formulated PICO questions, which were then discussed and voted on. Recommendations Recommendations on hygiene measures, prevention measures and care during pregnancy, delivery, the puerperium and while breastfeeding were prepared. They also included aspects relating to the monitoring of mother and child during and after infection with COVID-19, indications for thrombosis prophylaxis, caring for women with COVID-19 while they are giving birth, the presence of birth companions, postnatal care, and testing and monitoring the neonate during rooming-in or on the pediatric ward.Copyright © 2023. Thieme. All rights reserved.

4.
Early Intervention in Psychiatry ; 17(Supplement 1):99-100, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20239953

ABSTRACT

This rapid review provides an overview of recent literature on the nature of digital interventions for young people in terms of technologies used, substances and populations targeted, and theoretical or therapeutic models employed. A keyword search was conducted using MEDLINE and other databases for 2015-2021. Following a title/ and full-text screening of articles and consensus decision on study inclusion, data extraction proceeded using an extraction grid. Data synthesis relied on an adapted conceptual framework (Stockings et al., 2016) that involved a three-level treatment spectrum for youth substance use (prevention, early intervention, and treatment). The review identified 43 articles describing 39 digital interventions. Most were early interventions (n = 28), followed by prevention (n = 6) and treatment (n = 5). Of the five technologies identified, web-based interventions (n = 14) were most common. Digital interventions have mainly focused on alcohol use (n = 20), reflecting limited concern for other substance use and co-occurring use. Yet the rise in substance use and related harms during the Covid-19 pandemic highlights a critical need for more innovative substance use interventions. Technologies with more immersive and interactive features, such as VR and game-based interventions, call for further exploration. Only one intervention was culturally tailored and purposefully designed for gender minority youth, and another was geared to young men. As well, most interventions used a personalized or normative feedback approach, while a harm reduction approach guided only one intervention. The incorporation of culturally tailored interventions and harm reduction approaches may promote uptake and stronger engagement with digital interventions amongst youth.

5.
Aid, Trade and Development: The Future of Globalization, Second Edition ; : 1-431, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20239719

ABSTRACT

This volume presents a broad sweep of modern economic history underpinning aid, trade, development and globalization in the last half century and the salient challenges facing the global community today. The author draws on his long years as an academic and development practitioner to recommend what needs to be done to cope with the backsliding of the fight against global poverty, fractured geopolitics and the threats to the multilateral economic order. The new, revised edition analyses how unilateralism, rising protectionism and the Covid-19 pandemic seriously threaten global sustainable development. It concludes with recommendations on the policy changes needed to make globalization more equitable and development more sustainable. This book will be of interest to researchers and students of economic development and economic history, as well as all those concerned about global inequality and sustainability. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

6.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; 37(3):554-555, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238674
7.
Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: Third Edition ; 1:3-22, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20238352

ABSTRACT

Since the first edition of the handbook, important new research findings on climate change have been gathered. The evidence has further solidified, and the effects have become more visible. Both mitigation and adaptation of climate change are more important than ever before. The handbook in its presently third edition was completely updated and extended in coverage. Climate change is a fact, and aspects of "doing business in climate change” were included alongside scientific evidence on climate change, mitigation technologies – both established and novel – and adaptation measures to provide maximum benefit to its readers. The impacts of climate change have made it into our daily lives. All human beings, in turn, can contribute to the mitigation and adaptation of climate change. Consequently, these topics are discussed in schools, in private settings, in research, and in the business world. We can see solid implications of climate change. The 2020 COVID-19 crisis has paralyzed the entire world almost instantly. Climate change is slower and subtler, but even more severe in its potential and factual consequences, where no "fix” like a vaccination exists to return to the previous state. This handbook is more necessary than ever before. Over the last several million years, there have been warmer and colder periods on Earth, and the climate fluctuates for a variety of natural reasons, as data from tree rings, pollen, and ice core samples have shown. However, human activities on Earth have reached an extent that they impact the globe in potentially catastrophic ways, in terms of magnitude and irreversibility. Mitigation and adaptation are the two principal routes of our responses to climate change, and they, in fact, can be best achieved collectively by world citizens, scientists and nonscientists, in our daily lives. This chapter is an introduction to climate change and the handbook in its third edition. Current state of the arts of climate change mitigation and adaptation approaches are discussed. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022. All rights are reserved.

