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1.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; : 166514, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966375

ABSTRACT

Acquiring the human ACE2 receptor usage trait enables the coronaviruses to spill over to humans. However, the origin of the ACE2 usage trait in coronaviruses is poorly understood. Using a multi-disciplinary approach combining evolutionary bioinformatics and molecular dynamics simulation, we decode the principal driving force behind human ACE2 receptor recognition in coronaviruses. Genomic content, evolutionary divergence, and codon usage bias analysis reveal that SARS-CoV2 is evolutionarily divergent from other human ACE2-user CoVs, indicating that SARS-CoV2 originates from a different lineage. Sequence analysis shows that all the human ACE2-user CoVs contain two insertions in the receptor-binding motif (RBM) that directly interact with ACE2. However, the insertion sequences in SARS-CoV2 are divergent from other ACE2-user CoVs, implicating their different recombination origins. The potential of mean force calculations reveals that the high binding affinity of SARS-CoV2 RBD to human ACE2 is primarily attributed to its ability to form a higher number of hydrogen bonds than the other ACE2-user CoVs. The adaptive branch-site random effects likelihood method identifies positive selection bias across the ACE2 user CoVs lineages. Recombination and selection forces shape the spike evolution in human ACE2-using beta-CoVs to optimize the interfacial hydrogen bonds between RBD and ACE2. However, these evolutionary forces work within the constraints of nucleotide composition, ensuring optimum codon adaptation of the spike (S) gene within the host cell.

2.
Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii ; 26(4): 402-408, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964882

ABSTRACT

Over the past 20 years, coronaviruses have caused three epidemics: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV2, with the f irst two having a very high lethality of about 10 and 26 %, respectively. The last outbreak of coronavirus infection caused by SARS-CoV2 in 2019 in China has swept the entire planet and is still spreading. The source of these viruses in humans are animals: bats, Himalayan civets, and camels. The genomes of MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2 are highly similar. It has been established that coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2) occurs through the viral protein S interaction with the lung epithelium - angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE2) - due to which the virus enters the cells. The most attractive model for studying the development of these diseases is a laboratory mouse, which, however, is resistant to coronavirus infection. The resistance is explained by the difference in the amino acid composition of mouse Ace2 and human ACE2 proteins. Therefore, to create mice susceptible to SARS- CoV and SARS-CoV2 coronaviruses, the human ACE2 gene is transferred into their genome. The exogenous DNA of the constructs is inserted into the recipient genome randomly and with a varying number of copies. Based on this technology, lines of transgenic mice susceptible to intranasal coronavirus infection have been created. In addition, the use of the technology of targeted genome modif ication using CRISPR/Cas9 made it possible to create lines of transgenic animals with the insertion of the human ACE2 gene under the control of the endogenous murine Ace2 gene promoter. This "humanization" of the Ace2 gene makes it possible to obtain animals susceptible to infection with coronaviruses. Thus, transgenic animals that simulate coronavirus infections and are potential platforms for testing vaccines have now been created.

3.
Pathogens ; 11(7)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964048

ABSTRACT

One serious concern associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is that the virus might spill back from humans to wildlife, which would render some animal species reservoirs of the human virus. We assessed the potential circulation of SARS-CoV-2 caused by reverse infection from humans to bats, by performing bat surveillance from different sites in Central-Southern Italy. We restricted our survey to sampling techniques that are minimally invasive and can therefore be broadly applied by non-medical operators such as bat workers. We collected 240 droppings or saliva from 129 bats and tested them using specific and general primers for SARS-CoV-2 and coronaviruses, respectively. All samples (127 nasal swabs and 113 faecal droppings) were negative for SARS-CoV-2, and these results were confirmed by testing the samples with the Droplet Digital PCR. Additionally, pancoronavirus end-point RT-PCR was performed, and no sample showed specific bands. This outcome is a first step towards a better understanding of the reverse transmission of this virus to bats. Although the occurrence of a reverse zoonotic pattern can only be fully established by serological testing, the latter might represent an in-depth follow-up to a broad-scale preliminary assessment performed with our approach. We encourage the systematic surveillance of bats to help prevent reverse zoonotic episodes that would jeopardize human health, as well as biodiversity conservation and management.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(9)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963356

ABSTRACT

Given widespread use of spike antibody in generating coronavirus disease vaccines, SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies are increasingly used to indicate previous infection in serologic surveys. However, longitudinal kinetics and seroreversion are poorly defined. We found substantial seroreversion of nucleocapsid total immunoglobulin, underscoring the need to account for seroreversion in seroepidemiologic studies.

5.
Central European Journal of Educational Research ; 4(1):28-40, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965170

ABSTRACT

Several domestic and international studies confirm the benefits of regular sports activities regarding healthy attitudes (Földesiné, 2008;Shephard et al., 2013). On the one hand, our research aimed to survey sporting habits (with a special focus on the impacts of the Coronavirus epidemic on physical activities). On the other hand, we investigated the participants’ attitudes regarding daily physical education classes. In the course of our research, we conducted a representative data recording among Hungarian citizens 18 years old or above (n = 1015) regarding gender, age, education level, and type of habitation. The vast majority (71%) of the surveyed population is not involved in any kind of sports activities (which corresponds with the outcomes of previous investigations), however, in this aspect, the impacts of COVID-19 are marginal. Sports activities are most typical to males with a higher level of education, who reside in larger cities. The most popular sports activities are running/jogging (36.3%), cycling (16.6%), and soccer (16.2%). The opinions regarding daily physical education classes are rather positive: the majority consider the increased number of PE classes a useful development. These opinions are held mainly by those who either are active in sports or who live in Budapest. A quintessential part of life in the COVID-19 pandemic, healthier lifestyles could certainly benefit from quality physical and sports education. If this quality is further improved, it may also dispel some of the negative ideas about sporting habits.

