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1.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 112: 109283, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to be a major global public health challenge, with the emergence of variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Current vaccines or monoclonal antibodies may not well be protect against infection with new SARS-CoV-2 variants. Unlike antibody-based treatment, T cell-based therapies such as TCR-T cells can target epitopes that are highly conserved across different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Reportedly, T cell-based immunity alone can restrict SARS-CoV-2 replication. METHODS: In this study, we identified two TCRs targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein in CD8 + T cells. Functional evaluation by transducing these TCRs into CD8 + or CD4 + T cells confirmed their specificity. RESULTS: Combinations of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by CD8 + and CD4 + T cells can help control COVID-19 in patients. Moreover, the targeted epitope is highly conserved in all emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the Omicron. It is also conserved in the seven coronaviruses that infect humans and more broadly in the subfamily Coronavirinae. CONCLUSIONS: The pan-genera coverage of mutant epitopes from the Coronavirinae subfamily by the two TCRs highlights the unique strengths of TCR-T cell therapies in controlling the ongoing pandemic and in preparing for the next coronavirus outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Epitopes , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Cytokines , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics
2.
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology ; 40(10):82-83, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067782

ABSTRACT

Objectives. The peripheral lymphocyte compartment of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) differs strongly from healthy individuals. Whether this altered lymphocyte composition also abnormally changes during immune reactions, especially in the context of novel mRNA-vaccines, is unknown. Methods. Peripheral blood samples from 26 pSS patients were compared to 6 healthy controls before Coronavirus-2 (CoV-2) vaccination (BNT162b2, ChAdOx1, mRNA-1273) and 7 days after secondary vaccination. Spike. 1 (S1)-receptor binding domain (RBD)-neutralizing IgG antibodies were measured in serum samples. Within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lymphocytes were characterized using spectral flow cytometry and B and T cell subpopulations were phenotypically analyzed. Results. Immunization induced CoV-2 specific serum antibodies in all pSS and healthy participants. When analyzing pSS and healthy individuals together, frequencies of circulating IgG+ RBD-binding antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and anti-CoV-2 serum titers correlated (r=0.42, p=0.022). Previously described alterations of peripheral B cells in pSS patients (like reduced memory B cells, increased naive and transitional B cells and higher maturity of ASCs) remained stable during vaccination. Also the subset distribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells mainly stayed unchanged. However, CD4+CXCR5-PD-1+ T cells phenotypically mimicking peripheral helper TPH cells increased in pSS patients comparing pre- and post-vaccination (p=0.020), while circulating CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+ follicular helper TFH cells declined (p=0.024). Conclusions. An immune reaction induced by vaccination with the novel mRNA technology yields adequate antibody production and vaccine specific lymphocytes in pSS patients and controls. However, no major changes within the typical composition of lymphocyte subpopulations of pSS patients were observed despite small changes in TPH and TFH subsets.

3.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(9):DC24-DC27, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067201

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hybrid Problem-Based Learning (h-PBL) is a type of teaching-learning technique that incorporates both in-person learning and virtual learning via hybrid classroom tools. It reportedly increases student engagement, positively impact their learning process and improve communication skills. During Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) times, its applicability was further enhanced as it allowed the flexibility of teaching as well as learning from home to both teachers and students. Aim: To assess the perception and experience of 2nd phase MBBS students after undergoing training by the h-PBL method. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2nd phase MBBS students in the Department of Microbiology at College of Medicine and Sagore Dutta Hospital, Kolkata from 15th March to 14th April 2022. A total of 111 students of 2nd phase MBBS of the college gave an informed consent to be part of the study. All inductees underwent a structured training by h-PBL technique following which their perception and experience about the exercise was sought via questionnaire. Data were presented in frequency and percentage. Association between mean scores of male and female participants was calculated by Chi-square test. Results: Out of the 111 participants, 58 (52.2%) were male and 53 (47.8%) were female with mean age of 19.5±0.5 years (range 18-22 years). The h-PBL technique was perceived to be motivating for self-directed learning by 97 (85.6%) of the respondents. A total of 107 (96.4%) students agreed that h-PBL is more effective than traditional teaching for acquiring both theoretical and practical knowledge, learning and understanding topics correctly and also identifying and rectifying their deficiencies in knowledge and skills. More than 90% participants (102 of 111) felt that h-PBL has more potential than traditional teaching to establish fruitful student-teacher interaction and provide better feedback opportunities. Overall student satisfaction in our study showed 96.4% agreement (107 of 111). Conclusion: The students considered h-PBL model to be better than traditional teaching to help them acquire theoretical knowledge and practical skills. They also felt that it improved their communication skills, teamwork ethics and motivated them to undertake self-directed learning.

