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1.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology, suppl 1 ; 158, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20244408

ABSTRACT

This study examines clinical outcomes in patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection. Between June and November 2020, previously immunocompetent patients with SARS-CoV-2 and CMV coinfection were identified at Houston Methodist Hospital as part of routine clinical correlation by a molecular pathologist. SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal specimens were analyzed by real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All CMV tests were performed on plasma or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens and analyzed by competitive polymerase chain reaction. 65 previously immunocompetent patients with CMV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection were identified. Patient demographics include 41 male patients (63%) and 24 female patients (37%) ranging in age from 34 to 86 years (mean: 66.04, median 68). Documented pre-existing conditions include 27 patients with hypertension 41.5%), 19 patients with diabetes mellitus (29.2%), 9 patients with coronary artery disease (13.8%), and 3 patients with asthma (4.6%). Eight patients (12.3%) had no documented pre-existing conditions. The plasma CMV viral load ranged from <300 to 21,566 IU/mL. The CMV PCR results from bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial wash specimens ranged from <300 to 59,127 IU/mL. CMV PCR was initially negative in 10 patients then positive on serial testing. 60 patients were critically ill requiring ventilator support (92.3%). 47 patients (72.3%) expired, 7 patients (10.8%) were transferred to a long term acute care facility, 3 patients (4.6%) were discharged to a rehabilitation facility, 3 patients (4.6%) were discharged home, and 1 patient (1.5%) remained in-patient at the time of analysis. The prevalence of CMV seropositivity and medical comorbidities increases with age. Reactivation of latent CMV is a known occurrence in critically ill patients that is associated with poor outcomes. The majority of the patients in our cohort were 50 years old, and all were severely to critically ill with a mortality rate of 72.3% These findings suggest CMV portends a worse prognosis in patients with COVID-19. These findings also demonstrate the importance of clinical correlation in molecular testing.

2.
Cytotherapy ; 25(6 Supplement):S243, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20240444

ABSTRACT

Background & Aim: Adoptive T cell immunotherapy holds great promise for the treatment of viral complications. Our group has been developing and trialling virus-specific T cell therapies for more than 20 years. Recently, we have generated a repository of multi-virus-specific T cells for our clinical trials. Unfortunately, for many patients with viral complications, there is no suitable trial through which to access these therapies. In Australia, the Therapeutic Goods Administration has a Special Access Scheme (SAS) to enable provision of unapproved therapies for compassionate use. Our research group is now a leading Australian provider of "off-the-shelf" and custom-grown allogeneic virus-specific T cells to hospitals for patients with no other treatment options. Methods, Results & Conclusion(s): We have generated a repository of multi-virus-specific T cells from 20 healthy donors, with up to 150 doses of T cells per donor generated from a single blood sample. Each product batch is thoroughly characterised in terms of viral antigen specificity, HLA restriction and alloreactivity. These T cells target a combination of Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, BK polyomavirus, John Cunningham virus and adenovirus epitopes. We have also generated a repository of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells and occasionally grow custom patient-specific batches of T cells from nominated donors, on request. Since 2008, we have provided virus-specific T cells to 15 hospitals across Australia, and the volume of supply requests has significantly increased in recent years, as clinicians have gained interest in adoptive immunotherapy. In 2022, we provided T cells for 26 patients via the SAS. The majority were experiencing post-transplant complications, including cytomegalovirus disease, BK virus-associated haemorrhagic cystitis and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Through our clinical trials, we have developed rigorous processes for T cell therapy manufacture and characterisation, in addition to a computer-based selection algorithm, which we apply to SAS cases. As these cases are not part of a clinical trial, concomitant therapy varies, and monitoring is not uniform. However, we have received reports of clinical benefit from adoptive T cell therapy. These include cases of reduction in viral load, improvement in symptoms, and complete resolution of infection. We believe that these promising T cell therapies should be available to hospitals through a nationally funded centre for cellular therapies for critically ill patients.Copyright © 2023 International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy

