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1.
Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management-Gjesm ; 9(1):87-100, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2026211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus-19 has affected carbon emissions, which was declared as a pandemic by World Health Organization. Unprecedented environmental effects are being caused by Bangladesh's strict lockdown policies, which were implemented to stop the spread of Coronavirus-19. However, it is still unclear how the temporary halting and restart of industrial and commercial activities will affect the environment. In this study, it has been identified how Coronavirus-19 determinants like lockdown, daily confirmed cases, and daily confirmed deaths affect greenhouse gases. METHODS: From March 18, 2020 to February 4, 2022 the data series is used for Bangladesh. To ensure that the data series were stationary, the Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Phillips-Perron tests were utilized. Johansen co-integration test was utilized to determine co-integration among variables. The Granger causality test was utilized to identify directional causes and effects between Coronavirus-19 determinants and carbon emissions and the Vector Error Correction Model was employed to determine short-run and long run connections. FINDINGS: The study finds a bidirectional relationship between lockdown, carbon emissions and daily confirmed deaths, while a unidirectional association exists among Coronavirus-19 confirmed cases according to the Vector Error Correction Model. The Granger causality test also established the relationship between variables, except for daily confirmed cases. The pandemic's onset and subsequent lockdown resulted in decreased carbon dioxide emissions. The short-run link of carbon dioxide emissions with newly confirmed cases was corroborated by the directional relationship of variables, whereas there was a long-term and short-term association between confirmed deaths and lockdown. CONCLUSION: The reduction in carbon emissions during the pandemic will not be long-lasting because it is anticipated that global economic activity will gradually return to the preCoronavirus-19 state. The directional and relational nature of lockdown offers the potential to connect carbon dioxide emissions to regular lives. During a lockdown, there is a connection between the atmosphere's changes and how natural organisms behave. Importantly, there is a room for investigation into how communities of organisms and the atmosphere would function without humans. The essential point is to stress that during the lockdown, the ecosystem is self-healing. Environmental activists and business people will find this study useful in developing future sustainable improvement strategies.

2.
Prev Med Rep ; 28: 101900, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996486

ABSTRACT

Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to health misinformation and are at risk for suboptimal adherence to protective health behaviors in the COVID-19 pandemic. Guided by factors consistent with the theories of planned behavior and rumor transmission, this study sought to analyze the impact of multiple information sources, including social media, television media, internet and parental counseling, on masking behaviors in adolescents. Responses from the December 2020 COVID-19 survey, representing 4,106 U.S. adolescents ages 12-14 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD) were analyzed. The majority of parents (61.1%) reported counseling their children on the importance of wearing masks all the time in the past week. A minority of adolescents reported more than one hour of daily exposure to COVID-19 related information on social media (9.1%), the internet (4.3%) and television (10.2%). In unadjusted and adjusted models, greater frequency of parental counseling and exposure to COVID-19 television or social media were associated with 'always masking' behaviors. Our findings provide support for the importance of parent counseling and suggest that socialmedia and television may overall support rather than dissuade protective COVID-19 health behaviors in adolescents.

3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(8): 1239-1246, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994309

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) outbreak has its social, economic, and political effects on wider society, as well as physical and mental health effects on individuals. The psychological and social impacts are more apparent and common on emergency health care workers who have close contact with patients. Aim: Our study aims to investigate coronaphobia in emergency health care workers. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in July 2020 with 253 people working under the Bingöl 112 Provincial Ambulance Service Chief of Staff. The data of the study were collected using a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, pandemic process, and the Coronavirus-19 Phobia Scale. P < .05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean total score of COVID-19 phobia in 112 employees was 58.03 ± 18.78. The sub-dimension scores are psychological 21.92 ± 6.19, somatic 10.83 ± 5.68, social 15.98 ± 5.60, and economic 9.28 ± 4.18. Psychological and social sub-dimension scores and total COVID-19 phobia score of women, the somatic sub-dimension score of married people, all sub-dimension scores, and total COVID-19 phobia score of those who had contact with COVID-19-positive patients were found to be significantly higher (P < .05). Conclusions: Close contact with patients, working conditions, and the heavy schedule of nightshifts increase psychological and social fear in emergency health care workers. It is important to provide psychosocial support to emergency health care workers during the pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Phobic Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
4.
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1983534