4.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A267, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064032

ABSTRACT

Aims To review the glycaemic control of type 1 diabetic patients attending the paediatric and transition adolescent diabetes clinic within NHS Lanarkshire during the coronavirus pandemic. Methods A quantitative analysis of 348 patients attending the paediatric and transition adolescent diabetes clinics within NHS Lanarkshire was carried out. Data collected included age, sex, date of diagnosis and insulin delivery device. Comparing these measures to the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) of the patient. Patient data was anonymised within a single data collection sheet. Results 94% of patients across both clinics (n=298) attended a consultation during lockdown, before returning to school in August. Within the paediatric diabetes clinic, results from 199 patients were analysed. 30.65% (n=61) patients experienced a rise in their HbA1c over lockdown whilst 65.32% (n=130) of patients reduced their HbA1c. In this cohort, the mean HbA1c before lockdown compared to after lockdown was 3.77mmol/mol (95% CI 1.93, 5.61;P=0.000). 90 sets of patient data were analysed from the transition adolescent diabetes clinic. 27.78% (n=25) of patients had a rise in their HbA1c and whilst patients from this clinic gained tighter glycaemic control over lockdown. The mean HbA1c pre-lockdown compared to post-lockdown in this clinic reduced by 4.67mmol/mol (CI: +1.35, +7.99, P= 0.006). Patients residing in SIMD quintiles 3-5 had the greatest improvement in HbA1c over lockdown. Conclusion Glycaemic control of patients within the NHS Lanarkshire paediatric diabetes clinics improved over lockdown. There was a mean reduction in HbA1c over the lockdown period. Repeating this audit in a year would be beneficial to see how returning to school and further local lockdowns affected the glycaemic control of paediatric patients.

5.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A65-A66, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064017

ABSTRACT

Aims By necessity, our trust was unable to complete gold standard ADOS (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) assessments as part of the ASD diagnostic pathway during the Coronavirus pandemic. We, therefore, implemented the BOSA as a stop-gap. This retrospective audit compares the need for further assessments and the outcomes from BOSA assessments against those achieved by our unit when the 'gold standard' ADOS was in use. Our audit standard was to achieve equivalent results pre- and during the pandemic. Methods Data from a random sample of 120 children who completed an ADOS assessment August - December 2019 was compared with data from a random sample of 118 children who completed a BOSA August 2020 - January 2021. Statistical analysis was performed using the 2 tailed Fisher's exact test. Results In school age children, further assessment was significantly more likely to be required when a BOSA assessment was used (25.6% vs. 8.9%, p=0.01). There was a less significant difference between the need for further assessment in the pre-school age group between the ADSO and BOSA groups (14.3% vs. 0%, p=0.048). In this audit, the wait time for a BOSA assessment was 372 days vs. for an ADOS assessment 278 days. However, due to the complex disruption caused by the pandemic, any difference in pathway duration could not meaningfully be evaluated by this audit. An additional ADOS was needed in 14.3% of cases undergoing the BOSA assessment. This will have affected the duration of the assessment process due to delays in arranging and completing further assessments. Children were slightly more likely to receive a positive autism diagnosis using the BOSA. However, this was not statistically significant (p=0.31 for school age, p= 1.0 for preschool age). Conclusion The BOSA assessment seems to be effective when used with pre-school children, with a minimally significant difference in rates of children requiring further assessment and no significant difference in final diagnosis rates. BOSA assessment appears to be less useful in school age children - with a greater proportion then requiring a subsequent ADOS assessment, but, again, with no significant difference in final diagnosis rates. This audit supports the recommendation that the BOSA assessment is not intended to be used long-term or to replace the ADOS, which remains the gold standard assessment. However, in the context of a pandemic, where ADOS assessments were not possible, the BOSA assessment allowed 86% of preschool age and 74% of school age children to receive a confirmed diagnosis (positive or negative), using an assessment method whose diagnosis rates were similar to the ADOS assessment.

