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1.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(1): 100420, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838954

ABSTRACT

In ongoing viral pandemic named as COVID-19 also Severe Acute Respiratory illness (SARI) or Flue Like illness (FLI) reported surging in many cities of India and many of the patients opted for traditional medicine, in spite of they have been given a option of contemporary line of treatment instructed by health authorities, they opted to take traditional indian medicine that is Ayurvedic medicine. Present case series is a same novel experience of early diagnosing and treating mid aged, morbid individuals who took only Ayurvedic treatment and could get out of the disease without any complications. This case series had 10 mid aged, morbid patients with maximum symptoms of COVID-19 disease and their hemogram and CRP was suggestive of moderate to severe type COVID-19/FLI/SARI. They were diagnosed by contemporary methods of pathology and treated with Ayurvedic classical medicines Tamra Sinduradi Yoga and Bhunimbadi Kwath for 20 days along with continuing the medicines for their ongoing morbidities. All 10 patients showed recoveries without any complications, they reduced their all symptoms, drastic reduction in their CRP and corrections in their hemograms were observed and also they showed any complications neither physically nor in their pathological tests. Hence it can be concluded that early diagnosis and treating it with Ayurvedic medicine can manage viral pandemic issue in a very successful way.

2.
Journal of Tropical Life Science ; 11(3):299-308, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1835818

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) is becoming a global pandemic. Indonesia, especially South Kalimantan had recorded increasing cases with a high fatality rate of 3.7%. Information about factors related to outcomes based on clinical and laboratory features in Indonesia is still limited. Identification of the risk is crucial to determine optimal management and reducing mortality. This retrospective study enrolled 455 adults COVID-19 patients and data were extracted from medical records of Ulin General Hospital Banjarmasin. The latter is COVID-19 referral hospital in South Kalimantan between March-November 2020. Demographic data, comorbidities, and laboratory were all collected. Data were compared be-tween survivors and non-survivors. Fisher’s exact test and chi-square were used to compare categorical variables. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare continuous variables. Analysis was continued by multivariate logistic regression then receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to determine cut-off value. The multivariate analysis showed that number of comorbidities [odds ratio (OR) 1,339 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1,064-1,685, P = 0,013) was significant risk factor to the outcome. In laboratory, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [OR: 1.001, 95% CI: 1,000-1.002, P = 0.001], Ferritin (OR 1.000, CI: 1,000-1.001, P = 0.013), APTT (OR: 1.045, CI: 1.010-1.082, P = 0.012), and D-dimer (OR: 1.188, CI: 1.064 - 1.327, P = 0.002) were significant predictor factors but only LDH, ferritin and D-dimer were obtained good AUC 0.731, 0.715, and 0.705, respectively. The cut of the value of LDH was 656.5 U/L, ferritin was 672.18 ng/ml, and D-dimer was 2.28 mg/L. Sensitivity and specificity were 66.7% and 68,0% for LDH, 83,2% and 56,3% for ferritin, and 62,8 and 70,8% for D-dimer. From this research, we re-vealed that the number of comorbidities was a risk factor for death. Elevated LDH, ferritin, and D-dimer could be good predictive factors for poor outcomes, thereby considering the accelerating management of COVID-19 patients. © 2021, Brawijaya University. All rights reserved.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 844728, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834450

