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1.
IFPRI - Discussion Papers 2023 (2175):41 pp 43 ref ; 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20239359

ABSTRACT

This paper begins with a survey of recent commodity price developments that highlights the magnitude of this price surge and identifies the rapid rise in wheat prices as a key element. The analysis in this paper focuses on the extent to which domestic markets are insulated from these changes and on the resulting impacts on world prices. An econometric analysis using Error Correction Models finds stable long-term relationships between world wheat prices and most domestic prices of wheat and wheat products, but with considerable variation across countries in the rate of price transmission. A case study of the price shocks during the Covid pandemic and the Ukraine food price crisis finds that price insulation roughly doubled the overall increase in world wheat prices and raised their volatility both during periods of price increase and price decline.

2.
Food and Fermentation Industries ; 49(8):335-341, 2023.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20238658

ABSTRACT

Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate metabolite of cruciferous plants, which obtain antioxidant, anticancer and anti-COVID-19 functions. However, due to its unstable structure, it is easy to de-composite, thus the utilization of sulforaphane is difficult. With the advancement of the preparation of sulforaphane, the purpose of inhibiting sulforaphane inactivation and improving its utilization is expected to be realized. The existing preparation technologies are mainly myrosinase enzymatic hydrolysis, microbial transformation and chemical synthesis. Myrosinase enzymatic hydrolysis mainly utilizes endogenous myrosinase, exogenous myrosinase and heterologously expressed myrosinase. Myrosinase enzymatic hydrolysis technology not only obtain the advantage of high preparation efficiency, but also obtain the disadvantage that the activity of myrosinase cannot be stabilized. Microbial transformation mainly utilizes the function of microorganisms to convert glucosinolates to sulforaphane, and obtain the advantages of easy control of reaction conditions and low cost. Chemical synthesis mainly includes de novo synthesis and semi-synthesis, and semi-synthesis is the most widely used method at present. Chemical synthesis obtains the advantages of easy control of reaction conditions, but chemical synthesis techniques have the problems of high risk and low yield. This research reviews the preparation technology of sulforaphane, aiming to provide a reference for the efficient utilization of sulforaphane and its product development.

3.
Agricultural Economics and Rural Development ; 19(2):219-238, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20238188

ABSTRACT

The paper presents the reaction of the Romanian cereal market to the disruption of trade flows caused by certain shocks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which lead to changes with high impact on the functioning of this market, representing an important test for the resilience of the sector. Due to trade liberalization in global markets, including agri-food markets, the competitiveness of exports has become increasingly important, contributing to the creation of the country's competitive advantage. Any restrictions to trade in agri-food products can distort trade flows, and this disruption will have an impact on supply and prices. Maintaining a balance between imports and exports is essential to ensure domestic market stability. International trade in agri-food products plays an important role in global food security. The results show that Romania mainly exports unprocessed agricultural products, with cereals having the largest share in the export structure, cereal supply is dependent on climate change, yet it is one of the products with the lowest volatility. The cereal market shows a more elastic reaction to price responses, even though demand for staple foods is generally inelastic.