6.
Gesundheitswesen, Supplement ; 84(8-9):776-777, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062339

ABSTRACT

Einleitung The Public Health Service in Germany (PHS, German: ÖGD) has been suffering from a significant shortage of young professionals for decades. An issue likely to intensify in the coming years due to demographic processes. This applies not only, but especially, to the municipal level. The reasons for the perceived low attractiveness of the PHS as a potential employer have been widely discussed, but so far, no empirical data is available. Therefore, the German Network of Young Professionals in Public Health (German: NOEG), has set up a study to analyze the attractiveness of the PHS as a potential employer for young professionals. Methoden We conducted two cross-sectional surveys to assess the requirements and expectations of students in PHSrelevant fields of study with regard to their future employers. The first survey (wave 1) was conducted from December 2019 to April 2020 and focused on wishes and expectations of medical, public health, and health science students regarding their prospective jobs and employers. It was postulated that the various roles and activities of the public health workforce within the PHS are of interest to many students but are not considered as potential fields of employment for a variety of reasons. The second survey (wave 2) was conducted from June to September 2020 to be able to address any changes that may have resulted from the newfound attention on the PHS during the coronavirus crisis, to identify changes in the evaluation of the PHS as a potential employer form a young professional perspective. Ergebnisse In the wave 1, 2456 students participated, with an additional 584 taking part in wave 2. Medical students were less likely to report interest in working for the PHS in comparison with public health students and students of other health sciences. The vast majority of those medical students that considered the PHS as a potential employer reported their main interest as working in primary health care. Public health students and other students have experienced barriers when seeking jobs in the PHS. The respondees reported on a number of domains contributing to a low attractiveness of the PHS as an employer, such as the PHS being perceived as antiquated, inefficient and slow, the occupations consisting of too much braucracy, and limited career opportunities. Suggestions for improvement included a stronger occupational focus on prevention, health promotion and public health impact, modernization and digitalization, as well as providing attractive job offers for candidates without a professional training in medicine. Schlussfolgerung The results of this largest survey regarding the attractivenss of the German PHS among students provide valuable insights for the reform of the German PHS. We synthesized a number of suggestions for reform, among others regarding training and education, occupation in the PHS, adminstrative processes, and career opportunities.

7.
CAB Abstracts; 2022.
Preprint in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: ppcovidwho-345451

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 50 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed globally as of November 2020. Evidence is rapidly emerging on the epidemiology of COVID-19, and its impact on individuals and potential burden on health services and society. Between 10-35% of people with COVID-19 may experience post-acute long Covid. This currently equates to between 8,129 and 28,453 people in Scotland. Some of these people will require rehabilitation to support their recovery. Currently, we do not know how to optimally configure community rehabilitation services for people with long Covid.