6.
International Journal of Social Inquiry ; 15(1):33, 2022.
Article in Turkish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965158

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 küresel salgını, dünyanın farklı yerlerinden olan insanların krizlerden çeşitli biçimlerde etkilendiğine yönelik önemli bir kesit oluşturmaktadır. Salgının küresel eşitsizlikleri gün yüzüne çıkarıcı, derinleştirici ve yenilerini yaratan yönü dikkat çekmektedir. Belirli risklerle yüz yüze gelme ve başa çıkabilecek imkanlara sahip olma bakımından bazı kişilerin o risklere daha açık olduğu görünmektedir. Salgın döneminde küresel istihdam kayıplarının geçici ve yarı zamanlı çalışanlara etkisi, sağlık ve iş güvencesine sahip olma konuları birincil olarak öne çıkmaktadır. Çalışmak zorunda kalınan sektörler, eğitim düzeyi ve kazancı daha yüksek olan kişilerin iş faaliyetlerini evlerinden yapabilmeleri, evlerinde çocuklarını eğitecek yerlerinin olması, uzaktan eğitim imkanlarına sahip olma başlıkları bunları izleyen eşitsizliklerden yalnızca bazılarıdır. Salgın dönemi tedbirlerinden karantina altında kalma, ev içi ve dışı olmak üzere mekânsal eşitsizlikler yine küresel eşitsizliklerin bir parçasıdır. Küresel ekonomik faaliyetler sonucu ortaya çıkan bölüşüm adaletsizliklerinin, çeşitli eşitsizlikleri nasıl ve ne biçimde yeniden ürettiği salgın döneminde daha fazla dikkat çekmekte, adaletin uluslararası boyutu sorgulanmaktadır. Adaletin küresel yükümlülüklerine vurgu yapan kozmopolitan eşitlikçiler, zenginlik ve kaynakların bölüşümünde John Rawls'ın iki adalet ilkesinin uluslararası boyutta uygulanabileceği iddiasındadırlar. Bu noktadan hareketle çalışmamızda COVID-19 salgınının küresel eşitsizlikler üzerindeki etkilerini, salgın dönemi yardım uygulamalarını kozmopolitan eşitlikçilik bağlamında ele almaya çalışacağız.Alternate :The COVID-19 global epidemic constitutes an important cross-section that people from different parts of the world are affected by the crises in various ways. In the face of a certain risk, it seems that some people are more open to those risks in terms of confronting them and having opportunities to cope. The aspect of the epidemic that brings global inequalities to light, deepens and creates new ones draws attention. During the epidemic, the effects of global employment losses on temporary and part-time workers, health and employment insurance are the primary issues. Sectors where people have to work, people with higher education and income levels, being able to carry out their business activities from their homes, having a place to educate their children at home, and having distance education opportunities are just some of the following inequalities. Spatial inequalities, including quarantine, indoor and outdoor inequalities, are also a part of global inequalities. How and in what way the distributional injustices resulting from global economic activities reproduce various inequalities draw more attention during the epidemic period, and the international dimension of justice is questioned. Emphasizing the global obligations of justice, cosmopolitan egalitarians claim that John Rawls' two principles of justice can be applied internationally in the distribution of wealth and resources. From this point of view, in our study, we will try to deal with the effects of the COVID-19 epidemic on global inequalities and the aid practices during the epidemic in the context of cosmopolitan egalitarianism.

7.
International Journal of Social Inquiry ; 15(1):21, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965157

ABSTRACT

Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right, but it is also necessary for a peaceful society, the attainment of full human potential, and long-term progress. It can also play a significant role in the growth of any modern economy. Therefore, it is critical to realize that men and women may both contribute to societal growth. A holistic approach, sound policies, and long-term commitment by all levels of government are essential for women's empowerment to become a reality. In addition, gender equality must be a priority in developing national policies and initiatives. Despite improvements in Turkish women's social, political, and economic lives, women's empowerment has yet to be attained. This research explores the position of women in school and the labor market in Turkey before and after the emergence of COVID-19. The research highlights the problems and opportunities that women regarding participating in the Turkish economy.Alternate :Toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliği yalnızca temel bir insan hakkı değil, aynı zamanda barışçıl bir toplum, insan potansiyelini tam kullanım ve uzun vadeli gelişmenin bir koşuludur. Bu nedenle, bir ekonominin gelişmesinde kilit bir rol oynayabilir. Erkeklerin ve kadınların sosyal kalkınmaya eşit derecede katkıda bulunabilecekleri gerçeğini benimsemek bu yüzden oldukça önemlidir. Kadınların güçlendirilmesinin gerçekleşmesi için bütüncül yaklaşım, sağlam politikalar ve uzun vadeli özveri gerekmektedir. Ayrıca, uygulanması hedeflenen ulusal politika ve programlar geliştirilirken, toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliği öncelikli olarak gözetilmelidir. Türk kadınının sosyal, siyasi ve ekonomik hayatındaki gelişmelere rağmen güçlendirmeleri henüz istenilen noktaya ulaşamamıştır. Bu çalışma, Türkiye'de Korona Virüsünün bir diğer adıyla Covid-19'un ortaya çıkmasından önce ve sonra kadınların eğitim ve işgücü piyasasındaki durumunu incelemektedir. Kadınların Türkiye ekonomisine katılımına ilişkin zorluklar ve fırsatlar analiz edilmektedir.

