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1.
Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery ; 12(7):15, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884868

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease. Fast and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 from chest radiography may enable more efficient allocation of scarce medical resources and hence improved patient outcomes. Deep learning classification of chest radiographs may be a plausible step towards this. We hypothesize that bone suppression of chest radiographs may improve the performance of deep learning classification of COVID-19 phenomena in chest radiographs. Methods: Two bone suppression methods (Gusarev et al. and Rajaraman et al.) were implemented. The Gusarev and Rajaraman methods were trained on 217 pairs of normal and bone-suppressed chest radiographs from the X-ray Bone Shadow Suppression dataset (https://www.kaggle.com/hmchuong/xray-bone-shadowsupression). Two classifier methods with different network architectures were implemented. Binary classifier models were trained on the public RICORD-1c and RSNA Pneumonia Challenge datasets. An external test dataset was created retrospectively from a set of 320 COVID-19 positive patients from Queen Elizabeth Hospital (Hong Kong, China) and a set of 518 non-COVID-19 patients from Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital (Hong Kong, China), and used to evaluate the effect of bone suppression on classifier performance. Classification performance, quantified by sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), accuracy and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC), for non-suppressed radiographs was compared to that for bone suppressed radiographs. Some of the pre-trained models used in this study are published at (https://github.com/danielnflam). Results: Bone suppression of external test data was found to significantly (P<0.05) improve AUC for one classifier architecture [from 0.698 (non-suppressed) to 0.732 (Rajaraman-suppressed)]. For the other classifier architecture, suppression did not significantly (P>0.05) improve or worsen classifier performance. Conclusions: Rajaraman suppression significantly improved classification performance in one classification architecture, and did not significantly worsen classifier performance in the other classifier architecture. This research could be extended to explore the impact of bone suppression on classification of different lung pathologies, and the effect of other image enhancement techniques on classifier performance.

2.
Polish Journal of Radiology ; 87:e271-e273, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884600

ABSTRACT

Purpose: There are currently only scarce data available describing imaging manifestations in children with COVID-19. The aim of this study was to analyse pulmonary lesions on chest radiography (CXR) in paediatric patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and to compare the CXR results with clinical and laboratory data. Material and methods: In this prospective single-centre study we included 118 consecutive paediatric patients with COVID-19. CXR was performed in 107 patients. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed on the same day as CXR, immediately (0 to 2 days) after the COVID-19 diagnosis had been established. Results: Pulmonary lesions were found in 24/107 (23%) children, including 14/24 (58%) with bilateral abnormalities. Compared to patients with normal CXR, children presenting with pulmonary lesions were significantly younger (7.0 +/- 4.5 vs. 9.5 +/- 4.5 years, p = 0.03) and more commonly presented with an elevated D-dimer level (6/24, 25% vs. 5/81, 7%;p = 0.008). Almost half (46%) of the children with pulmonary lesions were asymptomatic, and 11/60 (18%) of all asymptomatic patients presented with abnormal CXR. Conclusions: Pulmonary lesions in the course of COVID-19 are more common in younger children and those presenting with an elevated D-dimer level. A significant proportion of asymptomatic COVID-19 patients develop CXR abnormalities.