8.
Chest ; 162(4):A1471-A1472, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060825

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Lifelong Learning in Critical Care SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 1:15 pm PURPOSE: Physiological instability occurs several hours prior to in-hospital cardiac arrest. Delays in early intervention is associated with an increase in morbidity, mortality and the incidence of in-hospital cardiac arrest [1]. Improving health care quality through the deployment of a rapid response team was recommended in 2004 by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement through the ‘100,000 Lives Campaign’ [2]. METHODS: Cleveland Clinic Fairview Hospital, one of the largest academic centers of the Cleveland Clinic Health Care System, appointed a dedicated daytime Rapid Response Registered Nurse in 2016, and in 2017 the above coverage was expanded to the night and week-end shifts. In 2019 a dedicated Internal Medicine Residents team took the lead of the Rapid Response and Code Blue team. Starting in 2017 monthly unannounced Rapid Response and Code Blue educational simulation cases were implemented, and in 2020 a dedicated simulation Lab provided immersive leaning experience to healthcare practitioners. In 2018 a centralized Code Blue event ion by the Quality Data Registry begun and in 2020 monthly events review helped improve the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation with valuable feedback provided to caregivers. Also, in 2020 the Cleveland Clinic Health Care System Resuscitation Operations Council was formed, where representatives from each hospital shared experience and quality initiatives. The above helped with the standardization of care across the 21 hospitals of the Cleveland Clinic Enterprise. RESULTS: Across five years of quality initiatives and consolidation of our rapid response response team from 2016 to 2021, the number of Rapid Responses increased by 104 % from 704 events in 2015 to 1438 in 2021. At the same time, the number of Code Blue events decreased by 56.5% from 283 in 2015 to 123 in 2021 and the number on non-critical care medical and surgical units decreased by 48.9% from 45 to 23 cases per year. The above was seen despite a significant increase in the hospital patient census, and the Coronavirus Infectious Disease 19 Pandemic where Fairview Hospital served as a tertiary referral center for all North Central and North Western Ohio. These results confirm prior published data on the subject where not only a focused rapid response team but also educational, simulation and case review activities are all associated with a reduced incidence of unexpected cardiac arrest [3-9]. CONCLUSIONS: A dedicated Rapid Response and Code Blue team, Simulation in education, and frequent quality review of cardiac arrest cases are all strategies that reduce the incidence of in hospital cardiac arrest. Future research is needed to highlight the impact of each of those quality and educational initiatives on outcomes and performance. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Educational Activities, Dedicated Rapid Response Team and Quality Case Reviews decreases the incidence of In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Francois Abi Fadel No relevant relationships by Lauren Crosby no disclosure on file for Megan Edwards;no disclosure on file for June McMahan;no disclosure on file for Patrick Murphy;No relevant relationships by Kelly Orlosky No relevant relationships by Anoosha Tauquir

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A488, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060607

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Not the Normal Host: Infections Still Matter SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 1:15 pm PURPOSE: Community Acquired Respiratory Viruses (CARVs) are associated with poor outcome in Solid Organ Transplant (SOT) recipients. We reviewed some of these outcomes such as respiratory support, length of stay (LOS), ICU admission, steroid use & 30-day all-cause mortality. METHODS: Multihospital, single center, retrospective review of electronic health records from 01/01/2014-12/31/2019. RESULTS: 23 SOT recipients (M=20, F=3) who tested positive for CARVs were identified. SOT distribution was heart=2, kidney=4, liver=3, lung=11, heart-lung=1, lung-kidney=1 & heart-kidney=1. Mean age at admission was 60 years, average LOS was 8 days with 2 pts needing >2 weeks. 6 pts required intensive care unit;8 pts required supplemental oxygen support. 16 pts had infiltrates on chest imaging. 15 pts had a 90-day readmission with respiratory complaints. 8 pts had bronchoscopy & 20 had positive nasal swab. 3 pts had a negative nasal swab but positive Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for CARV while 2 pts had negative BAL but positive nasal swab. CARV distribution was Rhinovirus 48%, Parainfluenza 29%, Metapneumovirus 12%, Respiratory syncytial virus 0.03%, Adenovirus 0.03% & Non-novel Coronavirus 0.06%. 5 pts had bacterial coinfection (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium striatum & Stenotrophomonas maltophilia). All pts were immunosuppressed, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) were used in 3 pts, antivirals in 7 pts (ribavirin in 6 & oseltamivir in 1) & steroids in 10 pts. 12 pts had transplant organ biopsy with 5 showing acute cellular rejection. 11 pts had underlying Coronary artery disease and 17 pts had hematologic disorders (Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, leukemia, Myelodysplastic syndrome, & multiple myeloma). 35% pts died within 1 year (2 during same admit). Cause of death was refractory septic shock (1), respiratory failure (3), cardiac arrest (3) & chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) (1). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, we assessed the SOT recipients positive for CARVs who required admission & evaluated the impact on their clinical course. This analysis noted a significant rate of acute & chronic rejections, bronchiolitis obliterans and CLAD in these patients. Newer tests like multiplex NAT & (semi) quantitative NAT (QNAT) can diagnose CARVs in addition to Human Influenza Virus. Patients can present with wheezing, croup, bronchiolitis, pneumonitis & pneumonia. Impact of CARVs seems to vary by the type of organ transplant, level of neutropenia/lymphopenia, upper versus lower respiratory infection and intrinsic pathogenicity of virus. Various preventive & therapeutic measures were employed in an attempt to improve outcomes in these patients. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Transplant receipients are at a high risk of infections especially CARVs which may increase morbidity and mortality. This analysis emphasizes the value of timely diagnosis and treatment in this specific patient population who are immunocompromised. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Supriya Singh