8.
International Journal of Social Inquiry ; 15(1):55, 2022.
Article in Turkish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965156

ABSTRACT

Bu çalışmada toplum için fırsatlar yaratacak yeni yetenekler getirmesi beklenen beşinci nesil hücresel ağlar (5G) ile COVID-19 aşısının dünya genelinde insanlar üzerinde oluşturduğu algının Duygu Analizi yöntemi ile ölçülmesi hedeflenmektedir. Bu amaçla, yaygın olarak kullanılan bir sosyal medya aracı olan Twitter'dan Ekim – Aralık 2020 tarihleri arasında 25642 adet tweet çekilmiş ve Python yazılımı aracılığı ile hesaplamalar yapılmıştır. Buna göre dünya genelinde Twitter üzerinden fikrini beyan eden kişilerin %36,4'ünün 5G ile COVID-19 aşısı hakkında pozitif algıya sahip olduğu görülmüştür. Tweet atan kişilerin %35,6'sının ise konuyla ilgili olarak pozitif ya da negatif görüşe sahip olmadığı ve %28'inin de negatif görüş bildirdiği sonucuna varılmıştır. Tüm tweetler için genel duygu skoru ortalaması 0,15 olarak bulunmuştur. Çalışmada ayrıca verilere makine öğrenmesi yöntemlerinden Sınıflandırma ve Regresyon Ağaçları (CART), Naïve Bayes (NB), k-En Yakın Komşuluk (KNN) ve Rastgele Orman (RF) algoritmaları uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre sınıflandırmada en iyi sonuçları 0,7852 kesinlik (P) ve 0,7445 doğruluk (A) değerleri ile NB;0,8209 duyarlılık (R) değeri ile KNN ve 0,7866 F-ölçütü (F) değeri ile RF algoritmaları vermiştir.Alternate :This study is aimed at measuring the perception created by the COVID-19 vaccines on people around the worldusing Sentiment Analysis – taking into account the fifth generation (5G) cellular networks, which are expected tobring new capabilities that will create opportunities for society. For this purpose, 25642 tweets were taken fromTwitter between October and December 2020 and analyzed using Python software. Accordingly, 36.4% of peopleworldwide who expressed their opinions on Twitter have a positive perception of 5G and the COVID-19 vaccine,also 35.6% of the tweeters do not have a positive or negative view (neutral) has been observed. However, it wasobserved that 28% of the people expressed negative opinions. The overall sentiment score is 0.15. Also, in thisstudy, Classification and Regression Trees (CART), Naïve Bayes (NB), k-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), and RandomForest (RF) algorithms were applied. According to the findings, the best results were obtained by NB with 0,7852precision (P) and 0,7445 accuracy (A) values, KNN with 0,8209 recall (R) value, and RF with 0,7866 F-measure (F)value.

9.
Bio - Based and Applied Economics ; 11(1):21-36, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965143

ABSTRACT

The spread of the COVID-19 virus in Italy during the first phasis of the pandemic (February-May 2020) has caused a large-scale crisis, with an almost immediate decrease of industrial production and a consequent contraction in domestic consumption and external trade. However, the issue of food security was immediately recognized as one of the most sensitive, so that the Government has decreed the priority role of the food system, which has been included among those considered fundamental services and economically essential, allowing the related activities to be carried out during the lockdown. Agricultural production activities transformation, and commercialization remained fully operative during the lockdown;nevertheless, the sector has faced many difficulties related to the contraction of some of the marketing channels (restaurants, on farm sales, agritourism, problems with the logistics and many other ones). To better understand the effects of the initial phasis of the pandemic on the Italian agricultural sector and provide useful information to the government and decision makers, a survey was carried out with a CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interviewing) sent to over 10,000 farmers belonging to the sample of the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). The number of respondents has been of 733 farms, which represents around 7% of the Italian FADN sample. The results of the questionnaire have been matched with FADN data on the structure and the economic performance of farms, allowing a more precise evaluation of the condition and effects of the pandemic. The results highlight a relevant effect of the COVID-19 pandemic emergency on the agricultural sector: 37% of the interviewed farmers declared a significant liquidity crisis, while 60% predicted a contraction in turnover. These effects are more relevant for the wine, olives, and horticulture types of farming and more frequent in medium/large farms. A better situation has been found for farms which usually outsource processing and/or marketing/sale of the products.

