Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 31
Filter
1.
11th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing, MECO 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948828

ABSTRACT

The virus SARS-Co V -2 that has caused a pandemic of COVID-19 in 2019 is still a major concern for health care systems. The reason for this is the fact that the outcome of the disease is difficult to predict, as deadly complications can occur in all people. Diagnosing COVID-19 relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and antigen testing, both of which require special referral. The aim of this study was to develop artificial intelligence (AI) expert system which will facilitate COVID-19 diagnosis based on parameters that can be readily collected from blood specimens. The database contains 1000 samples, divided into 2 categories: (1) healthy and (2) sick subjects The following parameters were used: CRP, LDH, SE, AST, ALT, D-dimer and IL-6. The sensitivity of the developed system was 100%, specificity 98.33%, and accuracy 99.67%, on the basis of which we can conclude that the use of AI in the diagnosis of COVID19 has a significant potential. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
Thromb J ; 18: 22, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospitals in the Middle East Gulf region have experienced an influx of COVID-19 patients to their medical wards and intensive care units. The hypercoagulability of these patients has been widely reported on a global scale. However, many of the experimental treatments used to manage the various complications of COVID-19 have not been widely studied in this context. The effect of the current treatment protocols on patients' diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers may thus impact the validity of the algorithms adopted. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case series, we report four cases of venous thromboembolism and 1 case of arterial thrombotic event, in patients treated with standard or intensified prophylactic doses of unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin at our institution. Tocilizumab has been utilized as an add-on therapy to the standard of care to treat patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, in order to dampen the hyperinflammatory response. It is imperative to be aware that this drug may be masking the inflammatory markers (e.g. IL6, CRP, fibrinogen, and ferritin), without reducing the risk of thrombotic events in this population, creating instead a façade of an improved prognostic outcome. However, the D-dimer levels remained prognostically reliable in these cases, as they were not affected by the drug and continued to be at the highest level until event occurrence. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of tocilizumab therapy, traditional prognostic markers of worsening infection and inflammation, and thus potential risk of acute thrombosis, should be weighed carefully as they may not be reliable for prognosis and may create a façade of an improved prognostic outcome insteasd. Additionally, the fact that thrombotic events continued to be observed despite decrease in inflammatory markers and the proactive anticoagulative approach adopted, raises more questions about the coagulative mechanisms at play in COVID-19, and the appropriate management strategy.

3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 794092, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775650

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coagulation parameters are important determinants for COVID-19 infection. We conducted meta-analysis to assess the association between early hemostatic parameters and infection severity. Methods: Electronic search was made for papers that addressed clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients and disease severity. Results were filtered using exclusion and inclusion criteria and then pooled into a meta-analysis to estimate the standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for D-dimers, fibrinogen, prothrombin time, platelet count (PLT), activated partial thromboplastin time. To explore the heterogeneity and robustness of our fundings, sensitivity and subgroup analyses were conducted. Publication bias was assessed with contour-enhanced funnel plots and Egger's test by linear regression. Coagulation parameters data from retrospective cohort study of 451 patients with COVID-19 at National Research Center for Cardiac Surgery were included in meta-analysis of published studies. Results: Overall, 41 original studies (17,601 patients) on SARS-CoV-2 were included. For the two groups of patients, stratified by severity, we identified that D-dimers, fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time were significantly higher in the severe group [SMD 0.6985 with 95%CI (0.5155; 0.8815); SMD 0.661 with 95%CI (0.3387; 0.9833); SMD 0.2683 with 95%CI (0.1357; 0.4009); SMD 0.284 with 95%CI (0.1472; 0.4208)]. In contrast, PLT was significantly lower in patients with more severe cases of COVID-19 [SMD -0.1684 with 95%CI (-0.2826; -0.0542)]. Neither the analysis by the leave-one-out method nor the influence diagnostic have identified studies that solely cause significant change in the effect size estimates. Subgroup analysis showed no significant difference between articles originated from different countries but revealed that severity assessment criteria might have influence over estimated effect sizes for platelets and D-dimers. Contour-enhanced funnel plots and the Egger's test for D-dimers and fibrinogen revealed significant asymmetry that might be a sign of publication bias. Conclusions: The hemostatic laboratory parameters, with exception of platelets, are significantly elevated in patients with severe COVID-19. The two variables with strongest association to disease severity were D-dimers and fibrinogen levels. Future research should aim outside conventional coagulation tests and include analysis of clotting formation and platelet/platelet progenitors characteristics.