10.
Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics ; 13(Supplement 1):32-33, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058676

ABSTRACT

Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is one of the most frequent diseases observed at centers for pediatric care and results in significant morbidity worldwide. URI is the most common cause in children treated against acute respiratory infection. The difficulty found by clinicians in establishing the differential and etiologic diagnosis of URIs and the occasionally indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs. URIs range from the common, cold-typically a mild, self-limited, catarrhal syndrome of the nasopharynx to life-threatening illnesses such as epiglottitis. Viruses account for most URIs. Appropriate management in these cases may consist of reassurance, education, and instructions for symptomatic home treatment. Diagnostic tests for specific agents are helpful when targeted URI therapy depends on the results. Bacterial primary infection or superinfection may require targeted therapy. The upper respiratory tract includes the sinuses, nasal passages, pharynx, and larynx, gateways to the trachea, bronchi, and pulmonary alveolar spaces. Rhinitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, epiglottitis, laryngitis, and tracheitis are specific manifestations of URIs. Most URIs are viral in origin. Typical viral agents that cause URIs include the Rhinoviruses, Coronaviruses, Adenoviruses, and Coxsackieviruses. In the emergency department, attention should be paid to the patient's vital signs, including temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation (if obtained). Neonates are obligate nose breathers and may be at greater risk for respiratory distress;hence practitioners should auscultate the lungs for adequate aeration and assess breathing quality. The cardiovascular examination should assess adequate distal perfusion and an appropriate-for-age heart rate. Finally, dehydration can be a complication of any viral illness, and therefore, an assessment of hydration should be a part of the initial evaluation. Tests of nasopharyngeal specimens for specific pathogens are helpful when targeted therapy depends on the results (e.g., group A streptococcal infection, gonococcus, pertussis). Specific bacterial or viral testing is also warranted in other selected situations, such as when patients are immunocompromised, during inevitable outbreaks, or provide specific therapy to contacts. Symptombased therapy represents the mainstay of URI treatment in immunocompetent adults. Antimicrobial or antiviral therapy is appropriate in selected patients.

11.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):2813-A0143, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057879

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Previous evidence suggests serial 'non-attenders' to clinic appointments are more likely to be socially disadvantaged, afflicted by poor health, and have higher use of emergency healthcare. This report seeks to quantify and characterise factors associated with non-attendance within a population of patients for face-to-face (F2F) outpatient appointments, pre-and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods : This was a retrospective cohort study of all National Health Service (NHS) patients, aged 18 and over, who were newly referred to Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, a tertiary ophthalmic institution consisting of a principal central site, four district hubs and five satellite clinics in London between January 1st 2019 and November 1st 2021. We included patients referred to the adnexal, cataract, general ophthalmology, glaucoma and medical retina services. Only the patient's first encounter (attendance or non-attendance) with MEH was included. Results : A total of 70,328 of first appointments were F2F (mean age pre-pandemic: 54 and pandemic: 56-IQR: 30 for both cohorts). The non-attendance rates for face-to-face pre-pandemic were 9.0% and face-to-face pandemic were 10.5%. Male sex (adjusted odds ratio pre-pandemic: 0.85, 0.80-0.91 and pandemic: 0.89, 0.82-0.97), greater levels of deprivation (adjusted odds ratio pre-pandemic: 0.89, 0.88-0.91 and pandemic: 0.91, 0.90- 0.93), incompletion of self-reported ethnicity and a previously cancelled appointment (whether instigated by the hospital or patient) were strongly associated with non-attendance within this mode of care delivery (p<0.01). Conclusions : Overall, male sex and greater socioeconomic deprivation are associated with poorer attendance. More specifically, non-attendance was higher amongst patients with self-reported Black ethnicity and early morning appointment times. Older patients, self-reported Caucasian ethnicity, those with diabetes and later appointment times were associated with higher levels of attendance. Further study is warranted to evaluate whether enhanced surveillance of certain cohorts could improve non-attendance rates in these groups.