4.
African Crop Science Journal ; 31(2):133-149, 2023.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20237695

ABSTRACT

Iron and zinc are important minerals in humans in sub Saharan Africa, whose deficiency is known as "hidden hunger" due to the lack of recognised symptoms in the early stages. Although iron deficiency is the most prevalent, zinc is also involved in inhibition of replication of viruses, including the corona virus (COVID-19). In North Kivu and South Kivu provinces where more than 50% of common bean is produced and consumed in Democratic Republic of Congo, 36% and 47% of preschool children are anemic due to iron deficiency. This paradox is mainly due to insufficiency of iron-rich foods. The aim of this study is to characterise 59 iron and zinc biofortified varieties together with six local varieties of common bean for a potential selection programme in Butembo town in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We focused on 15 qualitative and five quantitative parameters. The qualitative parameters were helpful to distinguish the different morphotypes and for cluster analysis. In addition to the descriptive statistics, the quantitative data were used for Pearson correlation and for principal component analysis, PCA. Qualitative parameters enabled grouping of the study genotypes into 14 morphotypes according to the aspect and colour of the seed coat, the colour around the hilum and the size of seeds. Clustering grouped the 65 genotypes into 12 clusters with the most similar genotypes grouped in the same cluster. Quantitative parameters showed that the study genotypes were dissimilar (P=0.00). A positive correlation was obtained between the days to flowering and the days to maturity (P<0.05) and between the number of pods per plant and the days to flowering. A strong correlation was found between the number of pods per plant and seeds per pod (P<0.01). In contrast, a negative correlation was observed between the 100 seed weight and the number of seeds per pod. The PCA represented on two perpendicular axes showed 64.1% of the total variance of which the 42.3% is explained by the first axis and 21.8% by the second axis. Overall, the study genotypes are morphologically and quantitatively different and thus can be used in a selection programme.

5.
Food Protection Trends ; 43(3):215-222, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20237541

ABSTRACT

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, mask-wearing has become a common practice in the foodservice industry to prevent the spread of respiratory diseases. Like kitchen utensils, a mask may serve as a vehicle for cross-contamination of pathogens during food handling. The objective of this study was to quantify cross-contamination between tasks of handling contaminated chicken and chopping lettuce. Chicken breasts were inoculated with a high or a low level of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli surrogates (ca. 6 or 4 log CFU/ml) and sliced for 1, 5, or 10 min. During slicing, duplicate, single-use medical masks were touched each minute. One mask was immediately sampled, but the second mask was used to contaminate lettuce by touching the mask each minute while chopping the lettuce for 5 min. E. coli were enumerated from the second mask and lettuce. Masks touched while slicing both high- and low-inoculated chicken showed significant contamination (0.8-4.9 log CFU/cm2) after each slicing scenario of 1, 5, or 10 min (P > 0.05). Lettuce was significantly contaminated regardless of inoculation level (1.0-3.2 log CFU/g). Slicing time was a significant factor in some cases (P < 0.05), whereas inoculation level was not (P > 0.05). Data indicate masks can be a source of cross-contamination if not replaced appropriately.

6.
Agricultural Economics and Rural Development ; 19(2):239-253, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20235030

ABSTRACT

Romania ranks first in the European Union for the production of sunflower seeds, third for the production of soybeans and seventh for the production of rapeseed. The paper aims to analyse the effects produced by the COVID-19 pandemic on the evolution of the oilseed sector in Romania. Thus, the following indicators were analysed: evolution of areas under oilseeds, total oilseed production and average yields, as well as the volatility of selling prices for oilseeds. The results of the study reveal that Romania has been the largest producer of sunflower seeds in the European Union. The average yields in sunflower, soybeans and rapeseed have shown great variations in the analysed period. According to Eurostat data, it can be noticed that although Romania is the third large producer of oilseeds in the EU, the average yields continue to be low compared to those from other large EU producers. Yields are also among the most volatile in the EU. The selling prices for soybeans showed a higher increase in the year 2020 than in 2019 in Romania, compared to the increase in the average selling prices of the EU-27 (+9.89%). The selling prices for rapeseed also had a higher increase in 2020 than in 2019 in Romania, compared to the increase in the average selling prices of the EU-27 (+2.31%).

7.
Agro Bali: Agricultural Journal ; 6(1):201-210, 2023.
Article in Indonesian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20234729