10.
Epidemiologiya i Vaktsinoprofilaktika ; 21(1):4-20, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1965075

ABSTRACT

Relevance of searching for computer methods with high efficiency of immunoepitopes recognition and predicting the longevity of the immunity they induce is determined primarily by the need to quickly create vaccines against newly emerging infections, especially during pandemic periods. Aim. To develop a new immunoinformation method for recognizing immunoepitopes, to identify in the viral proteins possible potential markers to induce long-term immunity and to evaluate by them the vaccines against Covid-19. Materials and methods. For computer analysis, an Internet-accessible databases of immunoepitopes 15 and 9 amino acids long, restricted respectively by MHC I and MHC II, and peptides not binding to MHC, as well as human and virus proteins, were used. The algorithm for discriminating immunoepitopes was based on positional distinction of specific short peptides in their primary structures. Results. The «inventory» in the training samples of di-and tripeptides or pentapeptides of immunoepitopes and nonimmunoepitopes makes it possible to accurately recognize in the control samples up to 93–97% of immunoepitopes restricted by MHC I and MHC II. Comparison of the amino acid composition of proteins of subunit vaccines causing long-term immunity revealed dominance of amino acids (especially proline), which form the basis of internally disorganized regions, and proline-containing dipeptides, that allowed them to be considered as biomarkers of the potential of a viral protein to form a long-term immune memory. In the S-protein of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 two candidates for immunospressive domains are present and the dominance of proline and dipeptides containing it is absent. Conclusion. The immunoepitope recognition method and the biomarker for inducing longterm immune memory can be used as immunoinformative tools of computational vaccinology. Providing long-term immunity by vaccines based on the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 protein S is unlikely. © 2022, Numikom. All rights reserved.

11.
Pamukkale Medical Journal ; 14(3):706-716, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965067

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We aimed to determine the number of possible and precise cases among the patients hospitalized in our clinic and to examine the differences between the sociodemographic, clinical, chest CT and laboratory findings of these two groups. Materials and methods: The data of all patients hospitalized at the department of pulmonology service between March 13 as the date of the first case and May 5 with probable and definitive COVID-19 were evaluated retrospectively. Patient ward files and hospital data management system were examined. Chest CT findings of the patients were interpreted by two radiologists separately according to the CO-RADS classification blinded to clinical and PCR test results of the patients and then consensus was achieved with joint evaluation. Results: A total of 99 patients, 38 RT-PCR positive, 61 RT-PCR negative, were included in the study. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio(NLR) values and lymphocyte count were lower at a statistically significant level in positive patients(respectively p=0.038, p=0.041). Similarly, CRP values were observed to be lower at a statistically significant level in positive patients(p=0.029). When the patients with RT-PCR(+) and RT-PCR(-) but with positive chest CT findings according to CO-RADS staging were compared, the values of WBC, LDH and CRP level was observed to be high were statistically significant in the group with RT-PCR(-) but positive chest CT findings. Conclusion: In the presence of clinical findings, without waiting for RT-PCR positivity, the probability of COVID-19 disease will increase if there are elevated WBC, CRP and LDH findings with CT findings(stage 4-5 according to CO-RADS).Alternate :Amaç: Kliniğimizde takip edilen kesin COVID-19 vakalar ile olası COVID-19 vakalar arasındaki sosyodemografik, klinik, BT ve laboratuvar bulgularının farklarını incelemeyi amaçladık. Gereç ve yöntem: Ílk vaka tarihi olan 13 Mart 2020 ile 5 Mayıs 2020 arasında, olası ve kesin COVID-19 tanısıyla Göğüs Hastalıkları servisinde yatan tüm hastaların verileri retrospektif olarak incelendi. Hastaların toraks BT bulguları, hastaların klinik ve PCR test sonuçlarına körleştirilen iki farklı radyolog tarafından CO-RADS sınıflamasına göre ayrı ayrı yorumlandı ve daha sonra ortak değerlendirme ile konsensüs sağlandı. Klinik, laboratuvar ve görüntüleme bulguları ile çoklu regresyon modellemesi yapıldı. Bulgular: Çalışmaya 38 RT-PCR pozitif, 62 RT-PCR negatif olmak üzere toplam 99 hasta dahil edildi. Nötrofil/lenfosit oranı (NLR) ve lenfosit sayısı, RT-PCR pozitif hastalarda istatistiksel olarak anlamlı düzeyde daha düşüktü (sırasıyla p = 0.038, p = 0.041). Benzer şekilde, pozitif hastalarda CRP değerlerinin istatistiksel olarak anlamlı düzeyde düşük olduğu gözlendi (p = 0.029). RT-PCR (+) ile RT-PCR (-) ancak toraks BT ‘si CO-RADS evrelemesine göre pozitif olan hastaların karşılaştırmalarında, RT-PCR (-) ancak toraks BT pozitif olan grupta anlamlı şekilde WBC, LDH ve CRP değerlerinin daha yüksek olduğu görüldü (sırasıyla p=0.001, p=0.033, p=0.004). Öksürük, WBC, LDH, CRP değerleri ve toraks BT skoru kullanılarak geliştirilen modelde en yüksek AUC değeri elde edilmiş, RT-PCR pozitifliğini ayırt etmede başarılı olabileceği görüldü (AUC=0.725, 95% CI: 0.619-0.830) Sonuç: Klinik bulgular varlığında RT-PCR pozitifliğini beklemeden COVID-19 uyumlu BT bulguları (CO-RADS'ye göre evre 4-5) ile yüksek WBC, CRP VE LDH varsa COVID-19 olasılığı artacaktır.