3.
British Journal of Haematology ; 201(Supplement 1):124, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20237251

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) is rare but described after the SARS-CoV- 2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. We present a case of severe refractory warm AIHA after this vaccine, managed with emergency splenectomy and complement inhibition with eculizumab. A male in his teens with a history of liver transplant for biliary atresia (aged 2 years) and AIHA (aged 6 years) presented to his district general hospital with jaundice, dark urine, fatigue and chest discomfort 48 h after the first dose of SARS-CoV- 2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (BNT162b2 mRNA). Investigations revealed haemoglobin (Hb) of 70 g/L and bilirubin of 98 mumol/L, which was treated as AIHA. The patient initially responded to prednisolone (1 mg/kg, 60 mg) but subsequently deteriorated and failed to respond to second-line rituximab (375 mg/m2) and two units of packed red blood cells (PRBC). By day 29 the patient had developed life-threatening anaemia culminating in a Hb of 35 g/L (after transfusion), lactate dehydrogenase (LD) of 1293 units/L and bilirubin of 228 mumol/L. This necessitated an immediate transfer to our tertiary centre for specialist support. Further investigations revealed a haptoglobin <0.1 g/L and direct antiglobulin test (DAT) strongly positive for IgG (4+) and negative for C3d. The peripheral blood film showed severe anaemia, nucleated red cells, anisocytosis and spherocytes with no autoagglutination, schistocytes or platelet clumps. Thrombocytopaenia (platelets 49 +/- 109/L) was present. Differentials were ruled out, such as paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria and heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia. HIV and hepatitis serology were negative, as were adenovirus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus PCR assays. A CT showed splenomegaly of 15.5 cm. Urinalysis found urobilinogen and bilirubin at high concentrations and negative urinary haemosiderin. Together, the investigations were consistent with warm AIHA. On day 29, four units of PRBC were transfused alongside 100 mg methylprednisolone and 1 g/kg IVIG. On day 30 the patient deteriorated despite the escalated treatment: Hb had only increased to 54 g/L, bilirubin was 200 mumol/L and LD was rising. Considering this life-threatening fulminant haemolysis, an emergency splenectomy was performed. This slowed haemolysis but did not completely ameliorate it: by day 33 the patient had received 15 units of PRBC. Thus, eculizumab, a terminal complement pathway inhibitor, was trialled to arrest intravascular haemolysis, alongside rituximab, repeat IVIG 1 g/kg, prednisolone 40 mg and tacrolimus 2 mg. This showed a favourable response, requiring less frequent transfusions and settling haemolysis. This case highlights the rare complication of warm AIHA with the SARS-CoV- 2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, the use of emergency splenectomy for disease control, and the potential of eculizumab for refractory cases.

4.
Perfusion ; 38(1 Supplement):138, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20235761

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Reviewing current literature and case reports of patients placed on Venous-Venous ECMO support for HIV and AIDS, with confection with Pneumocystis pneumonia and covid-19 pneumonia. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients who have acute respiratory distress syndrome has been shown to have very good outcomes. However, there is limited data to support the initiation of ECMO in patients who have human immunodeficiency virus infection with or without acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Method(s): We present a unique and challenging case of a 30 year old male, with no known past medical history, unvaccinated against covid-19, who presented with one week of progressive shortness of breath. On admission he was found with moderate bilateral infiltrates and was diagnosed with covid-19 pneumonia. Despite appropriate medical therapy, patient developed worsening hypoxic respiratory failure. Found to have elevated (1- 3)-7beta;-d-glucan and tested positive for HIV. CD4 count 11, HIV viral load 70,000. The patient remained severely hypoxemic despite mechanical ventilation, sedation, paralytics and proning. Venous venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated. Considering his non improvement with variety of antivirals and antibiotics and with elevated (1-3)-7beta;-d-glucan in the setting of AIDS he was treated for presumed Pneumocystis pneumonia. The patient tolerated proning while on VV ECMO and his course was complicated with bilateral pneumothorax necessitating chest tube placement. Result(s): The patient successfully completed 64 days on VV ECMO, where he was treated for PCP pneumonia, covid pneumonia, CMV viremia and tolerated initiation of anti-retroviral therapy. Patient was successfully decannulated, and ultimately discharged from the hospital. Conclusion(s): VV-ECMO can be a beneficial intervention with successful outcomes in severely immunocomprimised patients with AIDS. This case highlights the importance of minimizing sedation and early mobilization on ECMO support. (Figure Presented).