ABSTRACT

Context Palliative care (PC) clinicians faced many challenges delivering outpatient care during the coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Objectives We described trends for in-person and video visit PC delivery challenges before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S. Methods We performed a secondary data analysis of patient characteristics and PC clinician surveys from a multisite randomized control trial at 20 academic cancer centers. Patients newly diagnosed with advanced lung cancer (N=653) were randomly assigned to receive either early in-person or telehealth PC and had at least monthly PC clinician visits. PC clinicians completed surveys documenting PC delivery challenges after each encounter. We categorized patients into 3 subgroups according to their PC visit dates relative to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S.—pre-COVID-19 (all visits before 3/1/20), pre/post-COVID-19 (≥1 visit before and after 3/1/20), and post-COVID-19 (all visits after 3/1/20). We performed chi-squared analyses to examine associations. Results We analyzed 2329 surveys for video visits and 2176 surveys for in-person visits. For video visits, the pre-COVID-19 subgroup (25.8% [46/178]) had the most technical difficulties followed by the pre/post-COVID-19 subgroup (17.2% [307/1784]) and then the post-COVID-19 subgroup (11.4% [42/367]) (P=0.0001). For in-person visits, challenges related to absent patients’ family members occurred most often in the post-COVID-19 subgroup (6.2% [16/259]) followed by the pre/post-COVID-19 subgroup (3.6% [50/1374]) and then the pre-COVID-19 subgroup (2.2% [12/543]) (P=0.02). Conclusion Technical difficulties related to PC video visits improved, whereas in-person visit challenges related to absent patients’ family members worsened during the pandemic.

5.
J Glob Infect Dis ; 14(2): 69-74, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934416

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ivermectin, hydroxychloroquine (HQ), and darunavir/ritonavir are widely prescribed as an oral treatment for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection despite their uncertainty of clinical benefit. The objective is to determine the safety and the efficacies of two treatment regimens against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We conducted an open-labeled, randomized, controlled trial to compare the efficacy between a 3-day course of once-daily high-dose oral ivermectin plus zinc sulfate (Group A) and a combination of HQ, darunavir/ritonavir, and zinc sulfate (HQ + antiretroviral, Group B) for 5 days in asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study period was between December 2020 and April 2021. Results: Overall, 113 patients were randomized and analyzed (57 patients in Group A and 56 patients in Group B). The median duration to achieve the virological outcome of either undetected or cycle threshold (Ct) for N gene of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction was 6 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.3-6.7) versus 7 days (95% CI: 5.4-8.6) in Group A and Group B, respectively (P = 0.419) in the modified intention-to-treat population. All patients were discharged from hospital quarantine as planned. Two patients in Group A and one patient in Group B were considered clinically worsening and received 10 days of favipiravir treatment. There was no serious adverse event found in both groups. Conclusion: We demonstrated that both treatment regimens were safe, but both treatment regimens had no virological or clinical benefit. Based on this result and current data, there is no supporting evidence for the clinical benefit of ivermectin for coronavirus-19.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 925683, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933712

ABSTRACT

Background: We report vaccine and booster-related uveitis in Singapore, a country with high vaccination and booster rates to highlight the differences and potential role of prophylactic treatment for sight-threatening infectious uveitis. Methods: Clinical data extracted from the de-identified uveitis database in Singapore National Eye Center. Six patients (eight eyes) developed uveitis within 14 days after undergoing COVID-19 vaccination (primary and/or booster). Results: All patients received two doses of COVID-19 vaccination, and 1.39% (6/431) developed COVID-19 vaccine-related uveitis. Fifty-percent% (3/6) with non-infectious anterior uveitis (NIAU) presented with a non-granulomatous anterior uveitis (AU). The remaining (3/6) presenting with a granulomatous AU were diagnosed with reactivation of cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus and toxoplasma chorioretinitis, respectively. All the patients responded to definitive treatment specific to their diagnosis. The mean visual acuity at presentation was 0.36 ± 0.20 logMAR and improved to 0.75 ± 0.09 (p = 0.009). Mean time from vaccination to uveitis was 9.7 (range: 3-14) days. All patients developed uveitis after second vaccination dose. 16.67% (1/6) patients had a recurrence after the third booster dose. None of the three patients with infectious uveitis developed recurrence but had received maintenance therapy up to or during the booster. Conclusion: Uveitis after COVID-19 vaccination is uncommon. In our series, a higher rate of reactivations of latent infections was seen. With definitive treatment, all cases were self-limited without systemic sequelae. Prophylactic treatment during booster vaccine may prevent reactivation of sight-threatening infections and reduce morbidity although risk-benefits should be considered for individual patients given the low rate of occurrence.