12.
Pamukkale Medical Journal ; 14(3):632-637, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965066

ABSTRACT

Investigation of the effect of Covid-19 pandemic on pediatric urology operations in Şanliurfa province, where the birth rate is the highest in Turkey : Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric urology operations. Materials and Methods: Hospital records of pediatric patients who applied to Harran University Medical Faculty Pediatric Urology Clinic during the pandemic period (19 March-22 December 2020) and pre-pandemic period (19 March-22 December 2019) and were operated with precautions were retrospectively analyzed. The number of outpatient clinic patients during and before the pandemic period, the number of operations and indications, and the types of surgery were compared. The names and numbers of surgical procedures are listed according to the European Association of Urology (EAU) priority classification. Results: During the COVID-19 pandemic period, the number of pediatric patients admitted to the outpatient clinic was 2361, while it was 5214 in the same period before the pandemic. It was observed that the number of patients who applied to the outpatient clinic decreased by 54.8% during the pandemic period. While the total number of pediatric operations was 316 during the pandemic period, it was 741 before the pandemic period. When the pandemic period was compared with the pre-pandemic period, a 58.4% reduction was observed in pediatric urology operations. The number of emergency operations was 69 during the pandemic period and 85 in the pre-pandemic period. During the pandemic period, the reduction in emergency operations was 18.8%. No complications were observed due to COVID-19 in any of the operated patients. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 epidemic, it was observed that the number of pediatric urology outpatient clinic admissions and surgeries in our hospital decreased. In cases where urgent interventions were required, adequate precautions were taken, and surgical operations could be applied without any contamination and mortality. Keywords: Coronavirus, coronavirus disease 2019, pandemic hospital, pediatric urological surgery.Alternate :et Amaç: Bu çalışmada COVID-19 pandemisinin pediatrik üroloji ameliyatlarına etkisini araştırmayı amaçladık. Materyal ve metod: Tıp Fakültesi Pediatrik Üroloji Kliniği’ne pandemi döneminde (19 Mart-22 Aralık 2020) ve pandemi öncesi dönemde (19 Mart-22 Aralık 2019) polikliniğe başvuran ve önlemler eşliğinde ameliyat edilen pediatrik hastaların hastane kayıtları retrospektif incelendi. Pandemi dönemi ve öncesi poliklinik hasta sayıları, ameliyat sayıları ve endikasyonları, ameliyat türleri karşılaştırıldı. Cerrahi prosedürlerin isimleri ve sayılar Avrupa Üroloji Derneği (EAU) öncelik sınıflandırmasına göre listelendi. Bulgular: COVID-19 pandemisi döneminde polikliniğe pediatrik hasta başvuru sayısı 2361 iken pandemi öncesi aynı dönemde 5214 idi. Pandemi döneminde polikliniğe başvuran hasta sayısının % 54,8 azaldığı görüldü. Pandemi döneminde toplam pediatrik ameliyat sayısı 316, pandemi dönemi öncesi 741 idi. Pandemi dönemi, pandemi öncesi ile karşılaştırıldığında pediatrik üroloji ameliyatlarında %58,4 azalma olduğu görüldü. Pandemi döneminde acil ameliyat sayısı 69, pandemi öncesi dönemde 85 idi. Pandemi döneminde acil ameliyatlardaki azalma %18,8 idi. Opere edilen hiçbir hastada COVID-19 nedeniyle komplikasyon izlenmedi. Sonuç: COVID-19 salgını sırasında hastanemizdeki pediatrik üroloji poliklinik başvurusu ve ameliyat sayısının azalmış olduğu görüldü. Acil müdahalelerin gerekli olduğu olgularda yeterli önlemler alınarak, herhangi bir kontaminasyon ve mortalite olmaksızın cerrahi operasyonlarının uygulanabilirliği görüldü.

13.
Pamukkale Medical Journal ; 14(4):934-943, 2021.
Article in Turkish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965065

ABSTRACT

Dünyayı etkisi altına alan şiddetli akut solunum yolu sendromu coronavirusu 2 (SARS-CoV-2) salgını, pek çok ülkede ölümcül sonuçlara neden olan önemli bir halk sağlığı sorunudur. Pandemiye yol açacak hastalık yayılımlarının erken dönemde tespit edilebilmesi hastalık kontrol ve eradikasyonunun önemli bir bileşenidir. Hastalık verilerinin ve mekânsal analiz yöntemlerinin birlikte kullanılması, daha etkili hastalık kontrolü ve çözüm stratejileri geliştirmek için büyük bir fırsat sunmaktadır. Bu derlemede coğrafi bilgi sistemlerinin (CBS) epidemiyolojideki uygulamalarını ve salgın hastalıkların kontrolü ve eradikasyonundaki ilişkisini değerlendirmek için özelde COVID-19’u içeren literatüre dayalı bir inceleme yapılmıştır. Epidemiyoloji alanındaki araştırmalarda, araştırılan hastalık verilerinin nasıl bir dağılım ve kümelenme gösterdiği, kısa, orta ve uzun vadede yapılacak kontrol ve eradikasyon müdahalelerini planlama açısından CBS temelli analizler ve modeller giderek önem kazanmaktadır. COVID-19'un kontrol ve eradikasyonunda yaşanan zorluklar, güçlü bulaşıcılık özelliği, uzun bir kuluçka dönemi, nüfus akış ve hareketliliği ve diğer faktörlerle birleştiğinde, hastalığın yayılmasını kontrol etmek ve önlemek için bilimsel ve teknolojik desteğe gereksinim duyulmaktadır. Bu derlemenin amacı, CBS temelli araçların gelişimini anlamak ve COVID-19 pandemisi yönetiminde CBS kullanımı hakkında güncel bilgiler vermektir.

