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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1042406, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099154

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes asymptomatic or mild symptoms, even rare hospitalization in children. A major concern is whether the pre-existing antibodies induced by low pathogenic human coronaviruses (LPH-CoVs) in children can cross-react with SARS-CoV-2. To address this unresolved question, we analyzed the pre-existing spike (S)-specific immunoglobin (Ig) G antibodies against LPH-CoVs and the cross-reactive antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in 658 serum samples collected from children prior to SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. We found that the seroprevalence of these four LPH-CoVs reached 75.84%, and about 24.64% of the seropositive samples had cross-reactive IgG antibodies against the nucleocapsid, S, and receptor binding domain antigens of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, the re-infections with different LPH-CoVs occurred frequently in children and tended to increase the cross-reactive antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. From the forty-nine serum samples with cross-reactive anti-S IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, we found that seven samples with a median age of 1.4 years old had detected neutralizing activity for the wild-type or mutant SARS-CoV-2 S pseudotypes. Interestingly, all of the seven samples contained anti-S IgG antibodies against HCoV-OC43. Together, these data suggest that children's pre-existing antibodies to LPH-CoVs have limited cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against SRAS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronaviridae , Child , Humans , Infant , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Humoral , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G
2.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2117503, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028942

ABSTRACT

The origins of preexisting SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies and their potential impacts on vaccine efficacy have not been fully clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that S2 was the prevailing target of the preexisting S protein cross-reactive antibodies in both healthy human and SPF mice. A dominant antibody epitope was identified on the connector domain of S2 (1147-SFKEELDKYFKNHT-1160, P144), which could be recognized by preexisting antibodies in both human and mouse. Through metagenomic sequencing and fecal bacteria transplant, we demonstrated that the generation of S2 cross-reactive antibodies was associated with commensal gut bacteria. Furthermore, six P144 reactive monoclonal antibodies were isolated from naïve SPF mice and were proven to cross-react with commensal gut bacteria collected from both human and mouse. A variety of cross-reactive microbial proteins were identified using LC-MS, of which E. coli derived HSP60 and HSP70 proteins were confirmed to be able to bind to one of the isolated monoclonal antibodies. Mice with high levels of preexisting S2 cross-reactive antibodies mounted higher S protein specific binding antibodies, especially against S2, after being immunized with a SARS-CoV-2 S DNA vaccine. Similarly, we found that levels of preexisting S2 and P144-specific antibodies correlated positively with RBD binding antibody titers after two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in human. Collectively, our study revealed an alternative origin of preexisting S2-targeted antibodies and disclosed a previously neglected aspect of the impact of gut microbiota on host anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Escherichia coli , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Infect Dis ; 226(3): 474-484, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A protective antibody response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is crucial to decrease morbidity and mortality from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. The effects of preexisting anti-human coronavirus (HCoV) antibodies on the SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses and severity of disease are currently unclear. METHODS: We profiled anti-spike (S), S1, S2, and receptor-binding domain IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and 6 HCoVs using a multiplex assay (mPLEX-CoV) with serum samples from SARS-CoV-2 infected (n = 155) and pre-COVID-19 (n = 188) cohorts. RESULTS: COVID-19 subjects showed significantly increased anti-S SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels that were highly correlated with IgG antibodies against OC43 and HKU1 S proteins. However, OC43 and HKU1 anti-S antibodies in pre-COVID-19 era sera did not cross-react with SARS-CoV-2. Unidirectional cross-reactive antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection were distinct from the bidirectional cross-reactive antibodies recognizing homologous strains RaTG13 and SARS-CoV-1. High anti-OC43 and anti-S2 antibody levels were associated with both a rapid anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and increased disease severity. Subjects with increased sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores developed a higher ratio of S2- to S1-reactive antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Early and rapid emergence of OC43 S- and S2-reactive IgG after SARS-CoV-2 infection correlates with COVID-19 disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-14, 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662043

ABSTRACT

Cross-reactive and broadly neutralizing antibodies against surface proteins of diverse strains of rapidly evolving viral pathogens like SARS-CoV-2 can prevent infection and therefore are crucial for the development of effective universal vaccines. While antibodies typically incorporate mutations in their complementarity determining regions during affinity maturation, mutations in the framework regions have been reported as players in determining properties of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV and the Influenza virus. We propose an increase in the cross-reactive potential of CR3022 against the emerging SARS- CoV-2 variants of concern through enhanced conformational flexibility. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations, in silico mutagenesis, structural modeling, and docking to explore the role of light chain FWR mutations in CR3022, a SARS-CoV anti-spike (S)-protein antibody cross-reactive to the S-protein receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2. Our study shows that single substitutions in the light chain framework region of CR3022 with conserved epitopes across SARS-CoV strains allow targeting of diverse antibody epitope footprints that align with the epitopes of recently-categorized neutralizing antibody classes while enabling binding to more than one strain of SARS-CoV-2. Our study has implications for rapid and evolution-based engineering of broadly neutralizing antibodies and reaffirms the role of framework mutations in effective change of antibody orientation and conformation via improved flexibility.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