8.
JMIR Dermatology ; 6, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20234489

ABSTRACT

Background: Consensus guidelines and recommendations play an important role in fostering quality, safety, and best practices, as they represent an expert interpretation of the biomedical literature and its application to practice. However, it is unclear whether the recent collective experience of implementing telemedicine and the concurrent growth in the evidence base for teledermatology have resulted in more robust guidance. Objective: The objective of this review was to describe the extent and nature of currently available guidance, defined as consensus guidelines and recommendations available for telemedicine in dermatology, with guidance defined as consensus or evidence-based guidelines, protocols, or recommendations. Methods: We conducted a single-reviewer scoping review of the literature to assess the extent and nature of available guidance, consensus guidelines, or recommendations related to teledermatology. We limited the review to published material in English since 2013, reflecting approximately the past 10 years. We conducted the review in November and December of the year 2022. Results: We identified 839 potentially eligible publications, with 9 additional records identified through organizational websites. A total of 15 publications met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The guidelines focused on varied topics and populations about dermatology and skin diseases. However, the most frequent focus was general dermatology (8/15, 53%). Approximately half of the telemedicine guidance described in the publications was specific to dermatology practice in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The publications were largely published in or after the year 2020 (13/15, 87%). Geographical origin spanned several different nations, including Australia, the United States, European countries, and India. Conclusions: We found an increase in COVID-19-specific teledermatology guidance during 2020, in addition to general teledermatology guidance during the period of the study. Primary sources of general teledermatology guidance reported in the biomedical literature are the University of Queensland's Centre for Online Health and Australasian College of Dermatologists E-Health Committee, and the American Telemedicine Association. There is strong evidence of international engagement and interest. Despite the recent increase in research reports related to telemedicine, there is a relative lack of new guidance based on COVID-19 lessons and innovations. There is a need to review recent evidence and update existing recommendations. Additionally, there is a need for guidance that addresses emerging technologies. © Mollie R Cummins, Triton Ong, Julia Ivanova, Janelle F Barrera, Hattie Wilczewski, Hiral Soni, Brandon M Welch, Brian E Bunnell.

9.
Infektsionnye Bolezni ; 21(1):152-161, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234226

ABSTRACT

In December 2022, the Council of Experts was held. It purpose was to determine the place of virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NMA) in the ethiotropic treatment of COVID-19 in vulnerable categories of patients. The main issues were identified and their solutions were proposed. At the first visit of pregnant women due to COVID-19, proactive identification of risk factors and early prescription of NMA are recommended, preferably - with published safety data in this category of patients (casirivimab + imdevimab). In patients with oncological and other chronic (rheumatology, pulmonology, gastroenterology) diseases, prophylactic use of NMA is recommended. regardless of the severity of the disease. For patients with chronic pathology regardless of the severity of the disease an early prescription of ethiotropic therapy must be provided, combating the long-term circulation of the virus. To solve the problem of late treatment prescription, it is necessary to: use rapid tests, prescribe NMA if indicated, even if the patient presents late, introduce digital technologies to transfer information about COVID-19 cases between healthcare institutions (HI), create call centers for primary triage of patients, daily hospitals to reduce the burden on the HI. The issue of NMA using related to changes in their activity against new variants of SARS-CoV-2 remains relevant. Among the proposed solutions are: priority of indications over information about the activity of NMA, the diversification of the choice of NMA in HI, taking into account clinical experience, indications for use and prognosis of NMA activity, the use of combined forms of NMA (for example, casirivimab + imdevimab) or a combination of NMA with other means of ethiotropic therapy.Copyright © 2023, Dynasty Publishing House. All rights reserved.