14.
Pamukkale Medical Journal ; 14(2):438-442, 2021.
Article in Turkish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965064

ABSTRACT

Giriş: 11 Mart tarihinde, Dünya Sağlık Örgütü (DSÖ) tarafından ilan edilen COVÍD-19 salgını sonrası, Mart’ın ikinci haftasından itibaren ülkemizde olgular bildirilmiştir. COVÍD-19 olgularının %5’inde hastalığın seyri sırasında yoğun bakıma ünitesine (YBÜ) yatış ihtiyacı gelişmektedir. Bu çalışma ile YBÜ’de izlediğimiz kritik durumdaki COVÍD-19 hastalarının klinik özelliklerinin tanınması, takip ve tedavisinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Gereç ve yöntem: Bu çalışmada;Mart-Haziran 2020 tarihleri arasında, COVÍD-19 enfeksiyonu tanısı alan 180 hastanın, Dahiliye YBÜ’ye kabul edilen 18 (%12,2) hasta değerlendirilmiştir. Bulgular: YBÜ'ye kabul edilen 18 hastadan 13'ünün (%72,2) invaziv solunum desteğine ihtiyacı vardı. Geri kalan hastalara (5 hasta, %27,8) non-invaziv ventilasyon tedavisi uygulandı. Hastaların 16'sında (%88,9) en az bir komorbiditeye rastlandı. Yoğun bakım ünitesine yatan hastaların, 28 günlük mortalitesi %55,6 iken hastane mortalitesi %61,1 idi. 60 günlük mortalite ise %66,7 olarak bulundu. Tartışma: YBÜ’ye kabul oranımız ve ölüm oranlarımız Çin, Amerika ve Ítalya’dan bildirilen çalışmalara göre daha yüksek bulunmuş ve bunun muhtemel sebeplerinin hastaların ciddiyeti, invaziv mekanik ventilasyon ihtiyacı olduğu düşünülmüştür. Sonuç: Bu çalışma sonuçlarına göre COVÍD-19 kritik seyirli hastaların risk faktörleri, takip ve tedavisinde kullandığımız yöntemler ortaya konulmuştur. Bu sonuçların gelecekteki takip ve tedavi yöntemlerine katkı sağlayabileceği düşünülmekle birlikte yeni çalışmalara ihtiyaç vardır.Alternate :Introduction: After the COVID-19 outbreak announced by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, cases have been reported in our country since the second week of March. In COVID-19 cases, the need for intensive care hospitalization develops in 5% during the course of the disease. With this study, it was aimed to recognize the characteristics, follow-up and treatment of patients in critical condition for COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and methods: Between March and June 2020, 180 adult patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, and 18 (12.2%) of them were admitted to Internal Medicine ICU Results: Thirteen (72.2%) of 18 patients admitted to the ICU needed invasive respiratory support. Non-invasive ventilation therapy was applied to the remaining patients (5 patients, 27.8%). At least one comorbidity was found in 16 of the patients (88.9%). 28-day mortality of patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit was 55.6%, while hospital mortality was 61.1%. 60-day mortality was found as 66.7%. Discussion: Although our admission rate to the Intensive Care Unit and our mortality rates were higher than the studies reported from China, America and Italy, it was thought that the possible reasons for this were due to the severity of the patients, the higher need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: This study, in which the risk factors of COVID-19 patients with critical course, and the results of the methods we use in their follow-up and treatment, are thought to contribute to future follow-up and treatment methods, but new studies are needed.

15.
Pamukkale Medical Journal ; 14(3):768-773, 2021.
Article in Turkish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965063

ABSTRACT

Uygunsuz antidiüretik hormon salınım sendromu (UADHSS), hastanede yatan hastalarda hiponatreminin en sık nedenlerinden biridir. Hiponatreminin etiyolojisinde birçok neden olmasından dolayı sebebinin bulunup tedavi edilmesinde güçlük yaşanabilmektedir. UADHSS’a neden olabilecek birçok infeksiyon hastalığı bildirilmiştir. Bununla birlikte Koronavirüs 2019 hastalığı (COVID-19) ile ilişkili hiponatremi ve UADHSS son zamanlarda birkaç olgu raporunda belirtilmiştir. Bizim olgumuzda ise ilk hastaneye başvuru sırasında COVID-19 pnömonisinin klasik semptomları olan öksürük, nefes darlığı ve ateş şikayeti, ikinci başvurusunda ise hiponatreminin klinik semptomlarından olan halsizlik, genel durum bozukluğu görülmekteydi. COVID-19 olan bir hastada hiponatremi ve UADHSS’nın görülebileceğini vurgulamayı amaçladık.Alternate :Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is one of the most common causes of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients. Since there are several etiologies of hyponatremia, it may be difficult to identify and treat the etiology. Several infectious diseases have been reported to cause SIADH. However, hyponatremia and SIADH induced by Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) have been reported in several recent case reports. However, our case admitted to hospital with the classic symptoms of COVID-19 pneumonia including cough, dyspnea and fever at his first admission, and with the clinical symptoms of hyponatremia, including weakness and general condition disorderat his second admission. Our aim is to emphasize that hyponatremia and SIADHmay be observed in our COVID-19 patient.