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 is a global pandemic that has an impact on all sectors, when compared to consumption in the period before and after, the consumption of fruit in the province of North Sumatra has decreased but there has been an increase in the average monthly per capita expenditure (rupiah) of fruit commodities. This study aims to analyze the factors that influence people's consumption of fruit in the city of Medan and the impact of the coronavirus (covid-19) on fruit consumption in the city of Medan. The research method used is the case study method. The method of determining the research area used is purposive and the data used are primary data obtained through interviews with 100 respondents. The results of the analysis show that the factors that influence consumption patterns include income, number of family members, age, and education have a significant effect simultaneously on the amount of fruit consumption. Income, number of family members and education partially affect the amount of fruit consumption, while the age variable has no significant effect partially on the amount of fruit consumption. Based on the results of hypothesis testing, it can be concluded that the Covid-19 virus affects the amount of fruit consumption in the city of Medan. Fruit consumption in Medan before, during and after the Covid-19 virus is different. With the Covid-19 pandemic, health and body immunity are very important to maintain their performance. Ways to maintain health during the pandemic, ranging from wearing masks, washing hands with soap to consuming vitamins and minerals that can be obtained from consuming fruits.

8.
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization ; 21(1):1-98, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20231626

ABSTRACT

This special issue consists of seven articles examining the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the markets of selected commodities, including: seafood, lumber, crawfish, cattle/beef, fruits and vegetables in the USA, cotton and garments in Bangladesh, and fuel oil globally.

9.
International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology in Extension and Education Systems ; 13(1):35-43, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2321941

ABSTRACT

Due to various policies measures to curtail the virus, one of which was lockdown, the occurrence of COVID-19 had a negative impact on the nation's economy, especially the rural smallholder farmers. The study looked into how Covid-19 lockdowns affected Nigerian vegetable production. Descriptive statistics, budgetary approaches, multiple regression analysis, and a Likert scale were all used for the analysis. The findings show that most of vegetable growers in the research region were married women (88.33%). About 70% of respondents have completed at least their primary education. The multiple regression analysis results disclosed that number of extensions contact, farm size, market access and transportation cost were significantly affected the level of vegetable production with positive sign while household size had a negative effect on the vegetable production. The findings also showed that after the COVID-19 lockdown, vegetable production was extremely profitable in the study area, with an average gross margin of 82,836.04 that was statistically higher than the 60,709.97 gross margin generated from vegetable production during COVID-19 and the 71,234.91 gross margin generated prior to COVID-19. The constraints faced by vegetable farmers during the covid - 19 restrictions include: high cost of transportation, price fluctuation, and high cost of input, perishability of the produce and lack of improved seeds. It was concluded that Covid 19 pandemic has greater effect on vegetable production in the study areas.

10.
OCL Oilseeds and Fats, Crops and Lipids ; 29(11), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2321790

ABSTRACT

Oilseeds are grown mainly for the extraction of vegetable oils and for its by-products needed in livestock feed and in other industrial uses. The oils obtained from them are becoming a staple food used in daily cooking in several countries, and as a result the world demand is constantly increasing. This situation, combined with the exponential increase in the world population and other cyclical factors, is leading to a surge pricing, especially in importing countries. This increase in prices is fueled by soaring oil prices and disruption in supplies following Covid-19 pandemic and geopolitical tensions in the Black Sea. Morocco is directly impacted by these fluctuations given that the country imports almost its total needs in vegetable oils, oilseeds and meals. The high dependence on imported vegetable oils and oilseed products has a detrimental effect on the economy of Morocco and weighs heavily on the country's trade balance. Considering their increasingly important role in society, the development of a local oilseed sector to reduce Morocco's dependence on imports and cope with the vagaries of global markets has never been more topical in the current context of sustainable agriculture and food sovereignty.

11.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 16, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2325714