4.
Children (Basel) ; 9(2)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708303

ABSTRACT

Limited data on the coagulation profile in children affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection are available. We aimed to evaluate the role of d-dimers as predictors of poor outcomes in a pediatric population affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). We performed a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study. Data from four different centers were collected. Laboratory tests, when performed, were collected at the time of diagnosis, and 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and beyond 120 h from diagnosis; blood counts with formula, an international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), D-dimers and fibrinogen values were collected. Data regarding clinical history, management and outcome of the patients were also collected. Three hundred sixteen patients with a median age of 3.93 years (IQR 0.62-10.7) diagnosed with COVID-19 or MIS-C were enrolled. Fifty-eight patients (18.3%) showed a severe clinical outcome, 13 (4.1%) developed sequelae and 3 (0.9%) died. The univariate analysis showed that age, high D-dimer values, hyperfibrinogenemia, INR and aPTT elongation, and low platelet count were associated with an increased risk of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission (p < 0.01). Three multivariate logistic regressions showed that a d-dimer level increase was associated with a higher risk of PICU admission. This study shows that D-dimer values play an important role in predicting the more severe spectrum of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and was higher also in those that developed sequelae, including long COVID-19.

5.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3): 100560, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706398

ABSTRACT

Most patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) experience mild, non-specific symptoms, but many develop severe symptoms associated with an excessive inflammatory response. Elevated plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) provide early warning of progression to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or death, but access to suPAR testing may be limited. The Severe COvid Prediction Estimate (SCOPE) score, derived from circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, D- dimers, interleukin-6, and ferritin among patients not receiving non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation during the SAVE-MORE study, offers predictive accuracy for progression to SRF or death within 14 days comparable to that of a suPAR concentration of ≥6 ng/mL (area under receiver operator characteristic curve 0.81 for both). The SCOPE score is validated in two similar independent cohorts. A SCOPE score of 6 or more is an alternative to suPAR for predicting progression to SRF or death within 14 days of hospital admission for pneumonia, and it can be used to guide treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Prognosis , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(supl.3): S16-S22, feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1699029

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave condiciona un gran número de anormalidades pulmonares y sistémicas que basan su fisiopatogenia en la inmunotrombosis. Específicamente para el área de la hematología desde los primeros estudios de caracterización clínica y paraclínica se identificaron anormalidades hematológicas y de la hemostasia que se han documentado de forma consistente en diferentes publicaciones y cuyo conocimiento es trascendente desde el punto de vista de pronóstico. Durante el curso de la enfermedad, la evaluación longitudinal de algunos parámetros hematológicos es primordial para la identificación temprana de pacientes potencialmente complicables. El conteo absoluto de leucocitos, la depleción linfoide y la trombocitopenia son los marcadores hematológicos principalmente alterados. La linfopenia severa es un hallazgo cardinal en la fase temprana de la infección y su persistencia durante la progresión de la enfermedad tiene mayor impacto pronóstico adverso. La determinación de los índices hemáticos neutrófilo:linfocito y linfocito:plaqueta también ha demostrado su utilidad como predictores de complicaciones respiratorias y mortalidad. Un estado de hipercoagulabilidad demostrado por niveles altos de dímero D y/o productos de degradación de fibrinógeno y diversas alteraciones hemostásicas en el perfil de coagulación se asocian a una mayor tasa de morbimortalidad. Otros biomarcadores inflamatorios, incluidos proteína C reactiva, procalcitonina y ferritina, podrían identificar tempranamente aquellos casos que requieren de soporte ventilatorio y/o hemodinámico avanzado. En esta revisión se abordan los antecedentes históricos de la patología y las principales alteraciones hematológicas y de la hemostasia y sus implicaciones pronósticas.


Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection conditions a large number of pulmonary and systemic abnormalities that base its physiopathogenesis on immunothrombosis. Specifically, for the area of hematology, from the first clinical and paraclinical characterization studies, hematological and hemostasis abnormalities have been identified that have been consistently documented through different publications and whose knowledge is transcendent from the prognostic point of view. During the course of the disease, longitudinal evaluation of some hematological parameters is essential for the early identification of potentially complicated patients. Absolute leukocyte count, lymphoid depletion, and thrombocytopenia are the principally altered hematologic markers. Severe lymphopenia is a cardinal finding in the early phase of infection, and its persistence during disease progression has a greater adverse prognostic impact. The determination of the neutrophil/ lymphocyte and lymphocyte/ platelet hematic indices have also shown their usefulness as predictors of respiratory complications and mortality. A state of hypercoagulability demonstrated by high levels of D-dimer and or fibrinogen degradation products and various hemostatic alterations in the coagulation profile are associated with a higher rate of morbidity and mortality. Other inflammatory biomarkers including C-Reactive Protein, procalcitonin and ferritin can early identify those cases that require advanced ventilatory and/or hemodynamic support. In this review, the historical antecedents of the pathology and the main hematological and hemostasis alterations and their prognostic implications are addressed.

7.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(supl.3): S10-S15, feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1698967

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre la concentración de glucosa al ingreso y los niveles circulantes de dímeros D en pacientes hospitalizados por enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Pacientes y métodos: Se estudiaron 187 pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19. Se evaluaron las características bioquímicas, la concentración de glucosa y dímeros D, la gravedad de la enfermedad definida por la presencia de neumonía y/o insuficiencia respiratoria que ameritó ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) y la causa del egreso hospitalario. Resultados: La edad promedio de los pacientes fue 52 años, el 68% eran hombres, un 40.8% con obesidad y un 23.5% con hipertensión. Del total de pacientes hospitalizados, el 45.5% presentaba diabetes o hiperglucemia a la admisión. La concentración de proteína C reactiva y de dímeros D (1,134 [646.5-4,135.0] vs. 755 [548.7-1,780.0] ng/ml; p = 0.04] fue superior en pacientes con diabetes e hiperglucemia, en comparación con los pacientes con glucosa normal. Los pacientes que requirieron VMI presentaron también mayor concentración de dímeros D. Se observó una correlación directa entre las concentraciones de glucosa inicial y dímeros D (r: 0.239; p = 0.003). Conclusión: En los pacientes con COVID-19 el estado hiperglucémico se asocia directamente con un incremento de la concentración de dímeros D. Los resultados de este estudio deben conducir a insistir en el control glucémico como estrategia fundamental en los pacientes con COVID-19.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between glucose level at admission and circulating levels of D-dimers in patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: 187 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were studied. Biochemical characteristics, glucose and D-dimers levels, severity of disease, defined by the presence of pneumonia and/or respiratory failure that required invasive mechanical ventilation (IVM) and the cause of hospital discharge were evaluated. Results: Age was 52 years, 68% were male, 40.8% with obesity and 23.5% with hypertension. Of the total of hospitalized patients, 45.5% had diabetes or hyperglycemia upon admission. Patients with diabetes and/or admission hyperglycemia had higher levels of protein C-reactive and D-dimers [(1134 (646.5-4135.0) vs. 755 (548.7-1780.0) ng/ml, p = 0.04], compared to patients with normal glucose level. Patients who required IMV also had a higher concentration of D-dimers. A correlation between glucose and D-dimers levels was evidenced (r=0.239, p=0.003). Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19, the hyperglycemic state is directly associated with an increase in the concentration of D-dimers and severity of disease. The results of this study should lead to insisting on glycemic control as a fundamental strategy in patients with COVID-19.