ABSTRACT

Background: Nitazoxanide exerts antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo and anti-inflammatory effects, but its impact on patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia is uncertain. Methods: A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 19 hospitals in Brazil. Hospitalized adult patients requiring supplemental oxygen, with COVID-19 symptoms and a chest computed tomography scan suggestive of viral pneumonia or positive RT-PCR test for COVID-19 were enrolled. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive nitazoxanide (500 mg) or placebo, 3 times daily, for 5 days, and were followed for 14 days. The primary outcome was intensive care unit admission due to the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes included clinical improvement, hospital discharge, oxygen requirements, death, and adverse events within 14 days. Results: Of the 498 patients, 405 (202 in the nitazoxanide group and 203 in the placebo group) were included in the analyses. Admission to the intensive care unit did not differ between the groups (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.68 [0.38-1.20], p = 0.179); death rates also did not differ. Nitazoxanide improved the clinical outcome (2.75 [2.21-3.43], p < 0.0001), time to hospital discharge (1.37 [1.11-1.71], p = 0.005), and reduced oxygen requirements (0.77 [0.64-0.94], p = 0.011). C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and ferritin levels were lower in the nitazoxanide group than the placebo group on day 7. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Nitazoxanide, compared with placebo, did not prevent admission to the intensive care unit for patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia. Clinical Trial Registration: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (REBEC) RBR88bs9x; ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04561219.

4.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 2359-2368, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833913

ABSTRACT

Background: The hypercoagulability and thrombotic tendency in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is multifactorial, driven mainly by inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Elevated levels of procoagulant microvesicles (MVs) and tissue factor-bearing microvesicles (TF-bearing MVs) have been observed in many diseases with thrombotic tendency. The current study aimed to measure the levels of procoagulant MVs and TF-bearing MVs in patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls and to correlate their levels with platelet counts, D-Dimer levels, and other proposed calculated inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods: Forty ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19 and 37 healthy controls were recruited in the study. Levels of procoagulant MVs and TF-bearing MVs in the plasma of the study population were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: COVID-19 patients had significantly elevated levels of procoagulant MVs and TF-bearing MVs as compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). Procoagulant MVs significantly correlated with TF-bearing MVs, D-dimer levels, and platelet count, but not with calculated inflammatory markers (neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio, and platelet/neutrophil ratio). Conclusion: Elevated levels of procoagulant MVs and TF-bearing MVs in patients with COVID-19 are suggested to be (i) early potential markers to predict the severity of COVID-19 (ii) a novel circulatory biomarker to evaluate the procoagulant activity and severity of COVID-19.

5.
Journal of Critical and Intensive Care ; 13(1):12-17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822779

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-2019), which originated in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became a global pandemic in March 2020, is a viral infectious condition. This study was planned due to the novel character of the virus, unexpected clinical course of the disease as well as due to the relative lack of data on determinants of severe disease. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out with the inclusion of 80 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Medical Faculty of Erzincan Binali Yildirim University between 1st April 2020 and 1st October 2020 due to the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, as well as treatments complications, length of ICU stay and mortality rate were compared between patients who had survive or not. Results: Of the 80 patients, 18 were died, and 62 were discharged. The mean age was 69.7 ± 14.7 years, with a female to male ratio of approximately 1:2. Systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure on admission were significantly lower in non-survivors (p=0.002, and p=0.026, respectively). Also, non-survivors had significantly higher levels of CRP, procalcitonin, D-dimer, urea, LDH, INR, lactate, and neutrophil count and significantly lower lymphocyte counts as compared to survivors. The predictors of mortality were determined as the need for mechanical ventilation, presence of complications, higher CRP and urea levels in a multivariate regression analysis. Conclusion: Early estimation of patients with a high likelihood of severe illness, assessment of the intensive care unit admission, and convenient treatment strategies are important. This is a precious study that detects an early need for ICU admission and close follow-up of patients.

6.
Akademik Acil Tip Olgu Sunumlari Dergisi ; 12(3):91-93, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822752

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Many studies have shown that coagulation disorders and increased risk of thrombosis may occur during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Although cardiac or pulmonary vascular pathologies has been detected in most cases, cerebral sinus thrombosis are rare. During COVID-19 infection patients rarely present with neurological symptoms. Case Report: A 19-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department with neurological symptoms. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) was detected in Brain Computerized Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations. Our patient was hospitalized in the neurology department of our hospital for medical treatment and was discharged after clinical recovery. Discussion: In this case report we wanted to draw attention to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis which is a rare but treatable complication of COVID-19 infection in a young patient. We examined our patient in the light of literature. Conclusion: Clinicians should keep in mind the diagnosis of CVST that may occur due to infection associated thrombosis in COVID-19 patients presenting with neurological symptoms and consider adding anticoagulants to the treatment if necessary.