5.
ERS Monograph ; 2022(98):152-162, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234243

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common cancer in males and the second most common among females both in Europe and worldwide. Moreover, lung cancer is the leading cause of death due to cancer in males. The European region accounts for 23% of total cancer cases and 20% of cancer-related deaths. Relationships have been described between a number of infectious agents and cancers, but our knowledge of the role of viruses, both respiratory and systemic, in the pathogenesis of lung cancer is still rudimentary and has been poorly disseminated. In this chapter, we review the available evidence on the involvement of HPV, Epstein-Barr virus, HIV, cytomegalovirus and measles virus in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer.Copyright © ERS 2021.

6.
Cytotherapy ; 25(6 Supplement):S211, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20231957

ABSTRACT

Background & Aim: Immunocompromised patients are susceptible to high-risk opportunistic infections and malignant diseases. If available, most antiviral and antifungal drugs are quite toxic, relatively ineffective, and induce resistance in the long term. Methods, Results & Conclusion(s): We have previously demonstrated the safety of adoptive cell therapy for COVID-19 patients with CD45RA negative cells containing SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells from a donor, chosen based on HLA compatibility and cellular response to SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools. After finishing a Phase 2 randomized multicenter clinical trial (RELEASE, NCT04578210), we concluded that the infusion is safe, effective, accelerates lymphocyte recovery and shows hallmarks of an immune response. To use adoptive cell therapy to treat COVID-19 it would be necessary to develop a biobank of living drugs. For that, we examined the immune evolution performing a longitudinal analysis from previously SARS-CoV-2 infected and infection- naive individuals covering 21 months from infection. Cellular responses were maintained over time while humoral responses increased after vaccination but were gradually lost. Therefore, the best donors would be recovered individuals and two months after vaccination. We also evaluated the effect of dexamethasone (current standard of care treatment for COVID-19 and other infections involving lymphopenia) and Interleukin-15 (cytokine involved in T-cell maintenance and survival) on CD45RA negative. Dexamethasone did not alter cell functionality, proliferation or phenotype at a clinical-practice concentration, while interleukin-15 increased the memory T-cell and T-regulatory cell activation state, and interferon gamma release. Furthermore, we applied the adoptive passive transfer of CD45RA negative cells containing pathogen-specific memory T-cells to other infectious diseases characterized by sustained lymphopenia. We infused six immunocompromised patients with Cytomegalovirus, BK virus, Aspergillus, and Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative disease. Patients experienced pathogen clearance, resolution of symptoms and lymphocyte increase. Transient microchimerism was detected in three patients. The use of CD45RA negative cells containing specific memory T cells of a third-party donor for treating severe pathogenic diseases in immunocompromised patients is feasible, safe, and effective, and has an advantage over other cell therapies such as lower costs and a less complex regulatory environment.Copyright © 2023 International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy

7.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 228(2 Suppl):S771-S796, 2023.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-20231493

ABSTRACT

This journal issue includes s of papers presented at the conference. Topics discusses are: stillbirth during a pandemic;analysis of the female genital tract (FGT) metabolome;effectiveness of REGEN-COV antibody combination to reduce risk of hospitalization;patterns of nucleic acid amplification testing;delta variant neutralizing antibody response following maternal COVID19 vaccination;integrated prenatal and hepatitis c virus care increases linkage;extended interval gentamicin dosing in obstetrics;maternal and infant cytomegalovirus detection among women living with HIV.