8.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 10247-10256, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are more than 228,394,572 confirmed cases and 4,690,186 confirmed deaths caused by COVID-19 worldwide. The magnitude of the COOVID-19 pandemic has stimulated research on the treatment and diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVE: In this report, a battery of specific parameters was used to develop a model that allows prediction of the outcome of the COVID-19 treatment. These parameters are C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, fibrinogen, D-dimers, immature granulocytes, and interleukin-6. METHODS: The study was carried out on a sample of N = 49 survivors (22 men, 27 women) and 83 deceased patients (62 men, 21 women). The distribution of means and differences in means of the parameters studied between survivors and deceased patients were evaluated using the bootstrap method. RESULTS: A mathematical model that allows for the prediction of hospitalization outcome was obtained using the Naive Bayes model. The results demonstrated a statistically significant difference between survivors and deceased patients in all parameters studied. A mathematical model employing a battery of parameters provided a 97% precision in predicting the outcome of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the cross-correlation of survivability with absolute levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, fibrinogen, D-dimers, immature granulocytes, and interleukin-6 could be used successfully in the hospital setting as a diagnostic tool.

9.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211057901, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574829

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Proinflammatory and hypercoagulable states with marked elevation seen in D-Dimer levels have been accurately described in patients infected by the SARS- Cov2 even without pulmonary embolism (PE). OBJECTIVES: To compare D-dimers values in patients infected by the novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) with and without PE and to establish an optimal D-dimer cut-off to predict the occurrence of PE, which guides pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTPA) indication. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled all COVID-19-patients admitted between October first and November 22th, 2020, at the University Hospital Center of Mohammed VI, Oujda (Morocco), suspected to have PE and underwent a CTPA. Demographic characteristics and blood test results were compared between PE-positive and PE-negative. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was constructed to establish an optimal D-Dimer cut-off to predict the occurrence of PE. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 84 confirmed COVID-19-patients. The mean age was 64.93 years (SD 14.19). PE was diagnosed on CTPA in 31 (36.9%) patients. Clinical symptoms and in-hospital outcomes were similar in both groups except that more men had PE (p = .025). The median value of D-dimers in the group of patients with PE was significantly higher (14 680[IQR 33620-3450]ng/mL compared to the group of patients without PE 2980[IQR 6870-1600]ng/mL [P < .001]. A D-dimer at 2600 ng/mL was the optimal cut-off for predicting PE with a sensitivity of 90.3%, and AUC was .773[CI 95%, .667 -.876). CONCLUSION: A D-dimer cut-off value of 2600 ng/mL is a significant predictor of PE in COVID-19-patients with a sensitivity of 90.3%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477947

ABSTRACT

Lactoferrin (Lf), a multifunctional cationic glycoprotein synthesized by exocrine glands and neutrophils, possesses an in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we conducted an in vivo preliminary study to investigate the antiviral effect of oral and intranasal liposomal bovine Lf (bLf) in asymptomatic and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients. From April 2020 to June 2020, a total of 92 mild-to-moderate (67/92) and asymptomatic (25/92) COVID-19 patients were recruited and divided into three groups. Thirty-two patients (14 hospitalized and 18 in home-based isolation) received only oral and intranasal liposomal bLf; 32 hospitalized patients were treated only with standard of care (SOC) treatment; and 28, in home-based isolation, did not take any medication. Furthermore, 32 COVID-19 negative, untreated, healthy subjects were added for ancillary analysis. Liposomal bLf-treated COVID-19 patients obtained an earlier and significant (p < 0.0001) SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative conversion compared to the SOC-treated and untreated COVID-19 patients (14.25 vs. 27.13 vs. 32.61 days, respectively). Liposomal bLf-treated COVID-19 patients showed fast clinical symptoms recovery compared to the SOC-treated COVID-19 patients. In bLf-treated patients, a significant decrease in serum ferritin, IL-6, and D-dimers levels was observed. No adverse events were reported. These observations led us to speculate a potential role of bLf in the management of mild-to-moderate and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lactoferrin , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cattle , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Cureus ; 13(9): e17687, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438872

