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1.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 20, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2187998

ABSTRACT

Rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) is a very important food crop in Indonesia. According to data from the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), in 2015 Indonesia was in third place after India and China as rice producing countries in the world with a total production of 75.6 million tons. The depletion of land due to land conversion (conversion) is one of the factors causing the downturn in the agricultural sector in Indonesia today. The narrowing of rice fields does not have an impact on decreasing rice production but also at the stage of Indonesian society whose livelihoods are farmers. Data and information on the development of rice plants are very important as a database for the formulation of sustainable food crop agricultural policies mandated in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 41 of 2009. In addition, the covid-19 pandemic which is now sweeping the world, requires the government to adopt large-scale social rights policies. It also needs to be assessed whether it has an effect on agricultural production. The use of remote sensing technology is an effective and efficient alternative for spatial and temporal estimation and monitoring in obtaining information on land cover for rice plants. Through multispectral image classification using guided classification (supervised classification), with the maximum possible possibility (maximum likelihood), it is known that local food security in Tasikmalaya City during the COVID-19 pandemic is still guaranteed. This is with the current population of not less than 808,506 people, while the land cover area for rice crops consecutively from 2017 - 2020 are 454 ha;606, 94 ha;463, 23 ha;and 673.8 ha. So it can be denied that large-scale rebels have no effect on the productivity of agricultural land in Tasikamalaya City.

2.
Heliyon ; 8(12), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2179034

ABSTRACT

Herbal medicines have greatly contributed to human health worldwide for thousands of years. In particular, traditional Chinese medicine plays an essential role in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. With the exponentially increasing use and global attention to herbal medicinal products (HMPs), efficacy and safety have become major public concerns in many countries. In general, the quantification and qualification of quality markers (Q-markers) is the most common way to solve this issue. In the last few decades, small molecules, including flavonoids, terpenes, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, phenols, and glycosides have been extensively investigated as Q-markers for HMP quality control. With the development of biotechnology in the last decade, scientists have begun to explore HMPs macromolecules, including polysaccharides and DNA, for their establishment as Q-markers. In recent years, supermolecules with stronger biological activities have been found in HMPs. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current Q-markers for HMP quality control;in particular, the possibility of using supermolecules as Q-markers based on structure and activity was discussed.

3.
BR Wells Rice Research Studies Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Arkansas System ; 685:264-268, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2170127

ABSTRACT

Seeking to fine-tune nitrogen (N) application, increase economic returns, and decrease environmental N loss, some Arkansas rice (Oryza sativa L.) producers are turning away from blanket N recommendations based on soil texture and cultivar and using the Nitrogen Soil Test for Rice (N-STaR) to determine their field-specific N rates. In 2010, Roberts et al. correlated years of direct steam distillation (DSD) results obtained from 0- to 18-in. soil samples to plot-scale N response trials across the state to develop a field-specific, soil-based N test for Arkansas rice. After extensive small-plot and field-scale validation, N-STaR is available to Arkansas farmers for both silt loam and clay soils. Samples submitted to the N-STaR Soil Testing Lab in 2021 were summarized by county and soil texture, totaled 21 fields across 9 Arkansas counties, and were from 6 clay and 15 silt loam fields. Depressed sample submissions were again observed likely due to another wet spring and lingering effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The N-STaR N-rate recommendations for samples were compared to the producer's estimated N rate, the 2021 Recommended Nitrogen Rates and Distribution for Rice Cultivars in Arkansas, and the standard Arkansas N-rate recommendation of 150 lb N/ac for silt loam soils and 180 lb N/ac for clay soils. Each comparison was divided into 3 categories based on a decrease in recommendation, no change in recommended N rate, or an increase in the N rate recommendation. In all 3 comparisons, county, but not soil texture, was a significant factor (P < 0.04) in observed decreases in N recommendation strategies demonstrating variations in the soil's ability to supply N across the state. Further stressing the potential N cost savings opportunities, reductions greater than 30 lb N/ac were recommended by N-STaR in 71%, 50%, and 74% of fields in the standard, estimated, and cultivar comparisons, respectively.