8.
Int J Fertil Steril ; 14(2): 159-160, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240323
9.
J Infect Dis ; 2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232230

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major driver of accelerated immunosenescence related to CD28null T cells expansion. CMV infection and these proatherogenic T cells have been independently associated with cardiovascular disease and COVID-19 severity. We have investigated the potential contribution of SARS-CoV-2 to immunosenescence and its relationship with CMV.Innate and adaptive immune subpopulations from mild/asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected (mCOVID-19) individuals, and healthy donors (HD) were immunophenotyped. A significant increase of CD28nullCD57 + CX3CR1+ T cell percentages (CD4+ (P ≤ 0.01), CD8+ (P ≤ 0.01) and TcRγδ (CD4-CD8-) (P ≤ 0.001)) was found in mCOVID-19 CMV + individuals stable up to 12 months post-infection. This expansion did not occur in mCOVID-19 CMV- individuals or in CMV + individuals that were infected post SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (vmCOVID-19). Moreover, mCOVID-19 individuals showed no significant differences with aortic stenosis patients. Thus, individuals coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and CMV suffer accelerated T cell senescence, which might ultimately lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

10.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243887

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the occurrence of maternal primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in Japan. We performed a nested case-control study using data from maternal CMV antibody screening under the Cytomegalovirus in Mother and infant-engaged Virus serology (CMieV) program in Mie, Japan. Pregnant women with negative IgG antibodies at ≤20 weeks of gestation who were retested at ≥28 weeks were enrolled. The study period was divided into 2015-2019 as the pre-pandemic and 2020-2022 as the pandemic period, and the study site included 26 institutions conducting the CMieV program. The incidence rate of maternal IgG seroconversion was compared between the pre-pandemic (7008 women enrolled) and pandemic (2020, 1283 women enrolled; 2021, 1100 women; and 2022, 398 women) periods. Sixty-one women in the pre-pandemic period and five, four, and five women during 2020, 2021, and 2022, respectively, showed IgG seroconversion. The incidence rates in 2020 and 2021 were lower (p < 0.05) than that in the pre-pandemic period. Our data suggest a transient decrease in the incidence of maternal primary CMV infection in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic, which could be due to prevention and hygiene measures taken at the population level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Cytomegalovirus , Incidence , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral
11.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242544

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation has been linked to adverse clinical outcomes in critically ill patients, with emerging evidence suggesting a potential connection with severe COVID-19. Mechanisms driving this association may include primary lung injury, amplification of systemic inflammation, and secondary immunosuppression. Diagnostic challenges in detecting and assessing CMV reactivation necessitate a comprehensive approach to improve accuracy and inform treatment decisions. Currently, there is limited evidence on the efficacy and safety of CMV pharmacotherapy in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Although insights from non-COVID-19 critical illness studies suggest a potential role for antiviral treatment or prophylaxis, the risks and benefits must be carefully balanced in this vulnerable patient population. Understanding the pathophysiological role of CMV in the context of COVID-19 and exploring the advantages of antiviral treatment are crucial for optimizing care in critically ill patients. This review provides a comprehensive synthesis of available evidence, emphasizing the need for additional investigation to establish the role of CMV treatment or prophylaxis in the management of severe COVID-19 and to develop a framework for future research on this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytomegalovirus/physiology , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units
12.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233038

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 to infect human corneal cells and tissues under standard corneal culture conditions using explants of COVID-19 donors and primary cornea-derived epithelial cells. METHODS: Cornea isolated from deceased COVID-19 donors was cultured for 4 weeks, and SARS-CoV-2 replication was monitored by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, primary corneal epithelial cells from healthy donors were cultured ex vivo and infected with SARS-CoV-2 and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a control. Infection status was assessed by western blotting and reporter gene expression using green fluorescent protein-expressing viral strains. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptor expression levels in cornea and epithelial cells were assessed by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: We did not detect SARS-CoV-2 replication in 10 corneas isolated from deceased COVID-19 patients and cultured for 4 weeks, indicating absence of infection under natural conditions. Furthermore, high-titer SARS-CoV-2 infection of ex vivo cultured cornea-derived epithelial cells did not result in productive virus replication. In contrast, the same cells were highly permissive for HCMV. This phenotype could potentially be explained by low ACE2 and TMPRSS2 transcriptional activity in cornea and cornea-derived epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that cornea and limbal epithelial cells are refractory to productive SARS-CoV-2 infection. This could be due to the absence of robust receptor expression levels necessary for viral entry. This study adds further evidence to support the very low possibility of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from an infected corneal transplant donor to a recipient in corneal organ cultures.