5.
J Clin Virol Plus ; 2(1): 100061, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616570

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection in children frequently leads to only asymptomatic and mild infections. It has been suggested that frequent infections due to low-pathogenicity coronaviruses in children, impart immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in this age group. Methods: From a prospective birth cohort study prior to the pandemic, we identified children with proven low-pathogenicity coronavirus infections. Convalescent sera from these children were tested for antibodies against respective seasonal coronaviruses (OC43, NL63, and 229E) and SARS-CoV-2 by immunofluorescence and virus microneutralization assay respectively. Results: Forty-two children with proven seasonal coronavirus infection were included. Convalescent sera from these samples demonstrated antibodies against the respective seasonal coronaviruses. Of these, 40 serum samples showed no significant neutralization of SARS-CoV-2, while 2 samples showed inconclusive results. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the antibodies generated in low-pathogenicity coronavirus infections offer no protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in young children.

6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 772511, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556241

ABSTRACT

Recent exposure to seasonal coronaviruses (sCoVs) may stimulate cross-reactive antibody responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, previous studies have produced divergent results regarding protective or damaging immunity induced by prior sCoV exposure. It remains unknown whether pre-existing humoral immunity plays a role in vaccine-induced neutralization and antibody responses. In this study, we collected 36 paired sera samples from 36 healthy volunteers before and after immunization with inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for COVID-19, and analyzed the distribution and intensity of pre-existing antibody responses at the epitope level pre-vaccination as well as the relationship between pre-existing sCoV immunity and vaccine-induced neutralization. We observed large amounts of pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies in the conserved regions among sCoVs, especially the S2 subunit. Excep t for a few peptides, the IgG and IgM fluorescence intensities against S, M and N peptides did not differ significantly between pre-vaccination and post-vaccination sera of vaccinees who developed a neutralization inhibition rate (%inhibition) <40 and %inhibition ≥40 after two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine. Participants with strong and weak pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies (strong pre-CRA; weak pre-CRA) had similar %inhibition pre-vaccination (10.9% ± 2.9% vs. 12.0% ± 2.2%, P=0.990) and post-vaccination (43.8% ± 25.1% vs. 44.6% ± 21.5%, P=0.997). Overall, the strong pre-CRA group did not show a significantly greater increase in antibody responses to the S protein linear peptides post-vaccination compared with the weak pre-CRA group. Therefore, we found no evidence for a significant impact of pre-existing antibody responses on inactivated vaccine-induced neutralization and antibody responses. Our research provides an important basis for inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine use in the context of high sCoV seroprevalence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Seasons , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 696370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357528

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a novel zoonotic coronavirus. Emerging evidence indicates that preexisting humoral immunity against other seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) plays a critical role in the specific antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. However, current work to assess the effects of preexisting and cross-reactive anti-HCoVs antibodies has been limited. To address this issue, we have adapted our previously reported multiplex assay to simultaneously and quantitatively measure anti-HCoV antibodies. The full mPlex-CoV panel covers the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of three highly pathogenic HCoVs (SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, MERS) and four human seasonal strains (OC43, HKU1, NL63, 229E). Combining this assay with volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS), we measured the anti-HCoV IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies in fingerstick blood samples. The results demonstrate that the mPlex-CoV assay has high specificity and sensitivity. It can detect strain-specific anti-HCoV antibodies down to 0.1 ng/ml with 4 log assay range and with low intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (%CV). We also estimate multiple strain HCoVs IgG, IgA and IgM concentration in VAMS samples in three categories of subjects: pre-COVID-19 (n=21), post-COVID-19 convalescents (n=19), and COVID-19 vaccine recipients (n=14). Using metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis, HCoVs IgG concentrations in fingerstick blood samples were well separated between the pre-COVID-19, post-COVID-19 convalescents, and COVID-19 vaccine recipients. In addition, we demonstrate how multi-dimensional scaling analysis can be used to visualize IgG mediated antibody immunity against multiple human coronaviruses. We conclude that the combination of VAMS and the mPlex-Cov assay is well suited to performing remote study sample collection under pandemic conditions to monitor HCoVs antibody responses in population studies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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