4.
Informality and the impact of COVID-19 on maize value chains in Uganda: key findings and policy implications 2022 4 pp ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2169208

ABSTRACT

This policy note summarizes results of a study on the impact of COVID-19 on maize value chains in Uganda, which are characterized by a high degree of informality. We use a stack survey consisting of 1525 smallholder maize farmers, 341 informal traders, and 174 millers that were surveyed in-person in 2019 as the basis for follow-up telephone interviews in 2020 and 2021. We find that the impact of COVID-19 and associated measures manifests itself more downstream the value chain (at the level of the traders and particularly the millers). Closures and reductions in volumes passing through the chain seemed limited but worsen as the pandemic persists. Government measures such as a reduction of interest rates seemed to have brought some relief for traders and millers. However, all value chain actors report substantial reductions in maize revenues, household income and food security, as actors in informal value chains seem to rely on various activities to make ends meet. As a result, informal value chains such as maize in Uganda may be less able to adapt to common shocks in the long run. The appropriate policy response therefore would be to supplement some of the mitigating policies targeting businesses with more long run social protection policies to also benefit value chain actors upstream.

5.
International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Systems ; 15(COVID-19 Issue):114-130, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2168071

ABSTRACT

In the Post-COVID-19 pandemic, tourists are more health-conscious and look for healthy food during their travel. Food prepared with medicinal plants can be promoted as a tourist product with the competitive advantage of having medicinal properties in the food. From ancient times, Manipuri people have used medicinal plants in their daily food as a food culture of the place. Medicinal plant-based food tourism (MPBFT) can be promoted as a tourism product that can meet the need of post-COVID-19 tourists by offering healthy food with medicinal values and a unique travel experience in Manipur, Northeast India. The main objective of this study is to explore the prospects of promoting MPBFT and focus on identifying the strategies to develop MPBFT in Manipur as a tourism product. This review paper identifies medicinal plants utilized in Manipuri traditional cuisines imparting their medicinal properties. Cultivating medicinal plants, training local communities, organizing educational tours, food festivals, conducting cooking classes, and establishing restaurants focused on Manipuri traditional food with medicinal plants are the strategies to promote Manipur as an MPBFT destination.

6.
Human Organization ; 81(4):316-326, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2167481

ABSTRACT

While the United States prioritizes agricultural legislation and assistance, policies passed both federally and locally are not always developed with small-scale farms in mind. This inequity became apparent during the COVID-19 pandemic. By identifying how aid money was distributed during times of crisis, we were able to see how small-scale farms are supported through words rather than action. We examine small-scale farmers prior to and during the pandemic in the North Carolina Piedmont region. We focus on the role small-scale farmers and farmers markets play in a local agro-food system through a political economy perspective and highlight some of the challenges, barriers, and responses during the pandemic, including access to farm aid. In addition, we identify strategies for how small-scale farmers persisted during unprecedented times, especially during COVID-19.

7.
Sustainability ; 13(11), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2200704

ABSTRACT

This research employs a partial equilibrium model to estimate the short- and long-run effects of COVID-19 and rice policies on Bangladesh's rice market and food security. We also analyze the impact of relevant policies in terms of their effectiveness in mitigating stresses stemming from a hypothetical pandemic with a COVID-19-like impact. The results indicate that the effect of COVID-19 on Bangladeshi food security during FY 2019/20 was mixed, as the indicators of food availability improved by 5%, and decreased by 17% for food stability, relative to what they would have been otherwise. Policy simulation results indicate that a higher import tariff improves self-sufficiency status, but undermines rice availability and accessibility by bending the market toward a restrictive trade regime. Results also indicate that unlike stock enhancement policy, closing the existing yield gap improves rice availability, accessibility, and moderates the depressing effect of a future event with repercussions similar to COVID-19, although the yield policy appears more speculative and could be too costly. The insights generated contribute to the understanding of policies that aim to achieve sustainable development goals related to aggregate food security, and build resilience against future shocks akin to COVID-19.

8.
Indian Journal of Ecology ; 49(6):2112-2118, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2207181

ABSTRACT

Rice is typically grown in Asia by transplanting seedlings into puddled soil (land preparation with wet tillage). With accelerated economic growth and COVID-19 outbreak with subsequent lockdown has led to the shortage of labour. There was concern among the farmers on timely completion of transplanting due to shortage of labour. Dry Direct seeded rice (DDSR) is one such technique, probably the oldest method of crop establishment, is gaining popularity because of its low-input requirement. To overcome the effect of rain on the seeds sown by DDSR technique there is a need for creating a provision for settling the seeds in place. The energy spent in the field for individual sowing and herbicide application practice can be reduced by combining both operations. In view of these, the following study was undertaken to perform simultaneous sowing and herbicide application in DDSR technique using a zero till drill and herbicide applicator. A tractor operated zero-till drill cum herbicide applicator serves as a multi-purpose implement that helps in carrying out two or more operations simultaneously. The sole purpose of the implement was to settle the seed in the furrow by using levellers followed by herbicide application which acts as a preemergence herbicide preventing the immediate emergence of weeds. By adopting this practice, about 300 MJ ha-1 energy and Rs. 3000 spentfor weed control can be saved. The emergence of the seed was not affected by the herbicide application as they are separated using a protective hood.