3.
J Thorac Dis ; 14(5): 1478-1487, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884867

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to summarize the available data on the association between the severity of (COVID-19) and routine blood indicators, inflammatory, biochemical parameters and coagulation parameter. Methods: A literature search was conducted of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Sciences, CNKI, WanFang database providing relevant data. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool effect sizes. Results: In patients with severe symptoms, interleukin-6, [IL-6; standardized mean difference (SMD) =1.15, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.01, 1.29, P<0.001, n=1,121], interleukin-10 (IL-10; SMD =0.92, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.08, P<0.001, n=782), interleukin-4 (IL-4; SMD =0.2, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.39, P=0.04, n=500), procalcitonin (PCT; SMD =1.16, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.33, P<0.001, n=734), C-reactive protein (CRP; SMD =1.42, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.57, P<0.001, n=1,286), serum amyloid A (SAA; SMD =2.82, 95% CI: 2.53, 3.11, P<0.001, n=502) neutrophil count (SMD =0.63, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.82, P<0.001, n=558), alanine aminotransferase (ALT; SMD =2.72, 95% CI: 2.43, 3.02, P<0.001, n=538), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; SMD =2.75, 95% CI: 2.37, 3.12, P<0.001, n=313), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; SMD =4.01, 95% CI: 3.79, 4.24, P<0.001, n=1,055), creatine kinase (CK; SMD =2.62, 95% CI: 2.2, 3.03, P<0.001, n=230;), CK-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB; SMD =3.07, 95% CI: 2.81, 3.34, P<0.001, n=600, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT; SMD =0.63, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.87, P<0.001, n=351), and prothrombin time (P-T; SMD =1.83, 95% CI: 1.55, 2.11, P<0.001, n=351) were significantly higher than in patients with mild symptoms. On the contrary, lymphocyte count (SMD =-1.04, 95% CI: -1.21, -0.86, P<0.001, n=805) platelets (SMD =-1.47, 95% CI: -1.7, -1.24, P<0.001, n=653), monocyte count (SMD =-0.56, 95% CI: -0.8, -0.32, P<0.001, n=403), and albumin (SMD =-2.95, 95% CI: -3.21, -2.7, P<0.001, n=637) was significantly lower in patients with severe symptoms than in patients with mild symptoms. IL-6 (SMD =2.62, 95% CI: 2.15, 3.09, P<0.001, n=185), PCT (SMD =0.2, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.23, P<0.001, n=156), creatinine (SMD =2.29, 95% CI: 1.87, 2.7, P<0.001, n=213), and neutrophil counts (SMD =2.77, 95% CI: 2.38, 3.16, P<0.001, n=260) in patients with COVID-19 in the death group were significantly higher than that in patients in the survival group, while the lymphocyte count was significantly lower. Conclusions: In summary, current evidence show that those laboratory indicators are associated with the severity of COVID-19 and thus could be used as prognostic risk stratification of patients with COVID-19.

4.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) could reflect interleukin-6 (IL-6) systemic activity since anisocytosis represents the inhibition of erythropoiesis, leaded by the hyperinflammatory background. Our objective was to analyze RDW performance to predict outcome in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Retrospective observational study including 173 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS. Data was analyzed at hospital admission, inclusion in the TOCICOV Study (day 0), days 1, 3, 7 and 15 postinclusion. RESULTS: Overall, 57% patients received tocilizumab. Overall mortality was 20.8%. RDW was higher in non-survivors compared to survivors at admission (13.53% vs. 14.35, P=0.0016), day 0 (13.60% vs. 14.42, P=0.026), day 3 (13.43% vs. 14.36, P<0.001) and day 7 (13.41% vs. 14.31, P=0.046), presenting better discrimination ability for mortality than other prognostic markers [area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) =0.668 for admission RDW, 0.680 for day 0 RDW, 0.695 for day 3 RDW and 0.666 for day 7 RDW]. RDW values did not vary significantly according to tocilizumab treatment. When adjusted by hemoglobin and tocilizumab treatment, only RDW at admission, day 0, day 3 and C reactive protein (CRP) at day 0 and day 1 were associated with mortality (P<0.05). Only in non-tocilizumab treated patients, IL-6 levels at day 0 were correlated with day 3 RDW (r=0.733, P=0.004) and with day 3 CRP (r=0.727, P=0.022). Both parameters showed significant statistical correlation (r=0.255 for day 1 RDW and CRP in the overall cohort and r=0.358 for day 3 RDW and CRP in patients not treated with tocilizumab, P<0.015). CONCLUSIONS: RDW predicts COVID-19-associated ARDS mortality and reflects the hyperinflammatory background and the effects of cytokines such as IL-6, irrespective of tocilizumab treatment.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884443