ABSTRACT

The main food consumption of farming families is an important concern during the pandemic. Farmers in West Nusa Tenggara (WNT) survive with the availability of rice to support household health and food security during the pandemic. In addition to its nutritional content, rice also contains phenolic compounds and has antioxidant activity. This study aims are to measure the frequency of rice consumption, food variety, varieties of rice consumed daily during the pandemic in WNT, as well as the antioxidant properties of several rice varieties grown in WNT. This study was conducted from September 2020 to June 2021 in East Lombok, Sumbawa and Bima Regencies, WNT Province, Indonesia using a survey approach. The data collection techniques were observation, Focus Group Discussion, recording, interviews with 74 respondents with a semi-structured questionnaire and study literature related to the nutritional content and bioactive compound of the rice. Quantitative data was tabulated to determine the frequency and average then descriptively analyzed, while qualitative data was thematically analysed. The most consumed rice varieties are seen from the production data of seed breeders in the WNT region, the phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu, antioxidant activity was examined using DPPH assay. The result showed that the highest portion of food consumed by farmer households in WNT is rice. The most variety of rice produced by breeders is the Inpari 32 variety. There are about 97% of farmers consume rice for 3 times a day, while 3% of the remaining consume 2 times a day of rice. Food variety includes 7.9% vegetable-rice and 92.1% rice-vegetables-meat protein. The results of the analysis of antioxidant properties and phenolic content in rice is depending on the variety. The antioxidant properties of the Jeliteng, Baroma, Pamelen, Nutrizinc and Inpari 32 rice varieties were 44.85+or-0.51%, 9.87+or-1.55%, 9.96+or-1.22%, 9.75+or-1.09%, and 14.305+or-1.24%, respectively, while the phenolic contents were 9.76+or-0.09, 4.23+or-0.03, 4.48+or-0.02, 4.64+or- 0.07, 4.58+or-0.42 mg GAE/g dryrice extract, respectively. The results of this study indicate that rice has been used as one of antioxidants source for farming families during the pandemic.

12.
Revista Sitio Novo ; 7(1):32-46, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2319328

ABSTRACT

This study verified the influence of the addition of castanets almond flour (Terminalia catappa L.) in the fermentation process of bread, analyzing attributes such as volume, weight, color, and flavor. The actions were coordinated remotely, in a domestic environment, in the city of Fortaleza (Ceara, Brazil) due to the restrictions caused by the pandemic of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). About 2 kg of castanets were collected and the processing process included washing, pulp extraction, drying, roasting, and endocarp breaking. The ingredients were placed in a bowl and homogenized until completely incorporated, following the process of kneading, resting, kneading, shaping, fermentation and cooking. For the study, the evaluation was carried out in quadruplicate, with four samples of each dough, these being named Basic Bread (PB) and Chestnut Bread (PC). The dough showed growth between minutes 0 to 60, however, there was a regression between minutes 90 to 120. It is possible to observe that the dough reached its peak of fermentation between 30 and 60 minutes. The PB samples showed an external golden color and white crumb caused by the Maillard Reaction, possibly from the added butter, and had small alveoli. The PB sample had a neutral taste but was salty. No interference was observed in the bread fermentation process with the addition of castanets flour.

13.
Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka ; 50(2):387-393, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2315182

ABSTRACT

The importance of food supply throughout the world has once again shown its significance in the COVID-19 pandemic period. A continuous food supply is possible with correct agricultural programming. An effective agricultural product programming can only be possible by obtaining precise agricultural data. However, it is very difficult to gather accurate agricultural production statistics from all over the world and confirm their accuracy. In this study, the compatibility of the production statistics of six important agricultural products (wheat, rice, potato, onion, banana, apple) which had been collected from local sources, and had published as opensource by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, with Benford's law was examined for the first time. Data for the last two decades are used to ignore the impact of annual fluctuations. The compatibility of theoretically expected and observed data was tested by Chi-square (X2) and Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) tests. Although inconsistencies were found in some data by examining the numbers in the first, second, and first two digits, in general, the MAD test results gave a mostly concordant result.