10.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition ; 115(2):602, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232416
11.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S203-S204, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232323

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Aurum contains primary care electronic health records, including vaccinations and nearly complete capture of SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results between August 2020-March 2022. Our objective was to build code lists to define a cohort of persons diagnosed with COVID in England using routinely collected health data. Method(s): Persons aged 1 year or older were indexed on first COVID diagnosis from August 1, 2020 - January 31, 2022. We developed SNOMED code lists to define high risk of severe disease: 1) National Health Service's (NHS) list of highest risk conditions;2) PANORAMIC trial inclusion criteria;3) UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) clinical risk groups. COVID vaccinations were defined as of December 1, 2021 using medical and product codes. Code lists were developed using wildcard search terms which were reviewed by multiple independent reviewers, and inclusion/exclusion was determined by consensus. All lists for diagnoses were reviewed by a UK physician. Result(s): We identified 2,257,907 people diagnosed in primary care with COVID;46% were male and mean age was 34 years, comparable to governmental data for the same period reporting 47% of cases in England were male and mean age was 34 years. We identified 12% at high risk of severe disease using the NHS definition, 31% using the PANORAMIC trial criteria, and 10% using the UKHSA clinical risk groups. Among adults, 86.1% had >=1 and 80.2% had >=2 COVID vaccine doses (2% and 0.2% lower than official reports, respectively). Conclusion(s): This cohort represented the age and sex distribution of COVID cases, and the COVID vaccination coverage, in England through January 2022. Definitions were built using reproducible methods that can be leveraged for future work. The high capture of COVID vaccinations supports the use of this cohort to examine clinical and societal benefits of COVID vaccination in England.Copyright © 2023

12.
Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics ; 13(4):316-329, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20232154

ABSTRACT

The newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has turned into a potentially fatal pandemic illness. Numerous acute kidney injury (AKI) cases have been reported, although diffuse alveolar destruction and acute respiratory failure are the major symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The AKI, often known as a sudden loss of kidney function, carries a greater risk of mortality and morbidity. AKI was the second most frequent cause of death after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While most patients with COVID-19 have moderate symptoms, some have severe symptoms, such as septic shock and ARDS. Also, it has been proven that some patients have severe symptoms, such as the failure of several organs. The kidneys are often affected either directly or indirectly. The major signs of kidney involvement are proteinuria and AKI. It is hypothesized that multiple mechanisms contribute to kidney injury in COVID-19. Direct infection of podocytes and proximal tubular cells in the kidneys may lead to acute tubular necrosis and collapsing glomerulopathy. SARS-CoV2 may also trigger a cascade of immunological responses that lead to AKI, including cytokine storm (CS), macrophage activation syndrome, and Toll-like receptor type-4 activation (TLR-4). Other proposed processes of AKI include interactions between organs, endothelial failure, hypercoagulability, rhabdomyolysis, and sepsis.Furthermore, ischemic damage to the kidney might result from the decreased oxygen supply. This article focuses on kidney injury's epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiological processes. Specifically, it focuses on the CS and the role of TLR-4 in this process. To effectively manage and treat acute kidney damage and AKI in COVID-19, it is crucial to understand the underlying molecular pathways and pathophysiology.

13.
Expert Systems with Applications ; : 120645, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-20231077

ABSTRACT

The multi-granular probabilistic linguistic modeling allows decision makers to express cognitive information using multiple linguistic term sets based on their preferences. However, personalized individual semantics (PIS) can lead to different meanings of the same word within the linguistic context. To address this issue and manage consensus in large-scale group decision making, this study proposes a decision framework that employs multi-granular probabilistic linguistic preference relations (MGPLPRs). First, a transformation method is presented to unify different granularity levels of MGPLPRs, thus ensuring the consistency of granularity. Moreover, a consistency-driven optimization model is constructed to generate the numerical scales with PIS for different experts. Thereafter, a two-stage consensus reaching process (CRP) is developed, including both within-cluster and across-cluster CRP, to achieve group consensus. The experts' original weights are derived from a social network, taking into account the trust relationships among them. A dynamic weighting mechanism is used to update the experts' weights based on their contributions to group consensus, which better reflects the actual situation than fixed weights. The proposed method is exemplified through a case study of assessing and selecting campus surveillance measures for COVID-19. Finally, the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework are verified through comparative analysis and sensitivity analysis.

