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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 16.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821746

ABSTRACT

Cases of COVID-19 have been reported in over 200 countries. Thousands of health workers have been infected and outbreaks have occurred in hospitals, aged care facilities and prisons. World Health Organization (WHO) has issued guidelines for contact and droplet precautions for Healthcare Workers (HCWs) caring for suspected COVID-19 patients, whilst the US Centre for Disease Control (CDC) has recommended airborne precautions. The 1 - 2 m (≈3 - 6 ft) rule of spatial separation is central to droplet precautions and assumes large droplets do not travel further than 2 m (≈6 ft). We aimed to review the evidence for horizontal distance travelled by droplets and the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization (WHO), US Center for Diseases Control (CDC) and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) on respiratory protection for COVID-19. We found that the evidence base for current guidelines is sparse, and the available data do not support the 1 - 2 m (≈3 - 6 ft) rule of spatial separation. Of ten studies on horizontal droplet distance, eight showed droplets travel more than 2 m (≈6 ft), in some cases more than 8 meters (≈26 ft). Several studies of SARS-CoV-2 support aerosol transmission and one study documented virus at a distance of 4 meters (≈13 ft) from the patient. Moreover, evidence suggests infections cannot neatly be separated into the dichotomy of droplet versus airborne transmission routes. Available studies also show that SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the air, 3 hours after aeroslisation. The weight of combined evidence supports airborne precautions for the occupational health and safety of health workers treating patients with COVID-19.

2.
BMJ Open ; 12(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822070

ABSTRACT

Introduction Treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) is associated with significant impairment of functioning and high treatment costs. Identification of patients at high risk of TRS at the time of their initial diagnosis may significantly improve clinical outcomes and minimise social and functional disability. We aim to develop a prognostic model for predicting the risk of developing TRS in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and to examine its potential utility and acceptability as a clinical decision tool. Methods and analysis We will use two well-characterised longitudinal UK-based first-episode psychosis cohorts: Aetiology and Ethnicity in Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses and Genetics and Psychosis for which data have been collected on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. We will identify candidate predictors for the model based on current literature and stakeholder consultation. Model development will use all data, with the number of candidate predictors restricted according to available sample size and event rate. A model for predicting risk of TRS will be developed based on penalised regression, with missing data handled using multiple imputation. Internal validation will be undertaken via bootstrapping, obtaining optimism-adjusted estimates of the model's performance. The clinical utility of the model in terms of clinically relevant risk thresholds will be evaluated using net benefit and decision curves (comparative to competing strategies). Consultation with patients and clinical stakeholders will determine potential thresholds of risk for treatment decision-making. The acceptability of embedding the model as a clinical tool will be explored using qualitative focus groups with up to 20 clinicians in total from early intervention services. Clinicians will be recruited from services in Stafford and London with the focus groups being held via an online platform. Ethics and dissemination The development of the prognostic model will be based on anonymised data from existing cohorts, for which ethical approval is in place. Ethical approval has been obtained from Keele University for the qualitative focus groups within early intervention in psychosis services (ref: MH-210174). Suitable processes are in place to obtain informed consent for National Health Service staff taking part in interviews or focus groups. A study information sheet with cover letter and consent form have been prepared and approved by the local Research Ethics Committee. Findings will be shared through peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and social media. A lay summary will be published on collaborator websites.

3.
Ann. New York Acad. Sci. C1L637734524&from=export ; 1510:79-99, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822055

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation is critical for proper cellular function and development. Protein degradation pathways, such as the ubiquitin proteasomes system, autophagy, and endosome–lysosome pathway, must be tightly regulated to ensure proper elimination of misfolded and aggregated proteins and regulate changing protein levels during cellular differentiation, while ensuring that normal proteins remain unscathed. Protein degradation pathways have also garnered interest as a means to selectively eliminate target proteins that may be difficult to inhibit via other mechanisms. On June 7 and 8, 2021, several experts in protein degradation pathways met virtually for the Keystone eSymposium “Targeting protein degradation: from small molecules to complex organelles.” The event brought together researchers working in different protein degradation pathways in an effort to begin to develop a holistic, integrated vision of protein degradation that incorporates all the major pathways to understand how changes in them can lead to disease pathology and, alternatively, how they can be leveraged for novel therapeutics.