7.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences ; 38(5), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822610

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine the association between the laboratory biomarkers (C-reactive protein (CRP), Ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Procalcitonin, and D-dimer) with complications and in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. Methods: This single-center, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Emergency Medicine of Aga Khan University Hospital from April 01, 2020, to July 31, 2020. Descriptive statistics were presented as Mean±SD and Median along with Range. The frequencies and percentages were calculated for all categorical variables. Univariate and multivariate analysis was carried out to evaluate the significant association between the laboratory biomarkers and in-hospital mortality. Results: A total of 310 adult COVID positive patients were included. The most common complication was acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (37.1%), followed by myocardial injury (MI) (10.7%), deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (0.6%), and pulmonary embolism (PE) (0.3%). In-hospital mortality was 15.2%. In univariate analysis, it was observed that increased values of all biomarkers were significantly associated with the prediction of in-hospital mortality using binary logistic regression analysis (OR > 1.0, P <0.05). In multivariate analysis, increased levels of LDH and D-dimer at admission were significantly associated with increased odds of mortality (P <0.05). Conclusion: Serum CRP, ferritin, Procalcitonin, LDH, and D-dimer levels at the time of admission can predict complications like ARDS and MI and also predict mortality in COVID-19 infection. Serum LDH and D-dimer are the best amongst them for predicting mortality.

8.
Journal of Clinical Neonatology ; 11(2):65-70, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822508

ABSTRACT

Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a well-known entity that occurs 3-4 weeks after COVID-19. A similar entity in newborns, known as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Newborns (MIS-N), is also described. However, the epidemiology, case definition, clinical presentations, and outcomes of MIS-N are still being updated. The presence of SARS CoV 2 antibodies in both the mother and the neonate suggests transplacental transfer of IgG antibodies causing cytokine storm and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in newborns (MIS-N). Aims and Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, outcomes, and treatment modalities of neonates with multisystem inflammatory syndrome due to transplacental transfer of SARS CoV 2 antibodies. Materials and Methods: The study included eighteen consecutive neonates who met the MIS-C criteria. Following prior ethical clearance and consent from parents or guardians, socio-demographic data, lab parameters, clinical parameters, and treatment given were documented, tabulated, and analysed. Results: All of the 18 neonates had fever. The most common system involved was the respiratory system (15/18), followed by the cardiovascular system with coronary artery dilatations (10/18) and persistent pulmonary hypertension (4/18). All 17 cases (17/18) responded favourably to intravenous immunoglobulins (2 gm/kg) and intravenous dexamethasone (0.15 mg/kg). D-Dimers decreased significantly after treatment, with a p value of 0.01. One case with more than three systems involved (respiratory, CVS, CNS, and renal involvement) (1/18) resulted in death. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion is warranted in critically ill neonates, especially with fever, multisystem involvement and positive SARS CoV 2 antibodies. Fever may be a soft pointer to the diagnosis as fever is rare in neonates with other illnesses. Followup antibody titres are needed to document if there is any relationship between level of antibodies and disease. Safety of vaccination also needs to be addressed as antibodies are implicated in the etiopathogenesis of MIS-N.

9.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(2):77-84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822498