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a virus that belongs to the coronavirus family and is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As of May 2022, it had caused more than 500 million infections and more than 6 million deaths worldwide. Several vaccines have been produced and tested over the last two years. The SARS-CoV-2 virus, on the other hand, has mutated over time, resulting in genetic variation in the population of circulating variants during the COVID-19 pandemic. It has also shown immune-evading characteristics, suggesting that vaccinations against these variants could be potentially ineffective. The purpose of this review article is to investigate the key variants of concern (VOCs) and mutations of the virus driving the current pandemic, as well as to explore the transmission rates of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs in relation to epidemiological factors and to compare the virus's transmission rate to that of prior coronaviruses. We examined and provided key information on SARS-CoV-2 VOCs in this study, including their transmissibility, infectivity rate, disease severity, affinity for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, viral load, reproduction number, vaccination effectiveness, and vaccine breakthrough.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884169

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 poses an immense global threat. Visitors to hospitalized patients during a pandemic might themselves be carriers, and so hospitals strictly control patients and inpatient companions. However, it is not easy for cancer patients to adjust the times of their medical treatment or to suspend treatment, and the impact of the pandemic on cancer inpatients and inpatient companions is relatively high. The objectives for this investigation are to study the correlations among emotional stress, pain, and the presence of inpatient companions in cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was a retrospective descriptive study. The participants were cancer inpatients and inpatient companions in a medical center in Taiwan. The data for this study were extracted from cross-platform structured and normalized electronic medical record databases. Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS version 22.0 were used for analysis of the data. In all, 75.15% of the cancer inpatients were accompanied by family, and the number of hospitalization days were 7.87 ± 10.77 days, decreasing year by year, with statistical significance of p < 0.001. The daily nursing hours were 12.94 ± 10.76, and the nursing hours decreased year by year, p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in gender among those who accompanied the patients, but there were statistical differences in the length of hospitalization, nursing hours, and pain scores between those with and without inpatient companions, with p < 0.001. The inpatient companions were mostly family members (78%). The findings of this study on cancer patient care and inpatient companions should serve as an important basis for the transformation and reform of the inpatient companion culture and for epidemic prevention care in hospitals.

7.
Mil Med Res ; 9(1): 27, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883546

ABSTRACT

Since its establishment in 2014, Military Medical Research has come a long way in becoming a premier journal for scientific articles from various different specialties, with a special emphasis on topics with military relevance. The field of military medicine may be obscure, and may not be readily encountered by the typical clinician on a day-to-day basis. This journal aims not only to pursue excellence in military research, but also keep current with the latest advancements on general medical topics from each and every specialty. This editorial serves to recap and synthesize the existing progress, updates and future needs of military medical excellence, discussing foremostly the unique traits of literature published in this journal, and subsequently presenting the discourse regarding wartime and peacetime medicine, the role of the military in a public health emergency, as well as wound healing and organ regeneration. Special attention have been devoted to military topics to shed light on the effects of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Explosive (CBRE) warfare, environmental medicine and military psychiatry, topics which rarely have a chance to be discussed elsewhere. The interconnectedness between military combat and soldier physical and mental well-being is intricate, and has been distorted by pandemics such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This journal has come a long way since its first article was published, steadily contributing to the existing knowledge pool on general medical topics with a military slant. Only with continuous research and sharing, can we build upon the work of the scientific community, with hopes for the betterment of patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Medicine , Military Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Publications
8.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(4): 766-777, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Efficacy and safety data of heterologous prime-boost vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. METHODS: We recruited adult volunteers for homologous or heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with adenoviral (ChAdOx1, AstraZeneca) and/or mRNA (mRNA-1273, Moderna) vaccines. Four groups of prime-boost vaccination schedules were designed: Group 1, ChAdOx1/ChAdOx1 8 weeks apart; Group 2, ChAdOx1/mRNA-1273 8 weeks apart; Group 3, ChAdOx1/mRNA-1273 4 weeks apart; and Group 4, mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273 4 weeks apart. The primary outcome was serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers and neutralizing antibody titers against B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.617.2 (delta) variants on day 28 after the second dose. Adverse events were recorded up until 84 days after the second dose. RESULTS: We enrolled 399 participants with a median age of 41 years and 75% were female. On day 28 after the second dose, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers of both heterologous vaccinations (Group 2 and Group 3) were significantly higher than that of homologous ChAdOx1 vaccination (Group 1), and comparable with homologous mRNA-1273 vaccination (Group 4). The heterologous vaccination group had better neutralizing antibody responses against the alpha and delta variant as compared to the homologous ChAdOx1 group. Most of the adverse events (AEs) were mild and transient. AEs were less frequent when heterologous boosting was done at 8 weeks rather than at 4 weeks. CONCLUSION: Heterologous ChAdOx1/mRNA-1273 vaccination provided higher immunogenicity than homologous ChAdOx1 vaccination and comparable immunogenicity with the homologous mRNA-1273 vaccination. Our results support the safety and efficacy of heterologous prime-boost vaccination using the ChAdOx1 and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccines. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05074368).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunity , Vaccination
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0071622, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879117