7.
Soc Work Public Health ; : 1-14, 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931726

ABSTRACT

Social workers and public health professionals in the U.S. were profoundly impacted by COVID-19, systemic racism, and the 2020 U.S. presidential election. This study examined their external job support, burnout, and job satisfaction in the context of these circumstances. The findings suggest respondents, who had graduate degrees in social work or public health, overemphasized their job satisfaction and underemphasized their burnout. While social work and public health professionals felt satisfied with their labor, not acknowledging burnout limits the amount of support they may access to effectively continue the work. Interestingly, participants who had more administrative functions reported higher job satisfaction scores and lower burnout scores. Traditionally, those in administrative positions have more control over their schedule and work responsibilities. Findings suggest that more training, opportunities for self-care, and discussions about safety and systemic racism are needed in the workplace for social workers and public health professionals.

8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 864838, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924099

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, people living with HIV (PLWH) were considered to be at risk of worse COVID-19 outcomes once infected. However, the existing evidence is inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 symptoms, and mortality among PLWH and patients without HIV. Method: The articles included studies published in PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane between December 1, 2019, and December 1, 2021. We included the original studies published in English focusing on observational studies assessing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 symptoms, and mortality among PLWH. Four independent reviewers extracted data. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology-Modified (STROBE-M) checklist was used for quality assessment. For the results with heterogeneity I2 >75%, a random-effects model was employed. Otherwise, a fixed-effects model was used. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 symptoms, and mortality were compared with and without HIV. Results: We included a total of 32 studies and 71,779,737 study samples, of whom 797,564 (1.11%) were PLWH. Compared with COVID-19 patients without HIV infection, PLWH had comparable risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted Risk Ratio=1.07, 95% CI: 0.53-2.16, I2 = 96%, study n=6, n=20,199,805) and risk of developing severe COVID-19 symptoms (aRR=1.06, 95% CI: 0.97-1.16, I2 = 75%, n=10, n=2,243,370). PLWH, if infected with SARS-CoV-2, were found to have an increased risk of mortality compared with people without HIV (aRR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09-1.56, I2 = 76%, study n=16, n=71,032,659). This finding was consistent across different subgroup analyses. Conclusion: PLWH are at increased risk of COVID-19 related mortality once infected. The local health system should, on the one hand, strengthen COVID-19 prevention and clinical management among PLWH to avoid infection and, on the other hand, sustain the HIV care continuum for PLWH for HIV management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 35(15): 2965-2968, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has rapidly spread worldwide, with severe complications affecting particularly elderly and compromised subjects. Less information about COVID-19 in pregnancy has been reported so far in the literature. METHODS: Case series on pregnancies complicated by COVID-19. All cases were diagnosed at Bolognini Hospital, Seriate, Italy. These cases are presented to clarify the features of COVID-19 occurring in pregnancy. RESULTS: Four women had symptoms of COVID-19 during pregnancy or immediately after delivery. All cases were confirmed by oropharyngeal swab. All patients presented with fever and low saturation levels at the diagnosis. One case was transferred after diagnosis to a tertiary referral center and delivered the day after for worsening clinical conditions. In the other three cases, bilateral pneumonia was documented at the admission. Antithrombotic therapy was used in most cases. No cases of the infected neonate was reported. At 2 month follow-up, all patients were alive, three were asymptomatic while one presented neurological complication. One more case was described because suspicious for COVID-19, however, it was not confirmed by oropharyngeal swab. CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women, the peripheral nervous system could be affected. No case of trans-placental passage was reported. The swab could be helpful in diagnosis. The antithrombotic therapy could play a role in the positive course of COVID-19 also in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 18(3): 78-86, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893410

ABSTRACT

During the first 2 years of the coronavirus-19 pandemic, many changes and innovations occurred to overcome the challenges associated with the pandemic and improve cardiovascular training. This review highlights the literature on the pandemic response regarding cardiovascular fellowship education and identifies areas of need to ensure future opportunities for fellows to achieve competency and career advancement. Specifically, we describe the recent changes to the four cornerstones of cardiovascular training: core content education, procedural training, career development, and the well-being of trainees.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Education, Medical/standards , Education, Medical/trends , Students, Medical/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fellowships and Scholarships , Humans , Pandemics
11.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 78: 103871, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866829

ABSTRACT

Ambient air pollution level not only causes respiratory diseases but also cardiovascular diseases, besides, increased visits to the emergency department for asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and premature deaths in infants. The occurrence of Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is both, a boon and bane. Despite the deplorable situation aroused by the pandemic, strict lockdown measures implemented to curb the drastic spread of the disease, also culminated into astonishing outcomes that were not prioritized. This article illustrates the effects of the ongoing pandemic on air pollution and provides recommendations aimed at limiting it.