9.
Arquivos de Ciencias da Saude da UNIPAR ; 26(3):1304-1312, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2205391

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 appeared suddenly, affecting millions of people and causing many deaths worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to search for bioactive substances with antiviral properties. In Brazil, Tetradenia riparia was inserted as an exotic ornamental plant, with an intense and pleasant aroma, cultivated in parks, residential and vegetable gardens. This study aimed to identify compounds present in the crude extract of Tetradenia riparia leaves with antiviral interest. The crude extract of the dried leaves was obtained by dynamic maceration with solvent exhaustion and then concentrated in a rotary evaporator. The chemical composition of the crude extract was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/qTOF). We identified 31 compounds investigated through a literature review for their anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential. The compounds rosmanol, procyanidin, cyanidin, betulin, betulinic acid, and sagerinic acid showed potential antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, this investigation is promising, possibly indicating that in the crude extract of T. riparia leaves, there are compounds that can fight SARS-CoV-2. In this sense, molecular docking studies and in silico analyzes on the virus Mpro protein must be carried out, thus corroborating the action of the identified compounds.

10.
Arquivos de Ciencias da Saude da UNIPAR ; 26(3):1091-1098, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2205384

ABSTRACT

Eugenia pyriformis Cambess (Myrtaceae), popularly known as uvaia. In its fruits, phenolic compounds with antioxidant action are found and in the leaves, high levels of flavonoids and hydrolyzed tannins were detected, which proved to be an inhibitor of the 2019 protease - nCoV and SARS-CoV. In this sense, the objective of this study was to obtain the crude extract of the leaves, the analysis of the chemical composition and the possibility of antiviral action against SARS COV-2. The crude extract (EB) was obtained from the dried leaves of E. pyriformis, by the dynamic maceration technique with solvent exhaustion (ethanol 90 degrees GL) and concentrated in a rotary evaporator. Six grams of EB were fractionated in column chromatography, and eluted with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol, the fractions were concentrated on a rotary evaporator (Tecnal TE-210). EB and fractions were identified by high performance liquid chromatography using high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/qTOF). The chemical identification of the crude extract and fractions of E. pyriformis leaves evidenced the presence of phenolic compounds, highlighting phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins. In addition, a bibliographic survey was carried out on the probable antiviral action of phenolic compounds and tannins present in uvaia leaves. The results showed that the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol have antiviral action when they bind to the envelope glycoprotein or viral capsid, interfering with the binding and penetration of the virus into the cell. This result places E. pyriformis leaves in the list of plants with antiviral action.

11.
Acta Horticulturae ; 1355:217-223, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2204415

ABSTRACT

Between 2018 and 2021, in Pays de la Loire region (north-west of France), a network of regional partners from different plant sectors worked together within the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) "Plant Health” project, with the support of the Pays de la Loire Region Council and the European Commission. In total, nine thematic operational groups, associating producers, economic actors and R&D actors have worked, based on case studies, to identify new measures to improve plant health and validate their feasibility. Main themes addressed alternatives to plant protection products, with a focus on bridges between sectors (Is a solution or technique available in one sector easily transferable to another?), soil cover for weed management (Are mulching and direct seeding in a cover crop new practices to be mobilized?), and diversification of crop rotation and structuring of supply chains, with both technical questions (mastering a new crop, sorting out associations) and structural questions (which organizations, relationships between actors, etc.). After 4 years of work and despite the COVID-19 sanitary crisis, which slowed down some parts of the project, each operational group has been able to draw conclusions from the results obtained. © 2022 International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.

12.
Journal of Hainan Medical University ; 27(9):641-646, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2203842

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the main pathways and possible mechanisms of Lonicera japonica-forsythia in the treatment of COVID-19 using network pharmacology.