ABSTRACT

Introduction Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are key complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study's primary outcome was assessing the utility of Wells DVT, Wells PE scores, and D-dimers in diagnosing DVT and PE. Secondary outcomes were the risk factors for the development of PE and DVT in COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods We compared COVID-19 patients with a positive and negative lower extremity (LE) duplex. A similar approach was made for patients who underwent imaging for PE. Results The prevalence of PE was 23.8% (26 out of 109 patients), and the prevalence of DVT was 33% (35 out of 106). A D-dimer of 500 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 95.6% and 93.7% for the diagnosis of PE and DVT, respectively. A Wells DVT score of 3 points had a specificity of 92.9% and sensitivity of 8.8% for DVT diagnosis in COVID-19. A Wells PE score of 4 had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 20% for the diagnosis of PE. The combined approach of using a Wells DVT score of 3 in suspected DVT and a Wells PE score of 4 in suspected PE and D-dimers of 500 ng/ml has a sensitivity of 94.2% and 96.1%, respectively. In the suspected DVT group, male gender (OR 3.88, 95% CI 1.55-9.7, P=0.004), lower body mass index (BMI) (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.99, P=0.037), antiplatelet use (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04-0.88, P=0.035), systolic blood pressure ≤100 mmhg (OR 4.96, 95% CI 1.37-17.86, P=0.014), absolute lymphocytes ≤1 (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.07-6.12, P=0.033), D-dimer ≥500 ng/ml (OR 6.42, 95% CI 1.40-29.38, P=0.016), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ≥20 mg/dl (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.00-5.41, P=0.048), and intubation (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.26-8.78, P=0.015) were found to be statistically significant for DVT. In the suspected PE group, history of cancer (OR 10.69, 95% CI 1.06-107.74, P=0.044), total WBC count (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.95-1.21, P=0.032), platelets ≥ 400,000 (OR 5.13, 95% CI 1.79-14.68, P=0.002), D-dimer levels ≥ 500 ng/ml (OR 25.47, 95% CI 3.27-197.97, P=0.002), Wells PE score (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.50-4.06, P<0.001), pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) score (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.05-3.05, P=0.054), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.16-3.12, P=0.002) were statistically significant. Conclusions The combined approach of using a Wells DVT score of 3 in suspected DVT and Wells PE score of 4 in suspected PE and D-dimers of 500 ng/ml may be used to diagnose PE and DVT in COVID-19. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurrence in COVID-19 is associated with non-traditional risk factors such as intubation and higher severity of systemic inflammation, and these patients may benefit from more aggressive testing for VTE.

12.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 26(1): 181-190, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) and feeding intolerance (FI) are known independent determinants of worse outcomes and high mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, the incidence of AGI and FI in critically ill COVID-19 patients and their prognostic importance have not been thoroughly studied. METHODS: We reviewed 218 intubated patients at Stony Brook University Hospital and stratified them into three groups based on AGI severity, according to data collected in the first 10 days of ICU course. We used chi-square test to compare categorical variables such as age and sex and two-sample t-test or Mann-Whitney U-tests for continuous variables, including important laboratory values. Cox proportional hazards regression models were utilized to determine whether AGI score was an independent predictor of survival, and multivariable analysis was performed to compare risk factors that were deemed significant in the univariable analysis. We performed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis based on the AGI score and the presence of FI. RESULTS: The overall incidence of AGI was 95% (45% AGI I/II, 50% AGI III/IV), and FI incidence was 63%. Patients with AGI III/IV were more likely to have prolonged mechanical ventilation (22 days vs 16 days, P-value <0.002) and higher mortality rate (58% vs 28%, P-value <0.001) compared to patients with AGI 0/I/II. This was confirmed with multivariable analysis which showed that AGI score III/IV was an independent predictor of higher mortality (AGI III/IV vs AGI 0/I/II hazard ratio (HR), 2.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.69-4.25; P-value <0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that both AGI III/IV and FI (P-value <0.001) were associated with worse outcomes. Patients with AGI III/IV had higher daily and mean D-dimer and CRP levels compared to AGI 0/I/II (P-value <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of AGI and FI among critically ill COVID-19 patients was high. AGI grades III/IV were associated with higher risk for prolonged mechanical ventilation and mortality compared to AGI 0/I/II, while it also correlated with higher D-dimer and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. FI was independently associated with higher mortality. The development of high-grade AGI and FI during the first days of ICU stay can serve as prognostic tools to predict outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Critical Illness , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Cureus ; 13(3): e14061, 2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196121