14.
Scientific African ; 19(38), 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2291527

ABSTRACT

Cold storage is expensive for smallholder farmers and seed processors in developing countries. Smallholder farmers continue to resort to traditional storage methods such as polypropylene (PP) bags for maize grain storage. They often dose the grains with chemicals to preserve them. However, hermetic bags have proven to provide superior protection to grains during storage without chemical treatment. With the advent of the COVID-19 virus which distorted many food systems across continents, stakeholders in the grain industry need to adopt better systems to reduce post-harvest food loss and improve food security. In this study, maize grain quality, nutritional content and viability were compared under three storage methods (PP bags with Phostoxin treatment, cold storage, and hermetic bag) over a storage period of four months. The results showed that the hermetic bag maintained the moisture content (MC) of the stored grains with 0.40% variations from the initial MC of 13% at the end of the storage period compared to 0.70% and 1.10% for grains stored under cold storage and in PP bags, respectively. Grain damage after the 4th month of storage in the hermetic bag had only increased by 0.40% from an initial 13.3% before storage compared to an increase of 6% for cold storage, which was attributed to unstable power during the storage period, and 4.30% for grains stored in the PP bag. Carbon dioxide concentration in the hermetic bag was maintained at about 11% throughout the storage period indicating low microbial activity. The hermetic bag technology was identified as the best option for quality preservation during storage of maize grain over the other methods, and its adoption by smallholder farmers in Ghana should be considered.

15.
Agriculture ; 13(3), 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2304448

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected and still affects various sectors, including the agricultural sector. A specific industry deriving from agriculture is the wine industry. The purpose of this article is to find out and analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the wine sector, especially regarding the Slovakia wine sector. To achieve this, a wide literary research study was conducted through which an overview of the global wine industry situation was obtained. Subsequently, the impact of COVID-19 on a selected wine business in the Slovak Republic was determined via interviewing. The findings were further analysed and compared with the situations of other Slovak and foreign wineries. It follows from the observations that both risk diversification within supplying and purchasing relations and the business's essential need to adapt to new circumstances under adverse conditions are very important factors. The article's contribution lies in a summarization of the problems and opportunities within the wineries as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, based on a wide literary research review and interviews with an employee of the large wine company, and the conclusions can also be applied to other agricultural industries.

16.
Bulletin of the Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kyushu University ; 45:23-33, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2297708

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus was detected in Bangladesh first time on March 8, 2020 officially. But Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), first reported in December 2019 from Wuhan in China, had reached the stage of a pandemic. This study was conducted to know the effects of spices against Covid-19 disease, impact of Covid-19 on agro-economy of spices crop and point out of mitigating of spices problem in Bangladesh. Major production of spices was severely affected, causing raw material shortages to the spice production of Bangladesh. Major for spices crop problem were shortages caused by the migration of the workforce due to lockdown. Continuing operation on the industry floor, in the midst of social distancing, and ensuring safety of the spices production, was also a major issue. Although the entire sectors were hit by the economic disruptions, the small-scale spice producers and processors most severely affected. The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and the prolonged lockdown have made thousands of farmers, labours and traders feel the pinch of a falling spices yield and sale. Increased production cost of onion, chilli, garlic, ginger, turmeric, coriander and black cumin due to Covid-19 situation over normal situation were 10.33, 9.54, 9.04, 11.46, 9.58, 6.21 and 7.21%, respectively. Market price of onion, chilli, garlic, ginger, turmeric, coriander and black cumin were also increased 5.00, 3.90, 1.39, 3.13, 1.40, 1.25 and 2.67 times, respectively, due to the influence of Covid-19.

17.
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics ; 60(1):72-84, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2294327

ABSTRACT

Drop in nutrition value during food logistics impacts the health of consumers. Vegetables, fruits, fish, milk lose nutrients during logistics if it is not properly monitored. Real-time tracking and monitoring, large data handling and secure business transactions are key to the effective operation of supply chains. The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us the need for handling unforeseen situations in various sectors. Limitations to logistic operations, inaccessible warehouses, shutdown of consumer outlets for an unexpected duration, have affected the supply chain drastically. This has laid emphasis on the need for technology-based solutions that can monitor, control and make quick decisions, that can reduce losses. With this scenario as a background, a system architecture has been proposed to detect the nutrient value of food by periodically monitoring temperature and humidity in real-time and alerting the cold chain entities in cold chain environments. This architecture is proposed as an integration of Internet of Things (IoT) with cloud-based storage, to provide real-time data collection at the end-user, seamless storage and computation in the cloud and secure transactions at the business layer. An experimental setup of the system architecture has been configured and the implementation has been tested at a preliminary level. The performance of the application is analyzed and the proposed web application is efficient for large scale supply chain applications, provided scaling of hardware resources.