16.
Pamukkale Medical Journal ; 14(3):574-583, 2021.
Article in Turkish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965062

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim is to evaluate the relationships between the number of cases, deaths and tests in countries in the COVID-19 outbreak and the countries' Gini coefficients, elderly population rates, distances to the equator and global health security indexes. Materials and methods: In this ecological study conducted in August 2020, the data reported on the Worldometers website on the prevalence of the COVID-19 outbreak were used. The relationship between COVID-19 related variables of countries and Gini coefficients, elderly population ratios, distance from the equator and global health security indexes were examined. Results: 215 countries were evaluated in the study. Qatar is the country with the highest number of cases per million;San Marino has the highest number of deaths per million and Monaco has the highest number of tests per million. As a result of the linear regression analysis, the Gini coefficients of the countries were associated with the total number of cases per million, the elderly population ratios were associated with the total number of deaths per million, and distance to the equator was associated with the total number of tests per million. As the Gini coefficients of the countries increase, the total number of cases per million (p=0.006);as the elderly population rates increase, deaths per million (p=0.005);as the distance from the equator increases, the number of tests per million (p=0.015) increases. Conclusion: As a result, as income inequality, elderly population and distance from the equator increase, the impact from the pandemic increases. Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, Gini coefficient, global health security index.

17.
Pamukkale Medical Journal ; 14(1):103-112, 2021.
Article in Turkish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965061

ABSTRACT

Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı yeni tip korona virüs hastalığının (COVID-19) diş hekimleri üzerinde yarattığı gelecek kaygısı ve stres düzeyini incelemektir. Gereç ve Yöntem: TC Sağlık Bakanlığı ve klinik araştırmalar etik kurulundan alınan izin sonrası online formlar aracılığı ile anket oluşturuldu. Ülkemizde yaşayan özel ve/veya kamu kurumlarında diş hekimi olarak çalışan, 25-55 yaş arası kişiler çalışmaya dahil edildi. Tüm katılımcılara;sosyodemografik ve klinik değerlendirme formu, Algılanan Stres Ölçeği (ASÖ) ve araştırmacılar tarafından oluşturulan gelecek ile ilgili kaygı düzeyini değerlendiren gelecek kaygısı formu uygulandı. Bulgular: Çalışmamıza 228 diş hekimi dahil edildi. 118 kişi (%52) kadın ve 110 kişi (%48) erkek idi. Katılımcılardan 161 kişi (%70) evli iken 53 kişi (%23,24) bekardı. Bu kişilerden 77 kişi (%33,77) 25-35 yaş aralığında, 74 kişi (%32,4) 35-45 yaş aralığında idi. ASÖ’den aldıkları puan 40,92±8,68 iken, gelecek kaygısının değerlendirildiği formdan 114,18±33,19 hesap edildi. Sonuç: Bulgularımız diş hekimlerinde Covid-19’a bağlı yüksek stres düzeyini ve toplumsal gelecek kaygısını işaret etmektedir. Bu nedenle, salgın sürecinde diş hekimlerinin stres düzeylerini ve kaygılarını azaltacak önlemlerin alınması önerilmektedir.

18.
Pamukkale Medical Journal ; 14(1):57-62, 2021.
Article in Turkish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965060