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate patient demographic characteristics and risk factors for mortality during the first and the second wave among COVID-19 patients in a tertiary care hospital of India. Methods: Data were taken from the hospital's electronic system for COVID-19 patients from August 2020 to December 2020, and the second from January 2021 to May 2021. The mortality rate, demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory profile, and reasons for the death of the two waves were retrieved and compared, and the risk factors of the two waves were determined. Results: In the first wave, 1 177 COVID-19 cases visited the hospital and 96 (8.2%) died. In comparison, the death rate in the second wave was significantly higher (244/2 038, 12.0%) (P<0.001). No significant difference in age [60 (50-69) vs. 60.5 (53-70), P=0.11] or gender (P=0.34) was observed between the two waves. Compared to the first wave. there were significantly more cases with fever, cough, weakness, loss of taste and smell, and sore throat during the second wave (P<0.05), but significantly fewer cases with kidney disease (6.6% vs. 13.5%, P=0.038) and diabetes mellitus (35.7% vs. 50.0%, P=0.015). Besides, during the second wave, more patients had abnormal X-ray findings, higher levels of lymphocytes and serum ferritin (P<0.05). In addition, there were significant differences in the rate of death cases with acidosis, septic shock, acute kidney injury, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular events, hypothyroidism (P<0.05). Multivariate regression showed that during the first wave, age (OR: 1.10;95% CI: 1.02-1.21), diabetes mellitus (OR: 3.16;95% CI: 2.08-3.53), and abnormal X-ray (2.67;95% CI: 2.32-2.87) were significant independent risk factors of mortality;while in the second wave, age (OR: 1.13;95% CI: 1.12-1.28), diabetes mellitus (OR: 8.98;95% CI: 1.79-45.67), abnormal X-ray (OR: 12.83;95% CI: 2.32-54.76), high D-dimer (OR: 10.89;95% CI: 1.56-134.53), and high IL-6 (OR: 7.89;95% CI: 1.18-47.82) were significant independent risk factors of mortality. Conclusion: Overall mortality and incidence of severe diseases are higher in the second wave than the first wave. Demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, and laboratory inflammatory parameters, especially D-dimer and IL-6, are significant risk facors of mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Arch Med Res ; 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821136

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: Development of thrombocytopenia and thrombosis after administration of the ChAdox1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca-Oxford) vaccine has recently been described. This new condition is called vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Our objective was to summarize case reports on VITT with/without D-dimer increments in AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccinated individuals. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PubMed, and Scopus databases were searched. STUDY SELECTION: Case series, case reports, letters to the editor; and abstracts of AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccinated patients with a clinical profile of thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150X10 3 /dL) and D-dimer determination, with or without thrombosis, and/or bleeding, and/or antibodies against platelet factor 4 (aPF4), were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Baseline risk factors, symptoms, physical signs; laboratory results, imaging findings, treatment; and outcome in patients with VITT reported in case series, were examined. DATA SYNTHESIS: Patients who developed VITT were more likely to be young women (ages 21 to 77) given the AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine 5-14 days prior to presentation. Patients' signs, symptoms, and imaging findings were consistent with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, or deep veins, lung, and other sites. Laboratory findings showed thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen, and elevated D-dimer levels, while aPF4 was positive in most assays performed. Treatment was non-heparin anticoagulants, IV immunoglobulin, and steroids, as recommended by medical guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia is a rare complication with high morbidity, related to administration of the AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine. Clinicians should prepare for early identification of patients with suspicious symptoms, and prompt treatment initiated to avoid catastrophic events. D-dimer determination is useful for surveillance of cases with suspected VITT.

11.
Indian J Surg ; : 1-8, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820997

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared as pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. The outbreak has caused 5,232,562 deaths worldwide until December 3rd, 2021. Though primarily affecting the respiratory system, involvement of other organ systems have been reported in severe disease. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been recognized as an important complication. Previous studies have reported the prevalence of VTE in intensive care unit (ICU) patients between 7 and 85% and in non-ICU patients between 0 and 19%. COVID-19 patients that are at high risk for VTE are also at increased risk for bleeding. In such cases, anticoagulation may potentially be harmful. Thereby, it is important to understand the risk factors for VTE predisposition in the COVID-19 patients, timing of VTE, and the rate of occurrence of VTE in hospitalized patients post-discharge. Comparison of the rate of occurrence of VTE in COVID-19 patients with the non-COVID-19 patients with similar disease severity is required to truly interpret the reportedly high rates of VTE in COVID-19 patients. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been reported for the development of VTE in COVID-19. Autopsy-based studies have contributed to the existing knowledge. d-dimer, presently, seems to be the most suitable investigation for risk-identification of VTE supported by Doppler studies and overall clinical context. Further, prospective studies and clinical trials are essentially required to fill the gaps in evidence for occurrence, risk prediction and management of VTE in COVID-19 patients.