12.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(6): 418, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862973

ABSTRACT

The recent coronavirus outbreak from Wuhan China in late 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in a global pandemic of coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19). Understating the underlying mechanism of the pathogenesis of coronavirus infection is important not only because it will help in accurate diagnosis and treatment of the infection but also in the production of effective vaccines. The infection begins when SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells through binding of its envelope glycoprotein to angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2). Gene variations of ACE2 and microRNA (miR)-196 are associated with viral infection and other diseases. The present study investigated the association of the ACE2 rs4343 G>A and miR-196a2 rs11614913 C>T gene polymorphisms with severity and mortality of COVID-19 using amplification refractory mutation system PCR in 117 COVID-19 patients and 103 healthy controls from three regions of Saudi Arabia. The results showed that ACE2 rs4343 GA genotype was associated with severity of COVID-19 (OR=2.10, P-value 0.0028) and ACE2 rs4343 GA was associated with increased mortality with OR=3.44, P-value 0.0028. A strong correlation between the ACE2 rs4343 G>A genotype distribution among COVID-19 patients was reported with respect to their comorbid conditions including sex (P<0.023), coronary artery disease (P<0.0001), oxygen saturation <60 mm Hg (P<0.0009) and antiviral therapy (0.003). The results also showed that the CT genotype and T allele of the miR-196a2 rs11614913 C>T were associated with decreased risk to COVID-19 with OR=0.76, P=0.006 and OR=0.54, P=0.005, respectively. These results need to be validated with future molecular genetic studies in a larger sample size and different populations.

13.
Brain Sci ; 12(4)2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822412

ABSTRACT

Background: It can be easily inferred that dementia caregivers were severely affected by the general home confinement, or 'lockdown', due to their caregiving roles. Aim: The aim of the current study is to investigate how the quarantine measures applied during the COVID-19 pandemic affected the emotional function (specifically the emotional management, emotional experience, and stress symptoms) and the negative thoughts, as well as the adaptability skills, of Greek dementia caregivers. Materials andMethods: In total, 303 participants (138 in the non-caregiving adults-control group; 165 in the dementia caregivers-experimental group) were recruited from the day centers of the Greek Association of Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders (GAADRD) from June 2020 to January 2021 in Thessaloniki, Greece. The caregiving population was split into group 1 (those who participated in support groups) and group 2 (those who did not participate in support groups). A self-reported questionnaire was created for research purposes and was digitally administered to participants via Google forms. Results: During the quarantine period, dementia caregivers had more difficulties in emotional management, especially in regards to stress symptoms, which was measured via the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), in comparison to the control group. In regards to the caregiving populations, caregivers from group 1 were more able to manage their emotions according to their self-reports, but had increased agony and loneliness. Moreover, statistical significance was found between emotional management, negative feelings, and stress symptoms in those from group 2 who self-reported that the PwD deteriorated. This evidence was not found in group 1. Finally, there were no differences in the means of negative thoughts about the pandemic, as well as in the adaptation skills, both in dementia caregivers and in the control group, according to their self-reports. Discussion: It seems that different emotional aspects were affected in the dementia caregivers' population, and, therefore, future psychotherapeutic interventions should focus on those most severely affected by the restrictive measures imposed.

14.
J Curr Ophthalmol ; 34(1): 121-123, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810846

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To report a case of bilateral central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) associated with coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) infection. Methods: A 43-year-old man presented to the emergency department with flu-like symptoms, severe erythema, a rash on his face, and respiratory distress. He was admitted to the intensive care unit, and the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test was positive for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 virus. The routine blood work was unremarkable. The dermatologist noted positive Nikolsky's sign, and the patient was diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), which affected 18% of his body and was later confirmed by skin biopsy. Later, he reported worsening vision. Results: Ophthalmic examination and fundus fluorescein angiography showed bilateral CRVO. Despite best medical efforts, including treatment with systemic dexamethasone and remdesivir, the patient died on the 6 days of his hospitalization. Conclusion: This was a rare bilateral CRVO and SJS case in a young patient, probably caused by the COVID-19 infection.