14.
BMC Neurol ; 23(1): 161, 2023 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322628

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Digital twins, a form of artificial intelligence, are virtual representations of the physical world. In the past 20 years, digital twins have been utilized to track wind turbines' operations, monitor spacecraft's status, and even create a model of the Earth for climate research. While digital twins hold much promise for the neurocritical care unit, the question remains on how to best establish the rules that govern these models. This model will expand on our group's existing digital twin model for the treatment of sepsis. METHODS: The authors of this project collaborated to create a Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) and an initial series of 20 DELPHI statements, each with six accompanying sub-statements that captured the pathophysiology surrounding the management of acute ischemic strokes in the practice of Neurocritical Care (NCC). Agreement from a panel of 18 experts in the field of NCC was collected through a 7-point Likert scale with consensus defined a-priori by ≥ 80% selection of a 6 ("agree") or 7 ("strongly agree"). The endpoint of the study was defined as the completion of three separate rounds of DELPHI consensus. DELPHI statements that had met consensus would not be included in subsequent rounds of DELPHI consensus. The authors refined DELPHI statements that did not reach consensus with the guidance of de-identified expert comments for subsequent rounds of DELPHI. All DELPHI statements that reached consensus by the end of three rounds of DELPHI consensus would go on to be used to inform the construction of the digital twin model. RESULTS: After the completion of three rounds of DELPHI, 93 (77.5%) statements reached consensus, 11 (9.2%) statements were excluded, and 16 (13.3%) statements did not reach a consensus of the original 120 DELPHI statements. CONCLUSION: This descriptive study demonstrates the use of the DELPHI process to generate consensus among experts and establish a set of rules for the development of a digital twin model for use in the neurologic ICU. Compared to associative models of AI, which develop rules based on finding associations in datasets, digital twin AI created by the DELPHI process are easily interpretable models based on a current understanding of underlying physiology.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Stroke , Humans , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Intensive Care Units , Critical Care , Stroke/therapy
15.
Science Communication ; 45(2):145-171, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2324544

ABSTRACT

This study examines the influence of news coverage on coronavirus disease (COVID)-related conspiracy theories on consensus perceptions regarding the seriousness of COVID-19 and its impact on attitudes and behaviors. In an online experiment, 395 participants either watched a report containing conspiracy theories, scientific facts, or information about a political summit, and they subsequently completed a questionnaire. Viewing reports on conspiracy theories lead to higher assessments of consensus compared with other reports. Perceived consensus correlated positively with attitudes toward COVID, which further correlated positively with behavior. The study shows that news reports can bias assessments of consensus, which has implications for public communication.

16.
Anesthesia and Analgesia ; 136(4 Supplement 1):83, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322612

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic posed numerous challenges to patient care, including extensive PPE use, patient care in isolation rooms, inadequate numbers of intensivists particularly in rural communities, use of unfamiliar ventilators that would be partially remedied by the ability to remotely control lung ventilation. The goals of the project were to study the intended use, risk management, usability, cybersecurity for remote control of ventilators and demonstrate the use of a single interface for several different ventilators. Method(s): Clinical scenarios were developed including remote control of the ventilator from an antechamber of an isolation room, nursing station within the same ICU, and remote control from across the country. A risk analysis and was performed and a risk management plan established using the AAMI Consensus Report--Emergency Use Guidance for Remote Control of Medical Devices. A cybersecurity plan is in progress. Testing was done at the MDPNP laboratory. We worked with Nihon Kohden OrangeMed NKV-550, Santa Ana, CA, and Thornhill Medical MOVES SLC, Toronto, Canada. Both companies modified their devices to allow remote control by and application operating on DocBox's Apiary platform. Apiary is a commercially available ICE solution, DocBox Inc, Waltham, MA. An expert panel was created to provide guidance on the design of a single common, simple to use graphical user interface (GUI) for both ventilators. Manufacturers' ventilation modes were mapped to ISO 19223 vocabulary, data was logged using ISO/IEEE 11073-10101 terminology using AAMI 2700-2-1, Medical Devices and Medical Systems - Essential safety and performance requirements for equipment comprising the patient-centric integrated clinical environment (ICE): Part 2-1: Requirements for forensic data logging. Result(s): We demonstrated that both ventilators can be controlled and monitored using common user interface within an institution and across the country. Pressure and flow waveforms were available for the NKV-550 ventilator, and usual ventilator measurements were displayed in near-real time. The interface allowed changing FiO2, ventilation mode, respiratory rate, tidal volume, inspiratory pressure, and alarm settings. At times, increased network latency negatively affected the transmission of waveforms. Conclusion(s): We were able to demonstrate remote control of 2 ventilators with a common user interface. Further work needs to be done on cybersecurity, effects of network perturbations, safety of ventilator remote control, usability implications of having a common UI for different devices needs to be investigated.