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820232

ABSTRACT

Those infected by COVID-19 develop various kinds of complications with varying degrees of severity. For this reason, it is necessary to evaluate its analytical values to predict and reduce the risks and complications derived from this pathology. A cross-sectional study was carried out a population in Almeria (south-eastern Spain) who had a positive Polymerase Chain Reaction test result from 1 March 2020 to 30 November 2020. The study involved 4575 patients, with 1346 who were asymptomatic, 1653 mildly symptomatic (no hospitalisation needed) and 1576 severely symptomatic (symptomatic patients hospitalised). Laboratory values for D-dimer, glucose, serum ferritin, and C-reactive protein were analysed. The mean age of the participants in the study was 53.60 (16.89) years old. A total of 70.6% of the patients were symptomatic, of which 36.1% had mild symptoms. For all of the laboratory predictors analysed (D-dimer, glucose, serum ferritin, and C-reactive protein), it was found that severe alterations in the parameters were more frequent in severely symptomatic patients with statistically significant differences (p < 0.001), although these alterations also occurred in asymptomatic patients. Age correlated with analytical values (D-dimer, glucose, serum ferritin, and C-reactive protein) with statistically significant differences. Patients with severe symptoms presented alterations in the analytical values of D-dimer, glucose, serum ferritin, and C-reactive protein. Asymptomatic patients presented alterations in the analysed parameters, though with less frequency and severity than patients with severe symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ferritins , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Glucose , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Am Surg ; : 31348221091940, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has impacted daily life and medical practices around the world. Hospitals are continually making observations about this unique population as it relates to laboratory data and outcomes. Plasma D-dimer levels have been shown to be promising as a prognostic factor for outcomes in COVID-19 patients. This single institution retrospective study investigates the correlation between D-dimer and patient outcomes in our inpatient COVID-19 patient population. METHODS: COVID-19 confirmed positive patients who were admitted between March 2020 and May 2020 at our hospital were identified. Admission and peak D-dimer values and patient outcomes, including intubation and mortality, were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients met criteria for inclusion in the study Mean age was 63.2 years, median admission D-dimer 2.35ug/mL, and median peak D-dimer 2.74ug/mL. Average time to peak D-dimer was 3.2 days. Patient's requiring intubation had higher admission D-dimers (3.79ug/mL vs. 1.62 ug/mL). DISCUSSION: Higher admission and peak D-dimer values were associated with worsening clinical outcomes, specifically with higher rates of intubation and mortality. Noting D-dimer trends early in a patients' COVID course, regardless of patients' clinical condition, may allow opportunities for physicians to provide early intervention to prevent these outcomes.

14.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(3):289-291, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819182

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently diagnosed mainly using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Yet a significant proportion of patients have negative RT-PCR result. A comparative study of RT-PCR negative patients with RT-PCR positive patients will help understand clinical characteristic and differences of this diseased population. Objective: To compare the clinical and laboratory features of RT-PCR Positive and RT-PCR negative patients admitted in high dependency unit. Patients and methods: In this retrospective cohort study, the data of 128 patients (59 patients with RT-PCR positive result and 69 patients with RT-PCR negative results) was obtained. These patients had been admitted in high dependency unit of a community hospital. Demographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory abnormalities were noted and a comparison was done using statistical analysis. Results: In our study-total 128 patients were enrolled out of which 68 (53.1%) were males and 60 (46.9%) were females. 59 (46.1%) patients were RT-PCR positive and 69 (53.9%) patients were RT-PCR negative. Median age was 55.34 years (18 to 95). No significant difference was noted in most of clinical symptoms (fever, sputum production, rhinorrhea, dyspnea, myalgia, nasal congestion, vomiting, diarrhea, urinary symptoms, altered level of consciousness), comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, prior lung disease, prior ischemic heart disease, prior kidney disease), laboratory abnormalities (elevated creatinine, elevated liver enzymes, elevated ferritin, elevated C-reactive protein, elevated d-dimers, elevated procalcitonin, abnormal electrocardiogram). Cough was significantly found to be more prevalent in RT-PCR positive patients (p=0.042) and severe disease was also more prevalent in these patients significantly (p=0.000). Conclusion: Our study shows that patients admitted and diagnosed to be suffering from COVID-19 infection had remarkable similarities in clinical features and laboratory parameters regardless of RT-PCR status, however RT-PCR positive patients suffered from more severe pneumonia as compared to RT-PCR negative patients.