ABSTRACT

The evolutional process of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) development remains inconclusive. This study compared the genome sequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), bat coronavirus RaTG13, and SARS-CoV-2. In total, the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13 were 77.9% and 77.7% identical to the genome of SARS-CoV, respectively. A total of 3.6% (1,068 bases) of the SARS-CoV-2 genome was derived from insertion and/or deletion (indel) mutations, and 18.6% (5,548 bases) was from point mutations from the genome of SARS-CoV. At least 35 indel sites were confirmed in the genome of SARS-CoV-2, in which 17 were with ≥10 consecutive bases long. Ten of these relatively long indels were located in the spike (S) gene, five in nonstructural protein 3 (Nsp3) gene of open reading frame (ORF) 1a, and one in ORF8 and noncoding region. Seventeen (48.6%) of the 35 indels were based on insertion-and-deletion mutations with exchanged gene sequences of 7-325 consecutive bases. Almost the complete ORF8 gene was replaced by a single 325 consecutive base-long indel. The distribution of these indels was roughly in accordance with the distribution of the rate of point mutation rate around the indels. The genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 was 96.0% identical to that of RaTG13. There was no long insertion-and-deletion mutation between the genomes of RaTG13 and SARS-CoV-2. The findings of the uneven distribution of multiple indels and the presence of multiple long insertion-and-deletion mutations with exchanged consecutive base sequences in the viral genome may provide insights into SARS-CoV-2 development. IMPORTANCE The developmental mechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains inconclusive. This study compared the base sequence one-by-one between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or bat coronavirus RaTG13 and SARS-CoV-2. The genomes of SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13 were 77.9% and 77.7% identical to the genome of SARS-CoV, respectively. Seventeen of the 35 sites with insertion and/or deletion mutations between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV were based on insertion-and-deletion mutations with the replacement of 7-325 consecutive bases. Most of these long insertion-and-deletion sites were concentrated in the nonstructural protein 3 (Nsp3) gene of open reading frame (ORF) 1a, S1 domain of the spike protein, and ORF8 genes. Such long insertion-and-deletion mutations were not observed between the genomes of RaTG13 and SARS-CoV-2. The presence of multiple long insertion-and-deletion mutations in the genome of SARS-CoV-2 and their uneven distributions may provide further insights into the development of the virus.