17.
Hepatology International ; 17(Supplement 1):S19-S20, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322379

ABSTRACT

In 1990, the seroprevalence of antibody against hepatitis C virus (anti- HCV) in Taiwan was first documented to be 0.95% in volunteer blood donors, 90% in hemophiliacs, and 81% in parenteral drug abusers. The risk factors for HCV infection in Taiwan include iatrogenic transmission (medical injection, hemodialysis, acupuncture, and blood transfusion), tattooing, and sexual transmission. The long-term risk of hepatic and non-hepatic diseases has been well-documented by REVEL-HCV study. A national program of antiviral therapy for chronic viral hepatitis was launched in Taiwan in 2003. Mortality rates of end-stage liver diseases decreased continuously from 2000-2003 to 2008-2011 in all age and gender groups. When the World Health Assembly adopted the Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis in 2016, National program to eliminate hepatitis C was very carefully evaluated. It became a consensus to reach the WHO's 2030 goals in 2025. Taiwan Hepatitis C Policy Guideline 2018-2025 was approved and published at the beginning of 2019. There are triple focuses of hepatitis C elimination in Taiwan including (1) therapy spearheads prevention, (2) screening supports therapy, and (3) prevention secures outcome. A total of US$1.7 billion will be allocated from 2017 to 2025 for the elimination of HCV. The coverage of HCV screening and treatment has been increasing significantly since 2017. The HCV screening coverage was almost 100% for dialytic patients, 96% for HIV-infected patients, 65% for patients under opioid substitution treatment, 63% for patients in the pre-end-stage renal disease care program, 57% for patients in the early chronic kidney disease care program, 52% for patients in diabetes care program, 39% for prisoners, and 38% for adults aged 45-79 years old in the general population by April 30, 2020. The budget to cover the cost of DAA increased from US$101 million in 2017 to US$219 million in 2019. The number of chronic hepatitis C patients receiving DAA therapy increased from 9,538 in 2017, 19,549 in 2018, to 45,806 in 2019. However, the number of DAA-treated CHC patients reduced to 36,159 in 2020 and 20,559 in 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The cure rate based on SVR12 was 96.8% in 2017, 97.4% in 2018, over 98.6% after 2019. It is expected that Taiwan will achieve WHO's HCV elimination goal by 2025.

18.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; 37(5):1045-1046, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2327404
19.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S361, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2327285

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic change in the distal esophagus in which squamous epithelium is replaced by columnar epithelium with goblet cells. Chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is strongly linked to the development of BE, which is a known precursor lesion to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). There is no universal guideline for BE screening, however AJG suggest a single screening endoscopy in patients with chronic GERD symptoms and 3 or more addition risk factors, such as male sex, age > 50 years, white race, tobacco smoking, obesity and family history of BE or EAC. Within the Veteran's Affair (VA) hospital in Northport, New York, many veterans possess multiple risk factors for BE. Residents in VA primary care clinic are diligent in colorectal cancer screening, yet there is concern for limited offerings for BE screening. Our project aims to study the barriers to BE screening within a high-risk veteran population. Method(s): This is a survey-based study. A total of 36 internal medicine residents working in VA primary care clinic were asked to fill out a survey regarding their perspective towards BE screening. The results of the survey are compiled in Table. Result(s): 36 residents within the clinic completed the survey. As shown in Table, 35 out of 36 residents expressed that the primary care clinic does not screen for BE adequately. 30 residents expressed uncertainty regarding referral criteria for BE screening, 24 residents revealed having never referred patients for BE screening. When asked about barriers regarding BE screening, consensus polling showed that there is a lack of resident education surrounding indications for screening. Other common barriers include lack of transportation for veterans to appointments, the COVID 19 pandemic, and lack of health literacy within the veteran population. Conclusion(s): Although there is no established guideline for BE screening, per AJG there is recommendation for a one-time screening endoscopy in susceptible population. VA patients pose a high-risk population that appears to have low screening rates. Patients appear to be placed on long term PPIs without re-assessment and endoscopic screening despite possessing multiple risk factors for BE. Our survey shows that within our resident cohort there is concern for lack of awareness regarding screening criteria for BE. With the initiation of this project, we hope to increase awareness of BE screening within the resident group and improve health outcomes within veteran population. (Table Presented).