18.
Radovi Poljoprivredno Prehrambenog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu / Works of the Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences University of Sarajevo ; 67(72 Part 2):113-126, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2294298

ABSTRACT

The production of wheat, as one of the elementary and strategic nutrition crops, in North Macedonia is insufficient and cannot meet the national demands, which results with negative trade balance with import of 74,937 tons of wheat valued at 17.9 million EUR. The main goal of this paper is to analyse the influence of international markets on wheat prices in the Republic of North Macedonia. Data on the purchase price of wheat have been analysed using statistical methods and models from December 2009 to December 2021. A total of 145 monthly time series with data on the purchase price of wheat for Macedonia, the EU, Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia have been analysed and compared. The Pearson correlation coefficient shows a relatively high relationship and mutual dependence of purchase prices in Macedonia, compared to prices in the EU, Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia (over 65%). The purchase prices of wheat in Macedonia have the highest relationship and mutual dependence with the price movement in Serbia (0.78), and the lowest with the price movement in the EU (0.66). The estimated lag length of the autoregressive process (AIC, BIC, FPE and HQIC tests), on average shows 2 lags (months) later time reaction of the wheat prices in Macedonia with the comparison countries countries. The forecasting model (Granger causality test) shows that time series of wheat prices can be convenient for forecasting wheat prices in Macedonia. As of October 2021, the model clearly shows the impact of food economic crisis and unexpected, immediate rise of wheat prices as result of the post Covid-19 and Ukraine war crisis. This research and analysis model can provide significant information for the wheat price trends, forecasting and markets shock, as management and decision-making tools for producers, traders and processors, but also for the policy makers.

19.
Radovi Poljoprivredno Prehrambenog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu / Works of the Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences University of Sarajevo ; 67(72 Part 2):135-144, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2294297

ABSTRACT

Apple production has the greatest significance among all types of fruit crops in Macedonia, sharing 56% of the total fruit production. Due to the economic crisis caused by Covid-19 and the war in Ukraine, the prices of agricultural inputs have increased greatly. To that end, the main goal of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the global economic crisis on the apple production price. The production costs calculation is based on calculation of variable and fixed costs of apple production for 2020 and 2021 as reference years and 2022 as the year when the production price change is considered. Data for the normative calculation and production price for 2020 and 2021 are obtained based on the expert knowledge and confirmed with the semi-structured interview with 3 farmers and 2 apple producing companies. Based on this normative calculation and market prices for inputs in 2020, 2021 and 2022 collected from the 10 input suppliers, AMIS and SSO, the apple production price is calculated. The results show that the economic crisis has a large negative economic impact on apple production, as the estimated full production price of apples in 2022 ha increased by 37% compared with that of 2020 & 2021.

20.
Revista Higiene Alimentar ; 36(295), 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2272726

ABSTRACT

Recently, with the coronavirus pandemic, the eating habits of the population have been modified, observing the search for healthy diet. In this sense, the consumption of fruits and vegetables has increased, and the hygiene is a fundamental step in quality control, since fruits and vegetables can be consumed in natura. The objective of the work was to elaborate a review about the main chemical sanitizers used in the sanitization of fruits and vegetables. The study is a review based on scientific publications, using the combination of the following descriptors: hygiene, fruits and vegetables, sanitizers and sanitizing. It was possible to verify that the most used sanitizer in the sanitization of fruits and vegetables is chlorine and its derivatives, in concentrations from 100 to 200 ppm, normally for 15 minutes. Ozone could destroy numerous microorganisms and for its sanitizing effect it is necessary to have a longer exposure time, on average up to 30 minutes. When using organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic and peracetic acid), the concentrations vary up to 2% and the average exposure time is a few minutes, which can be used in combination or not. However, its use is not always effective. It is concluded that the application of each type of sanitizer varies according to its concentrations, pH, exposure time to the treatment and the type of fruit or vegetable to be sanitized.

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