10.
World J Pediatr ; 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has different manifestations in pediatric cases. It is assumed that they might present more gastrointestinal symptoms with a different viral shedding pattern in gastrointestinal samples. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the viral shedding pattern in gastrointestinal specimens of children with COVID-19. METHODS: We searched all published studies in English language in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, up to date as of October 2021. Our search included the term "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, novel coronavirus, or coronavirus; and shed, excrete, secret, or carriage; and stool or rectal; and children or pediatrics". We included studies evaluating SARS-CoV-2 shedding in gastrointestinal specimens, including rectal swabs and stool samples of children with COVID-19 infection. We excluded duplicated data, case reports, and studies without original data. RESULTS: Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria for the qualitative synthesis, 10 of which were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of gastrointestinal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in children with COVID-19 was 86% (95% confidence interval 73%-96%, I2 = 62.28%). After respiratory specimen had become negative, 72% (43/60) had persistent shedding in gastrointestinal specimens. The gastrointestinal RNA had a positive test result for more than 70 days after symptoms onset. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 might occur in a substantial portion of children and might persist long after negative respiratory testing. Further research is recommended to find the role of SARS-CoV-2 gastrointestinal shedding in transmission in children.

11.
AORN J ; 115(6): 537-545, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877553

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to a variety of challenges that have necessitated process changes in perioperative environments. Communication failures are a cause of surgical adverse events, and the pandemic has created additional communication concerns. Measures to prevent disease transmission, such as social distancing and wearing personal protective equipment, may inhibit communication. Relational dynamics and the types of collaboration that perioperative health care professionals exhibit can affect the quality of communication. The use of checklists during procedures and the hand-over process may enhance communication content. Health care professionals can use communication tools, such as portable and fixed communication devices, an electronic display of the OR schedule, cyber-physical systems, and short message service (ie, text messages) to facilitate information sharing. The concepts presented in this article should help perioperative nurses to improve communication during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment
12.
Journal of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine ; 6, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876336

ABSTRACT

Background: Tocilizumab is an immunomodulating agent that inhibits the inflammatory cascade via interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling. A recent meta-Analysis written by the World Health Organization, and other large, randomized trials, have found that the medication results in reduced all-cause mortality in the treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness, likely by targeting aberrant inflammatory pathways. With the medication now recommended by infectious diseases societies in the treatment of COVID-19, many providers will begin using this medication in critically ill patients, and for some it will be their first exposure to the medication and its side effects. Although atypical secondary infections have been observed following multiple administrations of tocilizumab, our case is significant as it displays an atypical presentation of invasive bacterial illness and sepsis following a single dose. Case Description: Our case consists of a 52-year-old man with severe COVID-19 pneumonitis who was given tocilizumab due to worsening respiratory status and elevating inflammatory markers, who later developed severe, invasive bacterial disease with minimal objective findings suggesting severe illness. Six days following tocilizumab administration, the patient was diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteremia, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis, at which time inflammatory markers were within normal limits, he was no longer febrile or tachycardic, and his only objective findings suggesting illness were a tender shoulder with an isolated, neutrophilic predominant leukocytosis. This complication resulted in a washout of a septic joint, a 6-week course of intravenous antibiotics, and a 59-day hospitalization. The patient was discharged without new chronic medical issues, including a lack of new end-organ dysfunction or chronic pain of the joint affected by septic arthritis. Conclusions: This case demonstrates an atypical presentation of gram-positive systemic infection, displaying the complications which may develop with the use of immunomodulators. Because of the potential for severe infection with atypical, insidious presentation, a high index of suspicion should be maintained in all patients receiving these agents. © Journal of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine.