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease) has affected millions of people, wreaking havoc worldwide. World Health Organization (WHO) labelled this disease as a serious threat to public health since its rapid spread from Wuhan, China. The respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 are common, but myocardium involvement causing myocardial injury and rise in cardiac markers is much less discussed. Materials and methods We conducted this retrospective cohort study from 1st April 2020 to 1st October 2020. Data was collected from the Hospital Management and Information System (HMIS) based on inclusion criteria. We used the Cox proportional hazard regression model for survival analysis, estimated the probability curves of survival using the Kaplan-Meier method, and contrasted it with the log-rank test. Results Among the 466 patients, 280 (69%) were male; the rest were female. The majority were both hypertensive and diabetic, and one-third had a myocardial injury on arrival. The most frequent symptoms in more than half of the patients (51.90%) included a combination of fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Out of 466 patients, 266 patients were discharged, and 200 did not survive. In our study, 168 (36.05%) patients had a cardiac injury; among them, 38 (22.61%) were in the discharge group, and the remaining 130 (77.39%) patients were in the nonsurvivor group. Our study results showed that the mortality rate was higher in patients with high cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels (hazard ratio [HR] 3.61) on admission. Conclusion Our result concluded that measuring cTnI levels on presentation could help predict the severity and outcome in COVID-19 patients. It will allow physicians to triage patients and decrease mortality.

14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 233-238, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Describe and evaluate the outcome of a coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patient without shortness of breath. DESIGN AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from COVID-19 patients diagnosed and cared for in Marseille, France. We selected data from patients who at admission, had a low dose CT scanner, dyspnea status, and oxygen saturation available. Blood gas was analyzed in a sample subset of patients. RESULTS: Among 1712 patients with COVID-19, we report that 1107 (64.7%) do not complain of shortness of breath at admission. The low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) scan showed signs compatible with pneumonia in 757/1,107 (68.4%) of patients without dyspnea. In a subset of patients who had underwent at least one blood gas analysis (n = 161) and presented without dyspnea at admission, 28.1% (27/96) presented with a hypoxemia/hypocapnia syndrome. Asymptomatic hypoxia was associated with a very poor outcome (33.3% were transferred to the ICU and 25.9% died). CONCLUSION: The absence of shortness of breath in an old patient with comorbidity merit medical attention and should not be considered as a good sign of well-being. The poor prognosis of asymptomatic hypoxia, highlight the severity of this mild clinical presentation. In these patients, pulse oximetry is an important mean to predict the outcome along with news score and LDCT scanner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
15.
Heart Lung ; 50(2): 357-360, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039362

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC) is a feature of COVID-19 that can lead to various thrombotic complications and death. In this review, we briefly highlight possible etiologies, including direct cytotoxicity caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the activation of proinflammatory molecules such as cytokines, underlying coagulopathy. Endothelial dysfunction has been highlighted as pivotal, irrespective of the mechanism involved in CAC. Specific features of CAC distinguishing it from disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and sepsis or ARDS-associated coagulopathy have been discussed. We have also highlighted some hematological parameters, such as elevated d-dimers and partial prothrombin and prothrombin times prolongation, which can guide the use of anticoagulation in critically ill patients. We conclude by highlighting the importance of prophylactic anticoagulation in all COVID-19 hospitalized patients and reiterate the need for institution-specific guidelines for anticoagulation COVID-19 patients since individual institutions have different patient populations.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Vnitr Lek ; 66(7): 402-408, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005451