15.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(4):OC24-OC27, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818677

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The portable Chest Radiograph (CXR) has an indispensable role in large scale screening and diagnosis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially in developing countries with limited resources. It can help in predicting the severity of lung involvement in the patients infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, especially in areas where the Computed Tomography (CT) is unavailable. Aim: To determine the prognostic value of CXR at clinical presentation in assessing the disease severity and its correlation with inflammatory markers in COVID-19 hospitalised patients. Materials and Methods: This was a single-centre retrospective study, conducted at Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, from October 2020 to December 2020, on hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Clinically, the patients were categorised as mild, moderate and severe, based on their peripheral oxygen saturation- more than 94%, between 90-93%, and less than or equal to 89%, respectively. Blood samples, drawn at presentation to the hospital tested for various inflammatory markers proven to be predictive of disease severity, were documented for the analysis purpose. The CXRs, done at the presentation, were scored based on the number of zones involved and type of abnormality present (ground glassing, consolidation and septal thickening). The CXRs were scored a minimum '0' to a maximum of '9'. Correlation between the radiograph score and inflammatory markers was further analysed. Results: Among the 456 study patients, 71% had mild, 15% had moderate and 14% had severe COVID-19 infection. The mean CXR score in each category was 1, 3 and 4, respectively (p-value <0.001). The study groups were grouped as mild and non mild (included the moderate and severe categories). A criterion CXR score of 2 was able to differentiate mild and non mild cases (sensitivity was 78.29%, specificity was 77.98%, positive predictive values was 58.38%, negative predictive values was 90.11%), with an accuracy of 78.1%. The inflammatory markers like Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Absolute Lymphocyte Counts (ALC), eosinophil%, D-dimer, Lactate Dehydrogenas (LDH), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), and ferritin showed statistically significant difference between the two groups (p-value<0.001). Conclusion: The CXR can be used as a screening and predictive tool for disease severity in developing countries where access to Computed Tomography (CT) is limited. Given the possibility of subsequent waves of the COVID-19 pandemic and the risk of excessive radiation exposure from CT, CXR may be used as a reliable alternative.

16.
British Journal of Biomedical Science ; 79, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817927

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to investigate hemostatic changes in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and their relationship to disease severity and survival. Methods: This study included 284 patients with COVID-19 who attended the Security Forces Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia between October 2020 and March 2021, and retrospectively reviewed their demographic, radiological, and laboratory findings. The coagulation profile was assayed at the time of diagnosis for platelet counts using an automated hematology analyzer;Sysmex XN2000 while international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer, factor VIII, ristocetin cofactor (RiCoF), and von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF-Ag) were measured by Stago kits on a Stago automated coagulation analyzer (STA Compact Max®). Results: In this study, 32.3% of the cases had severe disease, while 8.8% of the cases died. D-dimer, factor VIII, and RiCoF were the only independent predictors of disease severity, with factor VIII and RiCoF having significantly higher areas under the curve (AUCs) than D-dimer (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, age, aPTT, and factor VIII were associated with an increased risk of mortality in multivariate Cox regression analysis, with factor VIII having a higher AUC of 0.98 than aPTT with an optimal cut-off value of >314 IU/dl in predicting mortality. Cases with factor VIII levels >314 IU/dl, compared to those with factor VIII levels <314 IU/dl, were associated with a significantly shorter mean overall survival time (20.08 vs. 31.35 days, p < 0.001), a lower survival rate (30.3% vs. 99.2%, p < 0.001), and a 16.62-fold increased mortality risk. Conclusion: RiCoF is a novel predictor of disease severity in COVID-19, while factor VIII is confirmed as a predictor of severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients and is associated with lower overall survival and increased mortality risk.