12.
Journal of Clinical and Basic Research ; 6(1):37-45, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2057220

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is one of the most important healthcare and social challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on depression and quality of life among women with chronic pain during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown.

13.
Journal of Clinical and Basic Research ; 6(1):11-27, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2057219

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe acute respiratory disease with a high prevalence. According to the research and statistical data, in January 2021, there have been 92,262,621 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and more than two million deaths. Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the main cause of this disease. In addition to the respiratory system, the disease affects the gastrointestinal tract, central-peripheral nervous system, circulatory system, and kidneys. Therefore, any therapeutic action to reduce COVID-19-related symptoms and complications is essential. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of the published literature and preprints on the efficacy of erythropoietin (EPO) and recombinant human EPO as a safe stimulant and tissue protector in the treatment of COVID-19. We also briefly described the structure of coronavirus, its pathogenesis, and the structure of EPO and recombinant human EPO. All relevant articles published in the Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases were searched. According to the results, EPO is a cytoprotective cytokine induced by hypoxia. The pleiotropic effects of EPO are associated with its erythrocyte-forming, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory activities. It also exerts protective effects on the heart, lungs, kidneys, arteries, and central and peripheral nervous systems. It has been demonstrated that EPO can increase hemoglobin levels, thereby increasing oxygen delivery to the tissues. Therefore, recombinant human EPO therapy can be used for counteracting the adverse effects of COVID-19 including hypoxic myocarditis, acute renal failure, pulmonary edema, and brain-spinal cord ischemic injury. Overall, the use of EPO and recombinant human EPO therapy increases blood coagulation, tumor growth, thromboembolism, and purification of red blood cells, which must be accompanied by anticoagulants such as heparin.

14.
Journal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences ; 30(2), 2021.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2057029

ABSTRACT

The current study sought to examine the clinical, laboratory, and imaging aspects of COVID-19-positive critically sick patients who were admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) at three hospitals in Rash City, Iran. The goal of this retrospective study was to examine 138 COVID-19 patients who had been hospitalized to the intensive care unit. Data on the study participants' demographics, underlying diseases, laboratory and imaging results, and prognosis of the diseases were taken from their medical records. 138 COVID-19 patients who were hospitalised to the intensive care unit were the subject of this retrospective analysis. Patient records were used to extract information about the patient, including demographic details, underlying diseases, laboratory and imaging results, and disease outcomes. The majority of the patients in this study were male and between the ages of 55 and 69. The most prevalent underlying conditions were diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic heart disease;the most prevalent symptoms were shortness of breath, fever, and cough. The most prevalent lung Computer Tomography (CT) scan finding was ground glass opacities, and the most frequent laboratory findings in the study participants were an increase in LDH, ESR, CRP, neutrophil percentage, and lymphopenia. A 90.58% fatality rate was recorded. This study showed that the majority of patients with severe disease presentations were older, had a history of underlying disease, symptoms of shortness of breath, cough, and fever, substantial lung involvement in imaging, and altered laboratory findings. Despite medical treatment and mechanical ventilation, mortality remained high.

15.
Revista de Investigacion en Agroproduccion Sustentable ; 6(1):1-9, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056879

ABSTRACT

Efficiency in shrimp farming is due to the use of an extensive system that includes fewer larvae per pool, which increases productivity, improves financial results, and even the environmental impacts generated during these operations. The objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect supply in the Ecuadorian shrimp sector. To this end, some statistical techniques such as linear regression and hypothesis testing were used. A bibliographic study was carried out regarding shrimp production in Ecuador, taking as reference the data provided by the National Chamber of Aquaculture and public control entities and reviewing the unprecedented impact on the current COVID19 sanitary crisis and the reduction of shrimp demand affecting Ecuador's income. Finally, it was observed that the research variables considered directly impact crustacean production, and a mathematical model was established.