13.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 45(11):2188-2199, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2203152

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the molecular biological mechanism of Houttuynia cordata in treatment of viral pneumonia based on network pharmacology, and to evaluate its feasibility in prevention and treatment of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

14.
Journal of Agricultural Education ; 63(4):22-38, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2202514

ABSTRACT

This study sought to identify what messages are important to share regarding innovations of new turfgrass cultivars, and to determine the current, preferred, and emerging channels of communication as perceived by Extension/Outreach and Communications professionals in ANR for sending information. This study utilized a focus group consisting of turfgrass extension professionals, an interview with communication professionals, and individual semi-structured interviews. From the twelve questions presented through these methods, seven predominant themes emerged. Effectively communicating about turfgrass involves: (1) conveying long-term benefits of the innovations, (2) considering the sender and receiver of turfgrass information, (3) considering the traditional communication channels used for turfgrass, (4) emerging or sought channels for communicating with clientele about turfgrass, (5) barriers to adopting communication channels for disseminating turfgrass information, (6) factors that influence use of communication channels for turfgrass, and (7) who should be disseminating the identified messages. Respondents indicated that though Twitter was the preferred channel of social media communication for those in the turfgrass industry, interpersonal communication and factsheets were still being requested predominately by their clientele. Respondents recommended working with organizations such as city and county municipalities, as well as residential home builder groups, that are likely to adopt innovations, influence behavior change, and create and institute policies, will be essential for dissemination of information. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic and the restrictions associated with it, researchers are depending on emerging communications channels for dissemination of information more so than traditional methods utilized in the past such as field days.

15.
Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences ; 18(2):397-406, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2163954

ABSTRACT

Many decoctions from traditional pharmacopoeia are used to treat Covid-19 contain zingiber officinale rhizomes (gingembre). One of its mechanism of action would come from its antioxidant proprerty due to the presence of phenolic compounds .We therefore determined the contents of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activities on water, alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of gingembre harvested from Bangangte, Bafang, Kekem, Santchou and Melong. The mean contents of polyphenols expressed in mEgAT/g ES were 155,91 +or-18,22;321,46 +or- 71,90;136,44 +or- 28,44 in aqueous,, hydro alcoholic and alcoholic extracts respectively. Those of flavonoids expressed in mEg Quer/g ES were 45,24+or- 13,49;125,43+or-14,88;76,52+or-10,80. Antioxidant activities measured according FRAB (1,34+or-0,42 ng/ ml;2,08+or-0,59 ng/ml;1,64+or-0,49.) and PAP (1,82+or-0,51 ng/mL;2,46+or-0,52 ng/mL;2,06+or-0,50 ng/ mL) methods vary according to the type of extract . Polyphenol, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activities from Melong were higher than those of the other sites.

16.
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2157708

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the production and consumption of fossil jet fuel have increased as a consequence of a rise in the number of passengers and goods transported by air. Despite the low demand caused by the coronavirus 2019 pandemic, an increase in the services offered by the sector is expected again. In an economic context still dependent on scarce oil, this represents a problem. There is also a problem arising from the fuel's environmental impact throughout its life cycle. Given this, a promising solution is the use of biojet fuel as renewable aviation fuel. In a circular economy framework, the use of lignocellulosic biomass in the form of sugar-rich crop residues allows the production of alcohols necessary to obtain biojet fuel. The tools provided by process intensification also make it possible to design a sustainable process with low environmental impact and capable of achieving energy savings. The goal of this work was to design an intensified process to produce biojet fuel from Mexican lignocellulosic biomass, with alcohols as intermediates. The process was modeled following a sequence of pretreatment/hydrolysis/fermentation/purification for the biomass-ethanol process, and dehydration/oligomerization/hydrogenation/distillation for ethanol-biojet process under the concept of distributed configuration. To obtain a cleaner, greener, and cheaper process, the purification zone of ethanol was intensified by employing a vapor side stream distillation column and a dividing wall column. Once designed, the entire process was optimized by employing the stochastic method of differential evolution with a tabu list to minimize the total annual cost and with the Eco-indicator-99 to evaluate the sustainability of the process. The results show that savings of 5.56% and a reduction of 1.72% in Eco-indicator-99 were achieved with a vapor side stream column in comparison with conventional distillation. On the other hand, with a dividing wall column, savings of 5.02% and reductions of 2.92% in Eco-indicator-99 were achieved. This process is capable of meeting a demand greater than 266 million liters of biojet fuel per year. However, the calculated sale price indicates that this biojet fuel still does not compete with conventional jet fuel produced in Mexico. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