4.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis ; 20(5):1056-1066, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822054

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism is a very common and costly health problem worldwide. Anticoagulant treatment for VTE is imperfect: all have the potential for significant bleeding, and none prevent the development of post thrombotic syndrome after deep vein thrombosis or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism. For these reasons, alternate forms of therapy with improved efficacy and decreased bleeding are needed. Selectins are a family (P-selectin, E-selectin, L-selectin) of glycoproteins that facilitate and augment thrombosis, modulating neutrophil, monocyte, and platelet activity. P- and E-selectin have been investigated as potential biomarkers for thrombosis. Inhibition of P-selectin and E-selectin decrease thrombosis and vein wall fibrosis, with no increase in bleeding. Selectin inhibition is a promising avenue of future study as either a stand-alone treatment for VTE or as an adjunct to standard anticoagulation therapies.

5.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36(5):631, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822051
6.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822050

ABSTRACT

Based on our national outpatient sentinel surveillance, we have developed a novel approach to determine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemic seasons in Germany by using RSV positivity rate and its lower limit of 95% confidence interval. This method was evaluated retrospectively on nine RSV seasons, and it is also well-suited to describe off-season circulation of RSV in near real time as observed for seasons 2020/21 and 2021/22 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospective application is of crucial importance to enable timely actions for health service delivery and prevention.

7.
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology ; 47(5):982-983, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822048
8.
British Journal of Haematology ; 197(2):171-187, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822046

ABSTRACT

Scope: The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the management of patients with Waldenström macroglobulinaemia. In individual patients, circumstances may dictate an alternative approach. Methodology: This guideline was compiled according to the British Society for Haematology (BSH) process at http://www.b-s-h.org.uk/guidelines/proposing-and-writing-a-new-bsh-guideline/. Recommendations are based on a review of the literature using Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Central, Web of Science searches from beginning of 2013 (since the publication of the previous guidelines) up to November 2021. The following search terms were used: Waldenström(’s) macroglobulin(a)emia OR lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, IgM(-related) neuropathy OR cold h(a)emagglutinin disease OR cold agglutinin disease OR cryoglobulin(a)emia AND (for group a only) cytogenetic OR molecular OR mutation OR MYD88 OR CXCR4, management OR treatment OR transfusion OR supportive care OR plasma exchange OR plasmapheresis OR chemotherapy OR bendamustine OR bortezomib OR ibrutinib OR fludarabine OR dexamethasone OR cyclophosphamide OR rituximab OR everolimus, bone marrow transplantation OR stem cell transplantation. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) nomenclature was used to evaluate levels of evidence and to assess the strength of recommendations. The GRADE criteria can be found at http://www.gradeworkinggroup.org. Review of the manuscript was performed by the British Society for Haematology (BSH) Guidelines Committee Haemato-Oncology Task Force, the BSH Guidelines Committee and the Haemato-Oncology sounding board of BSH. It was also on the members section of the BSH website for comment. It has also been reviewed by UK Charity WMUK;these organisations do not necessarily approve or endorse the contents.

9.
Acta Physiologica ; 235(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822045
10.
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica ; 101(4):386-387, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822044
11.
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ; 129(6):837-838, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822043
12.
6th International Conference on Advances in Biomedical Engineering (ICABME) ; : 147-150, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822019

ABSTRACT

The number of diseases has greatly increased in the last decades in addition to the global pandemic that affected everyone's life and killed a lot of humans. With this increase, the use of masks has greatly increased as well. Modern masks have various problems and can be inconvenient to keep all day long. One of its worst problems is that they cause the fogging up of eyeglasses. Many products have tried to solve this problem, but none was completely successful. This paper aims to design a new mask that tackles this problem in an innovative way by optimizing the airflow of warm breath to exit the mask from the sides instead of going upward. The mask is for human use and can be adopted by global standards.