13.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 1014475, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239363

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases in weaned pigs are a common problem, with a complex etiology involving both viruses and bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the presence of eleven viruses in nasal swabs, collected from nurseries (55 cases) under the suspicion of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) and submitted by swine veterinarians for diagnosis. The other ten viruses included in the study were influenza B (IBV) and D (IDV), Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV), Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), 3 (PCV3) and 4 (PCV), Porcine parainfluenza 1 (PPIV1) and Swine orthopneumovirus (SOV). Twenty-six swIAV-positive cases and twenty-nine cases of swIAV-negative respiratory disease were primarily established. While IBV, IDV, PCV4 and PPIV1 were not found in any of the cases, PRCV, SOV, and PCMV were more likely to be found in swIAV-positive nurseries with respiratory disease (p < 0.05). Overall, PCV3, PRRSV, and PCMV were the most frequently detected agents at herd level. Taken individually, virus prevalence was: swIAV, 48.6%; PRCV, 48.0%; PRRSV, 31.6%; SOV, 33.8%; PCMV, 48.3%, PCV2, 36.0%; and PCV3, 33.0%. Moreover, low Ct values (<30) were common for all agents, except PCV2 and PCV3. When the correlation between pathogens was individually examined, the presence of PRRSV was negatively correlated with swIAV and PRCV, while was positively associated to PCMV (p < 0.05). Also, PRCV and SOV were positively correlated between them and negatively with PCMV. Besides, the analysis of suckling pig samples, collected in subclinically infected farrowing units under an influenza monitoring program, showed that circulation of PRCV, PCMV, SOV, and PCV3 started during the early weeks of life. Interestingly, in those subclinically infected units, none of the pathogens was found to be correlated to any other. Overall, our data may contribute to a better understanding of the complex etiology and epidemiology of respiratory diseases in weaners. This is the first report of SOV in Spain and shows, for the first time, the dynamics of this pathogen in swine farms.

14.
Rheumatology (United Kingdom) ; 62(Supplement 2):ii133-ii134, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323978

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims Adult-onset Still's disease is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology. Post-COVID-19 vaccine adult-onset Still's disease has been reported and was associated with only mild myocarditis. Here we report the first case of adult-onset Still's disease after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination presenting with severe myocarditis with acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock. Methods We described the case history of the patient. Results A 72-year-old Chinese woman developed gradual onset of fever, shortness of breath, sore throat, generalised arthralgia, malaise and poor appetite 15 days after receiving the first dose of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Physical examination revealed fever, bilateral ankle oedema and elevated jugular venous pressure. Significant investigation results are shown in Table 1. Extensive viral panel tests (including enterovirus, influenza and cytomegalovirus) were all negative. Echocardiography showed severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction of 20%. The acute heart failure was complicated by cardiogenic shock requiring intensive care unit admission. Myocarditis was later diagnosed. Although the heart condition subsequently improved, there were persistent fever and arthralgia, as well as the development of generalised maculopapular skin rash. In view of that, series of investigations were performed, which revealed persistent neutrophilic leucocytosis, hyper-ferritinaemia and liver function derangement, while autoimmune panel was grossly unremarkable and septic/viral workup was negative (Table 1). Contrast PET-CT scan showed no features of malignancy. Adult-onset Still's disease was diagnosed, and the patient was treated with oral prednisolone 40mg daily. The patient's condition responded to the treatment;the fever subsided and the leucocyte count and inflammatory markers were normalised, and she was subsequently discharged. Three months after discharge, the patient was clinically well with prednisolone tapered down to 5mg daily. Reassessment echocardiogram showed full recovery with LVEF 60%. Conclusion Severe myocarditis with acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock is a possible initial presentation of adult-onset Still's disease after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. After exclusion of more common aetiologies, it is important to consider adult-onset Still's disease as one of the differential diagnoses in the presence of compatible features following COVID-19 vaccination, such that appropriate and timely workup and treatment can be offered. (Table Presented).