14.
Iyakuhin Johogaku = Japanese Journal of Drug Informatics ; 23(4):166-177, 2021.
Article in Japanese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1876144

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the opinions of healthcare professional regarding the contributions of the Medical Affairs department. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors influencing and reasons for the contributions in the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic situation. Design/Methods: A web-based survey was conducted among healthcare professionals (Key Opinion Leader/Key Thought Leader, KOL/KTL) who had multiple contacts with the Medical Affairs department, Japan. Results: The responses of 141 KOL/KTLs in Japan were collected;77.3% of the respondents indicated that the contributions of the Medical Affairs department exceeded their expectations (achieved the expected level of contribution). The most common responses were “the identification of unmet medical needs” and “the dissemination of medical and scientific information, providing advanced medical and scientific information;” other responses included “promoting sales of the company's drugs.” The requests from KOL/KTLs regarding quality were “knowledge about biological and clinical statistics” and “proposal and quick response ability from the perspective of medical staff and patients,” but these responses were partially different between physicians and pharmacists. COVID-19 has resulted in substantial changes, for example, “face-to-face” interactions have significantly decreased from 91.5 to 50.4% and “Online” interactions have significantly increased from 20.6 to 70.9%. However, the effects of the declaration of emergency state could not be identified. The KOL/KTLs requested to make the meeting times more appropriate, conduct in-depth two-way discussions, provide latest information, and discuss about professional manners and behaviors. Conclusion: In summary, regardless of the changes in the types of activities caused by COVID-19, the Medical Affairs department has made substantial contributions to healthcare professionals, who highly appreciated them. Furthermore, depending on responses of individuals whose expectations could not be met, areas of improvements have been suggested.

15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875699

ABSTRACT

Given the current state of COVID-19, it is crucial to reveal its evolving relationship with and effect on different body organ systems and their diseases. The severity and outcome of COVID-19 have a very complex relationship, especially to the vital organs including the kidney, either in their state of health or disease. Additionally, it is well known that diabetes affects the kidney, leading to diabetic nephropathy. The kidney is also affected by different pathological and immunopathological reactions with COVID-19 infection, leading to acute kidney injury. Therefore, this review intended to extract the recent advances, updates, and discoveries about the effects of COVID-19 on diabetic patients and the relationship between COVID-19 invasion and the diabetic kidney and to discuss the current state of knowledge that has not yet been proved or disproved, leading to numerous controversial issues in looking for the effect of COVID-19 associated with diabetes mellitus on the human kidney.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Humans , Kidney
16.
Br J Haematol ; 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874397

ABSTRACT

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients remain at high risk of adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and emerging variants. The optimal prophylactic vaccine strategy for this cohort is not defined. T cell-mediated immunity is a critical component of graft-versus-tumour effect and in determining vaccine immunogenicity. Using validated anti-spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and S-specific interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFNγ-ELIspot) assays we analysed response to a two-dose vaccination schedule (either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1) in 33 HSCT recipients at ≤2 years from transplant, alongside vaccine-matched healthy controls (HCs). After two vaccines, infection-naïve HSCT recipients had a significantly lower rate of seroconversion compared to infection-naïve HCs (25/32 HSCT vs. 39/39 HCs no responders) and had lower S-specific T-cell responses. The HSCT recipients who received BNT162b2 had a higher rate of seroconversion compared to ChAdOx1 (89% vs. 74%) and significantly higher anti-S IgG titres (p = 0.022). S-specific T-cell responses were seen after one vaccine in HCs and HSCT recipients. However, two vaccines enhanced S-specific T-cell responses in HCs but not in the majority of HSCT recipients. These data demonstrate limited immunogenicity of two-dose vaccination strategies in HSCT recipients, bolstering evidence of the need for additional boosters and/or alternative prophylactic measures in this group.