16.
Dermatologia, Revista Mexicana ; 66(2):196-204, 2022.
Article in Spanish | GIM | ID: covidwho-2056850

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of skin manifestations in a period of 3 months after COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective and longitudinal study done from October 1st to November 30th, 2020, in which patients older than 18 years, recovered from COVID-19, were evaluated from day 14 to day 90 after the infectious process. RESULTS: There were included 204 patients (113 women and 91 men);51% of patients developed symptoms and hair loss was the most frequent of them, followed by itching and xerosis. Telogen effluvium was the most frequent diagnosis (29.4%), with a mean disease onset of 39.15 days;11.6% developed rash, the most common was the morbilliform and papulosquamous rash. CONCLUSIONS: The most frequent form of cutaneous affection in postinfectious period of COVID-19 is telogen effluvium;however, it is possible to find other manifestations, such as xerosis cutis and rash.

17.
Dermatologia, Revista Mexicana ; 66(1):16-24, 2022.
Article in Spanish | GIM | ID: covidwho-2056849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the pandemic, the use of multiple products for disinfection and prevention of COVID-19 transmission was widespread, many of them topically administered. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with the perception and use of topical products for the prevention of COVID-19 in Peruvian populations., MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study of secondary data analysis was done applying a survey to Peruvian adults, who were asked about the belief or use of different products, according to whether they believed in or used at least one of them. In addition, the association was sought according to socio-educational and occupational characteristics. RESULTS: There were included 3509 participants. The product that they perceived the most that could prevent COVID-19 was the mixture of 4% sodium hypochlorite, vinegar and alcohol (37%), but the one they used the most was 4% sodium hypochlorite (11%). In the multivariate analysis, it was found that women were those who had a positive perception of the topical use of these products (p value < 0.001), adjusted for the marital status of the respondents. However, when the use was analyzed, women were the ones who used these products the least (p value = 0.028), those who were working used these products the most (p value = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the Peruvian population does not perceive or use topical products to prevent COVID-19.

18.
African Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 16(2):80-96, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056737

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2'-O-methyltransferase is responsible for the capping of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA and consequently the evasion of the host's immune system. This study aims at identifying prospective natural inhibitors of the active site of SARS-CoV-2 2'O-methyltransferase (2'-OMT) through an in silico approach. Materials and Method: The target was docked against a library of natural compounds obtained from edible African plants using PyRx - virtual screening software. The antiviral agent, Dolutegravir which has a binding affinity score of -8.5 kcal mol-1 with the SARS-CoV-2 2'-OMT was used as a standard. Compounds were screened for bioavailability through the SWISSADME web server using their molecular descriptors. Screenings for pharmacokinetic properties and bioactivity were performed with PKCSM and Molinspiration web servers respectively. The PLIP and Fpocket webservers were used for the binding site analyses. The Galaxy webserver was used for simulating the time-resolved motions of the apo and holo forms of the target while the MDWeb web server was used for the analyses of the trajectory data.

19.
African Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 16(2):55-62, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056736

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare providers have been at the frontline of the response to the COVID-19 disease. Many of them have contracted the disease, and some of them already dead. This study assessed the knowledge, compliance with preventive measures and determined the relationship between knowledge and practice of preventive strategies to COVID-19 among nurses working in a selected hospital in South-South Nigeria. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design guided the study. Census method guided the recruitment of all the 378 nurses in the hospital who met the study's inclusion criteria.

20.
Saude e Pesquisa ; 14(2):333-340, 2021.
Article in Portuguese, English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056619

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of COVID-19 according to the positivity of the rapid tests and the associated factors in the population of the state of Para. This is a cross-sectional, analytical, retrospective study, developed with cases of COVID-19 in individuals notified and residing in the state of Para. Information was collected on the State Transparency Portal. Positivity for rapid tests of the disease was considered as the outcome variable. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify associations between variables. The incidence of COVID-19 was 46% (95% CI: 45.7-46.2). Being male, over 80 years old and waiting 22 days or more to perform the tests after the onset of symptoms increased the chances for a positive result. It can be concluded that there is a high incidence of COVID-19 in the state. Non-pharmacological measures and case tracking strategies are important alternatives to mitigate the pandemic.

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