15.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 12(3): 177-182, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803367

ABSTRACT

Background: Identification of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals is imperative to prevent hospital transmission, but symptom-based screening may fail to identify asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic infectious children and their caregivers. Methods: A COVID-19 period prevalence study was conducted between 13 and 26 August 2020 at Tygerberg Hospital, testing all children and their accompanying asymptomatic caregivers after initial symptom screening. One nasopharyngeal swab was submitted for SARS-CoV-2 using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). An additional Respiratory Viral 16-multiplex rRT-PCR test was simultaneously done in children presenting with symptoms compatible with possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: SARS-Co-V 2 RT-PCR tests from 196 children and 116 caregivers were included in the analysis. The SARS-CoV-2 period prevalence in children was 5.6% (11/196) versus 15.5% (18/116) in asymptomatic caregivers (p<0.01). Presenting symptoms did not correlate with SARS-CoV-2 test positivity; children without typical symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 were more likely to be positive than those with typical symptoms (10.2% [10/99] vs 1% [1/97]; p<0.01). Children with typical symptoms (97/196; 49.5%) mainly presented with acute respiratory (68/97; 70.1%), fever (17/97; 17.5%), or gastro-intestinal complaints (12/97; 12.4%); Human Rhinovirus (23/81; 28.4%) and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (18/81; 22.2%) were frequently identified in this group. Children-caregiver pairs' SARS-CoV-2 tests were discordant in 83.3%; 15/18 infected caregivers' children tested negative. Symptom-based COVID-19 screening alone would have missed 90% of the positive children and 100% of asymptomatic but positive caregivers. Conclusion: Given the poor correlation between SARS-CoV-2 symptoms and RT-PCR test positivity, universal testing of children and their accompanying caregivers should be considered for emergency and inpatient paediatric admissions during high COVID-19 community transmission periods. Universal PPE and optimising ventilation is likely the most effective way to control transmission of respiratory viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2, where universal testing is not feasible. In these settings, repeated point prevalence studies may be useful to inform local testing and cohorting strategies.

16.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 62: 103800, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The persistence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 pandemic, partly due to the appearance of highly infectious variants, has made booster vaccinations necessary for vulnerable groups. Here, we present data regarding the decline of the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine-induced humoral immune response in a monocentric cohort of MS patients. METHODS: 96 MS patients undergoing eight different DMTs, all without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, were evaluated for anti-Spike IgG levels, 21 days (T1) and 5-6 months (T2) after the second SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine dose. The anti-Spike IgG titre from MS subjects was compared with 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: When compared with SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels at T2 in HC, we observed comparable levels in interferon-ß 1a-, dimethyl fumarate-, teriflunomide- and natalizumab-treated MS subjects, but an impaired humoral response in MS subjects undergoing glatiramer acetate-, cladribine-, fingolimod- and ocrelizumab-treatments. Moreover, comparison between SARS-CoV-2 IgG Spike titre at T1 and T2 revealed a faster decline of the humoral response in patients undergoing dimethyl fumarate-, interferon-ß 1a- and glatiramer acetate-therapies, while those receiving teriflunomide and natalizumab showed higher persistence compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The prominent decline in humoral response in MS subjects undergoing dimethyl fumarate-, interferon-ß 1a- and glatiramer acetate-therapies should be considered when formulating booster regimens as these subjects would benefit of early booster vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Glatiramer Acetate/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
17.
Cureus ; 14(1): e21710, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732444

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus-19 misinformation poses a unique challenge for public health communication efforts. In rural communities, COVID-19 misinformation is not well studied. We investigate patients' ability to discriminate COVID-19 fact from fiction from their news sources, as well as general COVID-19 knowledge, perceptions, public health practices, and their primary news sources in 258 adult patients at a primary health clinic in rural Michigan. Most of the population surveyed was able to correctly differentiate reliable COVID-19 public health information from fabricated information. However, only 55.4% of participants reported that they would be somewhat or extremely likely to get a COVID-19 vaccine. The most reported news source was mainstream broadcast television channels such as CBS and ABC. Our data support those older participants are better informed and more likely to practice safe public health practices than younger participants. Based on our data, we offer strategies for public health campaigns in rural communities, such as targeted interventions towards younger people and utilizing local television stations and community institutions to disseminate public health communications and health promotions. Public health interventions beyond education should be considered to mitigate the gap between COVID-19 knowledge and prevention behaviors. Future studies should investigate the role of health care providers in COVID-19 communication with patients, understanding hesitations toward COVID-19 vaccination, and communication strategies to best increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake in rural communities.