15.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S45-S46, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325956

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 mRNA vaccines: COVID-19 pandemic has made an extraordinary impact on global vaccine technology platform developments. Never in human history have there at least 6 vaccine platforms including: inactivated, protein subunit, VLP and other 3 new platforms i.e., mRNA, viral vector, and DNA, with more than 160 vaccine candidates being developed and tested in clinical trials. Nonetheless, among these several vaccine platforms, mRNA vaccine has been proven to be one of the most effective vaccines against COVID-19. There are two mRNA vaccines authorized for emergency use within a year and currently more than 20 mRNA vaccines are in clinical trials. The main advantages of mRNA vaccines are that they are speedily to design and develop, induce strong antibody and T-cell responses, manufacturing faster and at a lower cost. However, one of the major limitations is that it must be stored in cold temperatures. Currently more than billion doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have been given globally. mRNA vaccines will be a key platform for next pandemics preparedness, it is therefore establishing this platform in various regions and LMICs is critical. Beyond COVID-19: A number of viral and cancer mRNA vaccines have been developing even before COVID-19. At least 12 mRNA vaccines against various infectious diseases are now in clinical evaluation, including Chikungunya virus, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Human metapneumovirus and parainfluenza virus type3, HIV, Influenza, Nipah, Rabies, Lasa, RSV, Zika, Varicella-zoster virus. Only few are entering phase 3 such as a CMV vaccine, RSV, seasonal influenza. Current mRNA cancer vaccines development, including brain, breast, melanoma, esophagus, lung, ovarian, prostate and solid tumors. Most are aimed for personalized therapy. By 2023, at least 1 viral mRNA vaccine may get approval, whereas a cancer vaccine might take much longer time. Nevertheless, the remaining challenge at the global level is how to truly overcome the vaccine inequity issues in a sustainable way.Copyright © 2023

16.
Brief Bioinform ; 2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316765

ABSTRACT

The specificity of a T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire determines personalized immune capacity. Existing methods have modeled the qualitative aspects of TCR specificity, while the quantitative aspects remained unaddressed. We developed a package, TCRanno, to quantify the specificity of TCR repertoires. We created deep-learning-based, epitope-aware vector embeddings to infer individual TCR specificity. Then we aggregated clonotype frequencies of TCRs to obtain a quantitative profile of repertoire specificity at epitope, antigen and organism levels. Applying TCRanno to 4195 TCR repertoires revealed quantitative changes in repertoire specificity upon infections, autoimmunity and cancers. Specifically, TCRanno found cytomegalovirus-specific TCRs in seronegative healthy individuals, supporting the possibility of abortive infections. TCRanno discovered age-accumulated fraction of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 specific TCRs in pre-pandemic samples, which may explain the aggressive symptoms and age-related severity of coronavirus disease 2019. TCRanno also identified the encounter of Hepatitis B antigens as a potential trigger of systemic lupus erythematosus. TCRanno annotations showed capability in distinguishing TCR repertoires of healthy and cancers including melanoma, lung and breast cancers. TCRanno also demonstrated usefulness to single-cell TCRseq+gene expression data analyses by isolating T-cells with the specificity of interest.