ABSTRACT

et Amaç: Aralik 2019’da Çin’in Hubei eyaleti Wuhan’da nedeni bilinmeyen pnömoni salgını yaşandı ve bu hastalık Dünya Sağlık Örgütü (WHO) tarafından koronavirüs hastalığı (COVÍD-19) olarak adlandırıldı. COVÍD-19 hızlıca dünyaya yayıldı. Bu hastalık hastalarda farklı şiddette seyretmektedir. Bu nedenle hastalar yatarak tedavi veya ayaktan tedavi gibi farklı alternatifler ile tedavi edilmektedir. Bu çalışmada bizim amacımız biyokimyasal parametreler ile hastaların ayakta tedavi veya yatarak tedavi almasındaki ilişkiyi araştırmaktır. Gereç ve yöntem: Çok merkezli retrospektif kohort çalışmamızda hastalar iki gruba ayrıldı;yatan hastalar ve ayaktan tedavi alan hastalar. Yatarak tedavi alan 60 hasta olmak üzere 102 hasta çalışmaya alındı. Koronavirüs;WHO’nun kılavuzuna göre gerçek zamanlı polimeraz zincir reaksiyonu (PZR) yöntemiyle SARS-CoV-2 RNA saptanmasıyla belirlenmiştir. Kan parametrelerinde nötrofil/lenfosit oranı (NLR) hesaplanmıştır. Bulgular: Yatan hasta grubunda daha ileri yaş (32,0 (26,0-39,3);54,0 (38,3-59,3), p<0,001), kan değerlerinde daha yüksek laktat dehidrogenaz (LDH) (195,0 (156,5-225,3);248,5 (200,3-334,5), p<0,001) ve daha yüksek NLR (1,56 (1,08-2,62);2,60 (1,65-4,90), p<0,001) görüldü. Sonraki adımda lojistik regresyon analizinde;ileri yaş (OR:1,072 95 % CI:1,031-1,115, p=0,001), yüksek LDH (OR:1,021 95 %CI:1,009-1,034, p=0,001) yüksek NLR (OR:1,402 95 % CI:1,049-1,874, p=0,023) yatarak tedavi almayı bağımsız olarak predikte etti. Sonuç: COVÍD-19 hastalarında ileri yaş, yüksek LDH ve yüksek NLR değerleri hastanede yatarak tedavi almayı öngördürmüştür. COVID- 19 continues to spread rapidly all over the world. Patients may experience the disease at different severity. Therefore, they can be treated by choosing alternative approaches including outpatient treatment or hospitalization. Our aim in the present study is to investigate the relationship between some biochemical parameters on admission and treatment location preference (inpatient or outpatient) Materials and methods: At our multi-center retrospective cohort study, we divided the study into 2 groups as inpatients and outpatients. A total of 102 patients, 60 of whom received inpatient treatment, were enrolled. Coronavirus was determined by detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA with a real-time PCR method in accordance with the WHO guide. Blood parameters were recorded and NLR was calculated. Results: Inpatient group was older (32.0 (26.0-39.3) vs 54.0 (38.3-59.3), p<0.001) and had significantly higher level of LDH (195.0 (156.5-225.3) vs 248.5 (200.3-334.5), p<0.001) and NLR (1.56 (1.08-2.62) vs 2.60 (1.65-4.90), p<0.001) in blood samples. In forward stepwise logistic regression analysis;advanced age (OR:1.072 95 % CI:1.031-1.115, p=0.001), high LDH (OR:1.021 95 %CI:1.009-1.034, p=0.001) and NLR (OR:1.402 95 % CI:1.049-1.874, p=0.023) were shown as independent predictors of hospitalization Conclusion: Advanced age, high LDH, and NLR level predicted hospitalization in patients with COVID-19. Keywords: Coronavirus, laktate dehydrogenase, neutrophil/ lymphocyte ratio (NLR)

19.
Medycyna Środowiskowa = Environmental Medicine ; 25(1-2):21-27, 2022.
Article in Polish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965017

ABSTRACT

Introduction and objective: On 10 March, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 pandemic, which has become a public health emergency of international concern. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes of health professionals towards the COVID-19 outbreak. Material and methods: A survey of 115 health care professionals was conducted in late 2020. The research tool was a questionnaire constructed based on surveys by the Public Opinion Research Center (CBOS). When analyzing the relationships, two groups were distinguished: hospital employees and those employed in other units, and employees with and without contact with patients. The results were processed using Microsoft Office Excel and Statistica 13.0. Analyses of the relationships were performed using the chi-square test, p<0.5. Results: More than a half of the respondents (51.30%) considered the current pandemic something unprecedented. Outside work, 86.96% of respondents covered their mouths and nose in public places, and 99.13% used hand disinfection in public places. Most employees of medical units (50.43%) considered the restrictions and security measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic to be too restrictive. This was due to the occupation performed and related with it direct contact with patients. Willingness to undergo vaccination against COVID-19 was expressed by 65.22% of respondents. Conclusions: Health care professionals have a high level of awareness of the need for SARS-CoV-2 prevention and adhere to epidemic safety measures both at and outside the workplace. Most health care professionals believe that the current pandemic safety measures are too restrictive. Most health care professionals (65.22%) were willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19.

20.
Medycyna Ogólna i Nauki o Zdrowiu ; 28(2):126-131, 2022.
Article in Polish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965016

ABSTRACT

Introduction and objective: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly influenced the development of digitization of the healthcare sector and the implementation of e-Health solutions in Poland. The aim of the study was to analyze e-Health solutions implemented in the healthcare sector in Poland, with particular focus on nationwide system solutions. Review methods: Data on e-Health solutions implemented in the Polish healthcare system during the period from 1 January – 31 March 2022 were collected and analyzed. The data was obtained based on analysis of legal acts (Acts and Regulations) and information published by the Ministry of Health, the National Health Fund, and the Polish e-Health Center. Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge: Seven nationwide e-Health solutions implemented on the national level have been identified: Internet Patient Account (IKP), electronic prescription (e-prescription);dismissal (e-release), referral (e-referral), teleconsultation, information about treatment dates (e-queue), and electronic medical records (EDM). Five areas have been identified: 1) key functionalities of a given e-service;2) previous functioning of the service before introduction of a given IT solution;3) legislative and IT solutions enabling the implementation of a given e-service;4) the scope of information contained in a given e-service;5) the impact of a given e-service on the organization of the healthcare system from the perspective of the patient and the healthcare provider. Summary: E-prescription and e-referral are among the most frequently used e-Health services in Poland. Despite significant development of e-Health services during the COVID-19 pandemic, there are still many barriers that are delaying the development of digital health services, including technological debt, low expenditure on healthcare, and low level of digital competencies among older medical staff.

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