17.
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies ; 9(3):483-515, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2157700

ABSTRACT

Open‐air marketplaces are vital to food security, livelihoods, and the national economy in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Over the past 60 years, rapid growth of urban populations, changes in global commodity prices, and the decline in value of the PNG currency have stimulated demand for domestic fresh food. Selling fresh food in marketplaces has also become an attractive way to earn money for rural producers, whose returns on labour on their export crops have declined, and for urban residents struggling to make a living. This in turn has led to significant changes in PNGʼs marketplaces: spatial and temporal changes, changes in what is bought and sold, changes in who is selling, and changes in how food is transacted. In this paper, we bring together research on PNGʼs marketplaces from between 1961 and 2022 to document these changes and their causes, alongside important continuities, and to examine the implications and substantial gaps in our knowledge.

18.
Razi Journal of Medical Sciences ; 28(12):106-126, 2022.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2156436

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims: Although regular exercise training with appropriate intensity, is considered an essential component of a healthy lifestyle that leads a desirable and beneficial adaptation in the body, however, is also known that exhaustive and strenuous exercises causes oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and structural damage to muscle cells, as well as decline in athletic performance (1). In several studies the exercise-induced muscle damage was indicated indirectly by increased serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and muscle soreness (53). In fact, it is reported that muscle fibers are subject to greater mechanical stress during exhaustive and long-term muscle contraction, which leads to enzymes efflux result from the loss of sarcolemmal integrity (increased permeability and/or breakdown of the membrane surrounding the muscle cell) due to the mechanical stress imposed by the repeated muscle contraction (53). Therefore, there has been much effort to identify appropriate sport supplementation strategies that may help to reduce or prevent exercise-induced muscle damage and stress (2), So that, due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, the use of herbal medicines and natural supplements maybe very effective to prevent exercise-induced muscle damage and oxidative stress (3). Indeed, in recent years, there has been growing body of literature examining the possible physiological mechanisms responsible for muscle damage, adaptation, and interventions to reduce the negative effects of damaging exercise. Hence in the present review, in addition to study of possible mechanisms, it has provided the effects of some natural and herbal supplements in sports.

19.
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology ; 12(August), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2154653

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has killed huge populations throughout the world and acts as a high-risk factor for elderly and young immune-suppressed patients. There is a critical need to build up secure, reliable, and efficient drugs against to the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Bioactive compounds of Ashwagandha [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal] may implicate as herbal medicine for the management and treatment of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of the current work is to update the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 infection and information about the implication of various compounds of medicinal plant Withania somnifera with minimum side effects on the patients' organs. The herbal medicine Withania somnifera has an excellent antiviral activity that could be implicated in the management and treatment of flu and flu-like diseases connected with SARS-CoV-2. The analysis was performed by systematically re-evaluating the published articles related to the infection of SARS-CoV-2 and the herbal medicine Withania somnifera. In the current review, we have provided the important information and data of various bioactive compounds of Withania somnifera such as Withanoside V, Withanone, Somniferine, and some other compounds, which can possibly help in the management and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Withania somnifera has proved its potential for maintaining immune homeostasis of the body, inflammation regulation, pro-inflammatory cytokines suppression, protection of multiple organs, anti-viral, anti-stress, and anti-hypertensive properties. Withanoside V has the potential to inhibit the main proteases (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. At present, synthetic adjuvant vaccines are used against COVID-19. Available information showed the antiviral activity in Withanoside V of Withania somnifera, which may explore as herbal medicine against to SARS-CoV-2 infection after standardization of parameters of drug development and formulation in near future.

20.
Scientific Papers Series Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development ; 22(3):487-492, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2147586

ABSTRACT

This research study examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on abaca farming, a fiber crop in the Philippines. To accomplish the study's aims, both descriptive analysis and mean comparisons by paired t-test were performed. Based on the results, abaca farmers have seen a decrease in their farm incomes as transportation expenses and agricultural input prices have risen. To cope with the pandemic, various coping techniques such as borrowing money, selling of assets, and usage of savings are being practiced. To help revive the agricultural portion of the abaca industry, loans exclusive for abaca growers must be made accessible.

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