14.
Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation ; 27(1):36-44, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821995

ABSTRACT

Purpose of review Heart failure incidence continues to rise despite a relatively static number of available donor hearts. Selecting an appropriate heart transplant candidate requires evaluation of numerous factors to balance patient benefit while maximizing the utility of scarce donor hearts. Recent research has provided new insights into refining recipient risk assessment, providing additional tools to further define and balance risk when considering heart transplantation. Recent findings Recent publications have developed models to assist in risk stratifying potential heart transplant recipients based on cardiac and noncardiac factors. These studies provide additional tools to assist clinicians in balancing individual risk and benefit of heart transplantation in the context of a limited donor organ supply. Summary The primary goal of heart transplantation is to improve survival and maximize quality of life. To meet this goal, a careful assessment of patient-specific risks is essential. The optimal approach to patient selection relies on integrating recent prognostication models with a multifactorial assessment of established clinical characteristics, comorbidities and psychosocial factors.

15.
Journal of Acute Care Physical Therapy ; 13(2):61, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821994
16.
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation ; 37(1):2-4, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821992
18.
Anesthesiology ; 136(5):A12, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821983
19.
FASEB Journal ; 35(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821975

ABSTRACT

Considerable attention has been paid to immunological approaches to dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic. In addition, existing pharmaceuticals, such as the modified mononucleotide Remdesvir, have been studied in the context of the viral infection. This study looks at different classes of compounds, natural products, some already ingested by millions of people every day, and asks if there is evidence that they might bind to Covid19 viral proteins and possibly interfere with viral replication. In this study, the Universal Natural Products Database was used to search for compounds that bind to the SARS-CoV-2 3CL Protease. The database was interrogated using the Smina docking program, a branch of Autodock Vina. Those compounds that were predicted by Smina to bind better than -9 kcal/mole were then successively interrogated with LeDock, a program that gives results that are considerably different from Smina. The compounds with predicted binding values of -11 kcal/mole or lower by both programs were then studied by observing their predicted binding using several programs that enable the examination of ligand-protein interactions. While this study identified many compounds of potential interest, this report concentrates on compounds that are commonly found in foodstuffs. Some but not all of these compounds are structurally close to those compounds that have been classified by others as Pan-Assay Interference Compounds, PAINS.

20.
FASEB Journal ; 35(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821974

ABSTRACT

Symbiotic interaction between the human body and its microbiota is an important issue of modern biomedicine and personalized medicine. However, little is known on molecular mechanisms of that relationship. Bearing in mind the ubiquitous participation of peptides in biomolecular interactions and regulatory processes we attempted direct search of blood peptides originated from microbial proteins. LC-MS/MS analysis was carried out of blood serum and plasma samples taken from 20 healthy donors on Q Exactive HF-X Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass-spectrometer. Sample preparation was carried out based on our previously developed method of peptide desorption from the surface of major blood plasma proteins followed by standard chromatographic steps. Mascot and X! Tandem search engines were used for peptide identification. Human protein sequences were taken from UniProt Knowledgebase and sequences of human microbiota proteins-from NIH Human Microbiome Project (HMP). As a result, out of 13625 identified peptides 912 were unique fragments of microbial precursors, which is 6.69% of the total amount of detected bloodstream peptides. In 30 cases peptide identification was confirmed by mass-spectral study of individual synthetic samples. Absolute quantification by the mass-spectrometric method of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) confirmed the presence of bacterial peptides in plasma and serum in the range of approximately 0.1 nMol/L to 1 mkMol/L, which is comparable to physiologically significant hormone concentrations in human blood in normal conditions. Analysis of the in silico obtained hydrolyzates of microbiotic proteins showed that significant number of the identified peptides are derived from the precursor proteins as a result of hydrolysis with trypsin, chymotrypsin and pepsin, the main proteases of the gastrointestinal system. 60% of the identified “microbial” peptides are derived from the intestine flora, about 20% - from oral microbiota and 20% fall on the remaining microbiotic communities. Most of the precursor proteins refer to intracellular, cytoplasmic proteins. The isolated fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed increase secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, colony stimulating factors and chemoattractants as the response to the addition of some of the identified microbiotic peptides. The data obtained serve as a basis for the ongoing study of the functional properties of microbiome derived peptides.

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