17.
Endocr Pract ; 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is thought to contribute to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and worse outcomes in patients with diabetes. This study compared the cumulative insulin dose required to achieve DKA resolution in the intensive care unit among patients with type 2 diabetes and COVID-19 infection versus without COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated 100 patients-50 patients with COVID-19 in cohort 1 and 50 patients without COVID-19 in cohort 2-treated with insulin infusions for DKA at a tertiary care teaching hospital. The primary outcome was to compare the cumulative insulin dose required to achieve DKA resolution in each cohort. The secondary outcomes included time to DKA resolution, mean insulin infusion rate, and mean weight-based cumulative insulin infusion dose required to achieve DKA resolution. All endpoints were adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: The mean cumulative insulin dose was 190.3 units in cohort 1 versus 116.4 units in cohort 2 (P = .0038). Patients receiving steroids had a mean time to DKA resolution of 35.9 hours in cohort 1 versus 15.6 hours in cohort 2 (P = .0014). In cohort 1 versus cohort 2, the mean insulin infusion rate was 7.1 units/hour versus 5.3 units/hour (P = .0025), whereas the mean weight-based cumulative insulin infusion dose was 2.1 units/kg versus 1.5 units/kg (P = .0437), respectively. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-infected patients required a significantly larger cumulative insulin dose, longer time to DKA resolution, higher insulin infusion rate, and higher weight-based insulin infusion dose to achieve DKA resolution versus non-COVID-19-infected patients with type 2 diabetes.

18.
Biomedicines ; 10(6)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869465

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines were developed a few months after the emergence of the pandemic. The first cases of vaccine-induced thrombotic complications after the use of adenoviral vector vaccines ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 by AstraZeneca, and Ad26.COV2.S by Johnson & Johnson/Janssen, were announced shortly after the initiation of a global vaccination program. In these cases, the occurrence of thrombotic events at unusual sites-predominantly located in the venous vascular system-in association with concomitant thrombocytopenia were observed. Since this new entity termed vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) shows similar pathophysiologic mechanisms as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), including the presence of antibodies against heparin/platelet factor 4 (PF4), standard routine treatment for thrombotic events-arterial or venous-are not appropriate and may also cause severe harm in affected patients. Thrombotic complications were also rarely documented after vaccination with mRNA vaccines, but a typical VITT phenomenon has, to date, not been established for these vaccines. The aim of this review is to give a concise and feasible overview of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in COVID-19 vaccine-induced thrombotic complications.

19.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 142(6): 619-627, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869129

ABSTRACT

To tackle the pandemic of the novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2), the international society, including Japan, has been actively promoting vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. To effectively utilize these vaccines, clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate their safety and efficacy. For efficacy evaluation, prevention rate of symptomatic novel coronavirus infections (corona virus disease 2019; COVID-19) between placebo groups and investigational vaccine groups has been the key parameter to evaluate the novel COVID-19 vaccines. This approach is based on a consensus among international regulatory authorities. Compared to several months ago, the public vaccination campaign for COVID-19 has substantially progressed in many countries. This makes it difficult to conduct clinical trials, which have placebo control arms, anywhere in the world because of ethical problems in administering a placebo during a pandemic. Therefore, the new international consensus among regulatory authorities is that immunogenicity bridging studies between the new COVID-19 vaccines that are being developed and approved COVID-19 vaccines may be needed when placebo-controlled studies are no longer feasible. In the future, the number of unvaccinated people worldwide is expected significantly decrease; thus, the issue of how to evaluate additional immunization for those who have completed the initial immunization remains to be addressed. This would require new international convergence. The development of COVID-19 vaccines and their evaluation would have to be updated, considering the social situation and vaccine coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines, DNA , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Biol Dyn ; 16(1): 412-438, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868208

ABSTRACT

We fit an SARS-CoV-2 model to US data of COVID-19 cases and deaths. We conclude that the model is not structurally identifiable. We make the model identifiable by prefixing some of the parameters from external information. Practical identifiability of the model through Monte Carlo simulations reveals that two of the parameters may not be practically identifiable. With thus identified parameters, we set up an optimal control problem with social distancing and isolation as control variables. We investigate two scenarios: the controls are applied for the entire duration and the controls are applied only for the period of time. Our results show that if the controls are applied early in the epidemic, the reduction in the infected classes is at least an order of magnitude higher compared to when controls are applied with 2-week delay. Further, removing the controls before the pandemic ends leads to rebound of the infected classes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Biological , Monte Carlo Method , Pandemics/prevention & control
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