20.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition ; 47(Supplement 2):S203-S204, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2327139

ABSTRACT

Background: An emerging finding about COVID-19 is its effect on nutrition and weight loss. The COVID-19 symptoms of fatigue, altered taste or smell, and lack of appetite are well known. But COVID-19 may have a more profound effect on clinical nutrition status. Two recent studies have identified that approximately one-third of ambulatory COVID-19 patients are at risk of experiencing weight loss >= 5% (Anker, et al;di Filippo, et al). The case study presented here discusses home start total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in a patient recently diagnosed with COVID-19 at high risk for refeeding syndrome. Method(s): N/A Results: Case Study: A 92-year-old patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 on June 8, 2022. Over the next week, she was hospitalized twice to manage symptoms of acute mental status changes, lethargy, aphasia, hypotension, and loss of appetite. The patient received nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, remdesivir, and bebtelovimab to treat COVID-19 at different times between June 9, 2022, and June 18, 2022. She remained COVID positive and continued to deteriorate clinically. On June 20, 2022, the patient began receiving 24/7 homecare, including intravenous (IV) fluids of dextrose 5% in normal saline (D5NS) 1000 mL daily for three days. She continued to experience loss of appetite and had no bowel movement for 3 days. On June 23, 2022, she was referred to this specialty infusion provider to initiate TPN therapy in the home setting. The patient's BMI was 18.2 kg/m2. Lab results revealed potassium 3.0 mmol/L, phosphate 1.6 mg/dL, and magnesium 1.6 mg/dL. High risk of refeeding syndrome was identified by the level of hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia. The specialty infusion provider's registered dietitian recommended to discontinue D5NS and begin NS with added potassium, phosphate, and magnesium. Thiamine 200mg daily was added to prevent Wernicke's encephalopathy. The patient's clinical status and lab values were monitored closely each day until her electrolyte levels stabilized (Table 1). Home TPN therapy was initiated on June 28, 2022, with <10% dextrose and 50% calorie requirement with 85% protein and 1.0 g/kg lipids. Three-day calorie count and nutrition education were performed four days post TPN initiation. Oral intake met only 25% of estimated needs. Over several days, theTPN formula was gradually increased to goal calories and the infusion cycle was slowly decreased. The following week, the patient's oral intake improved to 60%-75% of estimated needs. Her constipation resolved, and she showed improvement in functional status and mobility. Her appetite drastically improved when the TPN was cycled. Another three-day calorie count was performed when TPN calories reached goals. Oral intake demonstrated 100% estimated calorie and protein needs. TPN therapy was ultimately discontinued on July 14, 2022. As of September 30, 2022, the patient has stabilized at her pre-COVID weight of 45 kg with full recovery of appetite, function, and cognition. Discussion(s): The ASPEN Consensus Recommendations for Refeeding Syndrome (da Silva, et al) describe the repletion of electrolyte levels before introducing calories to prevent end-organ damage associated with refeeding syndrome (respiratory muscle dysfunction, decreased cardiac contractility, cardiac arrhythmias, and encephalopathy). Conclusion(s): This case study highlights the successful initiation of home TPN therapy in a patient at high risk of refeeding syndrome post COVID-19 infection. Although home start TPN and the risk of refeeding syndrome are not new concepts, they must be considered in the setting of COVID-19. Given the effects COVID-19 has on taste, smell, and appetite and the recent finding that one-third of patients with COVID infection may experience weight loss of >= 5%, nutrition support and patient education are vital components of overall patient care. (Figure Presented).

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