18.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 148, 2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires integrated intervention by both the governments and individuals. University students have a great role in distributing reliable information about disease prevention behaviors. The aim of this study was to identify the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of COVID-19 Prevention and Self-Protection behaviors in students. METHODS: This cross-sectional online survey was conducted on Iranian university students. All students filled a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, e-Health Literacy Scale (EHEALS) questionnaire and a researcher-made knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire. Data was analyzed using the SPSS software. RESULTS: A total of 925 students (69.9% female) participated in this study. The median age of the students was 23 years old. Majority of students (641, 69.3%) were non-medical students. The median and interquartile range (IQR) for knowledge, attitude, practice and P-EHEALS scores in Medical students were 52.00 (27.00), 4.00 (1.00), 28.00 (8.00), and 26.00 (9.00), respectively which were significantly higher than non-medical students, 28.00 (15.00), 3.00 (2.00), 20.00 (8.00), and 26.00 (9.00), respectively (p < 0.001). Practice score was a significant related to knowledge (p < 0.001), attitude (p < 0.001), having a COVID-19 infected family member (p < 0.001), older age (p < 0.001), medical field of education (p = 0.001), higher EHEALS score (p = 0.018), and female gender (p = 0.013). Knowledge, attitude and having a COVID-19 infected person in family were the strongest predictors of preventive practices. CONCLUSIONS: KAP and E-Health literacy of university students, especially non-medical students, should be considered in order to improve COVID-19 preventive behaviors in the society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Students, Medical , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Iran , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(supl.3): S120-S130, feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1699016

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este documento fue preparado (en junio de 2020) por y para los profesionales médicos (clínicos y proveedores de salud), y está disponible públicamente para propósitos de recomendaciones relacionada con pacientes pediátricos y enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Según datos disponibles hasta la fecha, los niños de todas las edades pueden contraer la COVID-19; sin embargo, tienen mejor pronóstico que los adultos, siendo pocos los casos graves reportados, y los casos leves se recuperan en 1-2 semanas después del inicio de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este documento es aportar peculiaridades que consideramos importantes para el diagnóstico y tratamiento. Debido a los cambios en la actual situación epidemiológica se pueden modificar algunos conceptos y acciones, por lo que la información aquí contenida debe ser adaptada a cada paciente, basada en el juicio clínico, necesidades del paciente y recursos disponibles.


Abstract This document was prepared (June 2020) by and for medical professionals (clinicians and health providers), and it is available as a guideline for pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). So far, according to available data although children of all ages can acquire COVID-19, they have better outcome than adults, with a little proportion of severe disease, and in mild cases they have a 1 to 2-week recovery after the beginning of the infection. The objective of this document is to provide particularities that we consider important for diagnosis and treatment. Owe to the changing epidemiological situation some concepts and actions can change, so this information must be adapted to each specific case, based on the clinical judgement according to patient requirements and available resources.

20.
Journal of Applied Hematology ; 12(4):227-231, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1687240

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) rapidly grew into a worldwide pandemic. The link between the disease severity and higher levels of inflammatory markers was reported including cases of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a potentially life-threatening disorder. We report herein a case of HLH trigged by COVID-19 infection and we review all reported cases of HLH secondary to COVID-19 among immunocompromised patients by searching PubMed publications till July 2021. A 69-year-old woman with a previous medical history of diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis treated with oral steroids presented for a 5-day history of fever, persistent cough, anorexia, and dyspnea. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed. She received empiric antibiotic therapy, oxygen supply, and corticosteroids. On day 17, laboratory investigations revealed bicytopenia with a platelets rate of 31,000/mm 3 and an hemoglobin rate of 8.2 g/dL. Hyperferritinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypofibrinogenemia were noted. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy revealed images of hemophagocytosis. The HScore yielded 200 points, representing 80%-88% probability of HLH. We continued corticosteroids and treatment. The disease evolution was favorable. The diagnosis of HLH secondary to COVID-19 shoud be considered in front of cytopenia, hyperinflammatory state, and a worsening clinical condition. Prompt diagnosis and treatment improve the prognosis. © 2022 Journal of Applied Hematology.

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