17.
Clinical Neurosurgery ; 67(SUPPL 1):131, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816190

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Covid 19 infections has been shown to be associated with a range of thromboembolic disease that has implications for the neuro-endovascular management of large vessel occlusions. METHODS: Five consecutive Covid-19 positive patients presented with large vessel occlusions to our institution. Covid-19 testing was performed using nasal swab. All thrombectomy cases was performed under general endotracheal anesthesia using a stent-aspiration combination as primary thrombectomy technique. The technical details of each case and the angiographic outcome are described. Routine labs including D-dimer, platelet count, coagulation panel (aPTT, INR), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated in all patients. Rotational thrombelastography (ROTEM) was performed on the patients' blood samples to assess real-time clot formation/dissolution properties. RESULTS: Four patients had anterior circulation large vessel occlusions and one patient had both anterior and posterior circulation occlusions. Mean age was 52.8 years and 80% were males. TICI 3 revascularization was achieved in one patient, TICI 2B achieved in two patients and TICI 2A in two patients. In our cohort, patients were on average 52.8 years old and presented with a median NIHSS of 27. All our patients had very proximal occlusions. Three patients presented with intra-cranial ICA occlusions. Two patients presented with a tandem carotid bulb thrombus in conjunction with an intracranial vessel occlusion. One patient had an ICA terminus occlusion with a concomitant basilar occlusion. Second, the intravascular clots in all our patients were prone to fragment and migrate into both new vascular territories and into distal downstream vasculature. Distal emboli into a different territory (anterior cerebral artery occlusion) was seen in two two of our five patients (40%) and distal emboli into a downstream territory was seen in all five patients (100%). An average of 2.7 pstent-retriever passes was needed to achieve a final TICI revascularization of IIb or better. CONCLUSION: Covid-19 patients are predisposed to a hypercoagulable state. When presenting with large vessel occlusions, these patients present unique challenges that make successful revascularization difficult.

18.
Heart Lung ; 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814484
19.
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery ; 63(4):666-670, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1814380
20.
Tunisie Medicale ; 99(7):764-766, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1812897

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has displayed heterogeneity in disease manifestations and complications. This case report illustrates a rare issue : the spontaneous pneumomediastinum. A 73-year-old male presented with chills, and respiratory symptoms. A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test- confirmed COVID19. At admission, the patient was in severe respiratory distress. C reactive protein was 54 mg/l (normal: 0-5 mg/l), , troponin were negative, brain natriuretic peptid 55 pg/ml (normal range <100 pg/ml) and D-dimer 700 mcg/l (normal: 0-500 mcg/l). Arterial blood gases showed pH 7.49 (normal: 7.35-7.45), PCO2 33,8 mmHg (normal: 34-46 mmHg) and PO2 56 mmHg (normal: 80-97 mmHg) with 16 liter per minute of oxygen. Computed tomography of the chest (CT chest) showed diffuse groundglass opacities (60-70%) without pulmonary embolism. Diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was made. Low flow oxygen was provided (Oxygen saturation target ≥ 94%), intermediate dose of low molecular weight heparin and 8mg of dexamethason were administarted daily. On day 10, worsening hemodynamics and blood oxygen levels was noted. CT chest showed moderate bilateral pneumomediastinum, without pneumothorax, persistent groundglass opacities (75%) with early fibrosis elements. The patient recovered with no pulmonary sequelae. This case report encourages health workers to get used with infrequent clinical and radiological manifestations of COVID-19 that is still surprising the world.

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