17.
Pediatric and Developmental Pathology ; 26(2):179, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320374

ABSTRACT

Background: Infections have historically been a leading cause of death, particularly in children. Medical advances, including vaccines and antimicrobials, have significantly decreased infection-related deaths, but infections remain a cause of pediatric mortality, especially in premature infants. The types of infections implicated in childhood deaths have changed with these advances, for example, meningitis and meningococcal infections were leading causes in 1981 but not in the later period. The incidence and etiologies of infection- related deaths may be altered by major events that modify not only medical practices but also societal attitudes and activities. Examples of such events include the HIV/AIDS epidemic that began in the early 1980s and the more recent COVID-19 pandemic. In order to investigate changes in infection-related pediatric deaths over time, we analyzed and compared autopsy cases performed during 5-year span prior to both the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the COVID-19 pandemic in which infections contributed to death. Method(s): Review of all autopsy cases performed at our institution between 1/1/1975-1/1/1980 and between 1/1/2015-1/1/2020 was performed to identify cases in which infection directly contributed to death, comprising 1262 cases. Only liveborn children were considered, and neonatal sepsis from amniotic sac infections was excluded. Comparison of decedent characteristics and infectious etiologies between the two time periods was performed, identifying age, race, sex, gestational age (for decedents less than 3 months of age), and etiologic class of agent (bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic). TORCH infections and vaccine-preventable illnesses were specifically assessed. Proportions were compared using 1 (assessing TORCH, vaccine-preventable, and prematurity deaths)- or 2-tailed (all others) z-tests, with significance calculated at the < 0.05 level. Result(s): In the 1970s cohort, 300 infectious autopsy cases were identified in liveborn children;73 were identified in the 2010s. Compared to the 2010s cohort, the 1970s decedents were more likely to be white (85% v 53%, p=0.012), comprise children aged 1-5 and 13+ (22% v 6.8% [p=0.003] and 16.4% v 8.3% [p=0.036]), and were less likely to be premature (66.7% v 80.4%, p=0.039). Vaccine-preventable illnesses (for example: measles) accounted for 36 deaths in the 1970s cohort but only 2 in the 2010s cohort (p=0.009). Thirteen children died of TORCH infections (CMV, toxoplasmosis and HSV) versus 5 in the 2010s (CMV and HSV), which did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion(s): Pediatric mortality secondary to infections has decreased significantly compared to fifty years ago, especially in younger children and in relation to vaccine-preventable infections such as meningococcal disease. This drop is largely attributed to medical advances, including vaccines and antimicrobial medications. Additional contributing factors could include practices adopted post-HIV/AIDS, especially in the community. Further exploration of how such changes in medical and social practice impacted mortality and comparing them to changes occurring in the intra/post-COVID-19 era, is helpful. Yet, with the increased survival of premature infants, they remain at risk of devastating consequences from infections.

18.
Journal of Biological Chemistry ; 299(3 Supplement):S50, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319986

ABSTRACT

Study objective. It has been shown that human common viruses are new target genes for host cell dioxin receptor transcriptional (AhR-ARNT) complex initially proven to up-regulate mammalian genes containing dioxin-response elements (DRE) in the promoters [doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2012.05.265]. Initially, transactivation of HIV-1 and HBV by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlodibenzop- dioxin (TCDD) at low nanomolar range was demonstrated [doi:10.3109/00498259309057034]. Noteworthy, transactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) was shown with 0.3 ppt dioxin, i.e. lower than its current background level in the general population (~3.0 ppt). Recently, reactivation of CMV infection was found to influence worse clinical outcome following SARS-CoV-2 infection (doi: 10.1186/s12979-020- 00185-x). Other findings showed that CMV and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) reactivation were observed in immunocompetent patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03252-3). Addressing occurrence of Herpesviridae reactivation in severe COVID-19 patients, and still unspecified real triggers of CMV and HSV-1 reactivations, we tested TCDD, which current body burden (DBB) ranges from 20 pg/g (TEQ in fat) in general population to 100 pg/g in older people. Methods. In Silico quantitation of active DRE in promoters of viral genes. Virus DNA hybridization assay. Clinical and epidemiological analyses. Results and Discussion. In this study, a computational search for DRE in CMV and HSV-1 genes was performed by SITECON, a tool recognizing potentially active transcriptional factor binding sites. In silico analysis revealed in regulatory region of CMV IE genes from 5 to 10 DRE, and from 6 to 8 DRE in regulatory region of HSV-1 IE genes.We established that a low picomolar TCDD can trigger up-regulation of CMV and HSV-1 genes via AhR:Arnt transcription factor in macrophage(doi.org/10.1016/ j.ijid.2012.05.265) and glial human cell lines (doi.org/10.1016/j. jalz.2016.06.1268), respectively. In fact, viral reactivation may be triggered in COVID-19 ARDS patients by higher pulmonary TCDD concentrations, because "lipid storm" within lungs of severe COVID-19 patients has been recently reported (doi.org/ 10.1101/2020.12.04.20242115). TCDD is known as the most potent xenobiotic, which bioaccumulates and has estimation half-life in humans of up to 10 yr. Due to hydrophobic character (Log P octanol/water: 7.05), TCDD partitions into inflammatory lipids in lung tissue thus augmenting its local concentration. Population-based epidemiological data on SARS-CoV-2 first wave of pandemic revealed high level of CMV seropositivity and cumulative mortality rate 4.5 times in Lombardi region of Italy, where after Seveso industrial accident TCDD plasma level in pre-exposed subjects is 15 times the level in rest of Italy (doi. org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.620416). Also, Arctic Native (AN) peoples consume dioxin-contaminated fat in seafood and have TCDD DBB, i.e. 7 times that in general population. To the point of this paper, their COVID-19 mortality is 2.2 times of that among non-AN Alaskans (doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6949a3). Conclusion(s): TCDD in the picomolar range may trigger CMV expression in lung cells and commit virus to the lytic cycle, which can be applied to reactivation of Herpesviridae infection in immunocompetent patients with COVID-19 ARDS syndrome.Copyright © 2023 The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

19.
Therapeutic Delivery ; 12(6):427-442, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319896
20.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):138, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319031

ABSTRACT

Background: People with HIV (PWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) appear to be at higher risk for worse COVID-19 outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms-including effects of COVID-19 and host factors on the broader humoral immune repertoire-are poorly understood. Method(s): REPRIEVE enrolled a global cohort of ART-treated PWH ages 40-75. COVID+ was defined by positive receptor binding domain IgG or IgA from annual visits 5/2020-2/2021. Antibody isotype, subclass, and Fc receptor Luminex arrays to SARS-CoV-2, CMV, EBV, HSV, HIV, influenza, pneumococcus, and RSV were assessed. Report of COVID diagnosis (collected every 4 months) was defined as mild, moderate, or severe (asymptomatic if no clinical diagnosis but IgG/ IgA+). FDR-corrected regression was used to assess effects of 1) COVID+ on non- SARS-CoV-2 repertoire in full cohort and 2) host factors on non-SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 repertoire in COVID- and COVID+ cohorts, respectively, adjusted for age, sex, region, nadir CD4, and HIV VL at entry. Result(s): Of 2,464 unvaccinated participants, 283 (11%) were COVID+;260 (92%) were asymptomatic. Median age was 53, 35% were women, 50% had nadir CD4 < 200, median current CD4 was 649, and 97% had HIV VL < 400. In the full cohort, COVID+ was associated with higher CMV PP65 IgG3 and FcgammaRIIA (P< 0.05);COVID severity was not associated with the non-SARS-CoV-2 repertoire. Among COVID-, older age, female sex, and lower nadir CD4 were associated with higher EBV and CMV responses;IgG1 levels were higher in women for all non-SARS-CoV-2 antigens assessed (P< 0.05). Among COVID+, higher BMI was associated with amplified SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgA, IgM, and FcgammaRIIA responses (P< 0.05). Lower nadir CD4 was associated with a SARSCoV- 2 repertoire shift toward IgM and FcgammaRIIB (P< 0.05). Age and sex were not associated with SARS-CoV-2-related repertoire changes in COVID+. Conclusion(s): Our analysis presents a comprehensive view of host factors associated with the humoral immune repertoire among a global cohort of ART-treated PWH. COVID's association with higher CMV responses may suggest increased susceptibility to or a consequence of persistent inflammation after infection. The striking amplification of SARS-CoV-2 responses with higher BMI suggests an excessive inflammatory response. Lower nadir CD4 was related to uncontrolled extra-follicular and inhibitory SARS-CoV-2 responses, which are unlikely to be protective. These findings may suggest mechanisms underlying factors associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes among PWH. (Figure Presented).

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