ABSTRACT

Infection with a new type of coronavirus surprised with the diversity of its clinical symptoms. The disease may be asymptomatic, with only mild symptoms in the form of olfactory loss, general weakness or flu-like symptoms. However, in some patients, COVID-19 infection can be severe, with hypercoagulation being a common finding, with vascular endothelial damage and the consequent risk of venous and arterial thrombotic complications. Coa-gulopathy subsequently significantly worsens the prognosis of patients and increases overall mortality. Recently, a new term has been introduced to indicate the presence of activated hemostasis in SARS-CoV-2 infection - coagulopathy associated with COVID-19 (CAC). The current global pandemic of COVID-19 has triggered intensive research on the disease, which has clarified a number of findings about the infection, but we still have many unanswered questions, especially regarding possible treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 676, 2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence for enhanced blood coagulation in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients, with thromboembolic complications contributing to morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying this prothrombotic state remain enigmatic. Further data to guide anticoagulation strategies are urgently required. METHODS: We used viscoelastic rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in a single-center cohort of 40 critically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Clear signs of a hypercoagulable state due to severe hypofibrinolysis were found. Maximum lysis, especially following stimulation of the extrinsic coagulation system, was inversely associated with an enhanced risk of thromboembolic complications. Combining values for maximum lysis with D-dimer concentrations revealed high sensitivity and specificity of thromboembolic risk prediction. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies a reduction in fibrinolysis as an important mechanism in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. The combination of ROTEM and D-dimer concentrations may prove valuable in identifying patients requiring higher intensity anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Thrombelastography/methods , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , Blood Coagulation Tests/standards , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems/standards , Point-of-Care Systems/statistics & numerical data , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Viscoelastic Substances/analysis , Viscoelastic Substances/therapeutic use
18.
Data Brief ; 33: 106519, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927740

ABSTRACT

This data article accompanies the manuscript entitled: "Prothrombotic Disturbances of hemostasis of Patients with Severe COVID-19: a Prospective Longitudinal Observational Cohort Study" submitted to Thrombosis Research by the same authors. We report temporal changes of plasma levels of an extended set of laboratory parameters during the ICU stay of the 21 COVID-19 patients included in the monocentre cohort: CRP, platelet count, prothrombin time; Clauss fibrinogen and clotting factors II, V and VIII levels, D-dimers, antithrombin activity, protein C, free protein S, total and free tissue factor pathway inhibitor, PAI-1 levels, von Willebrand factor antigen and activity, ADAMTS-13 (plasma levels); and of two integrative tests of coagulation (thrombin generation with ST Genesia) and fibrinolysis (global fibrinolytic capacity - GFC). Regarding hemostasis, we used double-centrifuged frozen citrated plasma prospectively collected after daily performance of usual coagulation tests. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients and thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications were also collected from patient's electronic medical reports.

20.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11(1): 98-104, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first COVID-19 patient in Saudi Arabia (March, 2020) more than 338,539 cases and approximately 4996 dead were reported. We present the main characteristics and outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients that were admitted in the largest Ministry of Health Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This retrospective study, analyzed routine epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory data of COVID-19 critically ill patients in King Saud Medical City (KSMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March 20, 2020 and May 31, 2020. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays performed on nasopharyngeal swabs in all enrolled cases. Outcome measures such as 28-days mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU length of stay were analyzed. RESULTS: Three-hundred-and-fifty-two critically ill COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Patients had a mean age of 50.63 ± 13.3 years, 87.2% were males, and 49.4% were active smokers. Upon ICU admission, 56.8% of patients were mechanically ventilated with peripheral oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) ratio of 158 ± 32. No co-infections with other endemic viruses were observed. Duration of mechanical ventilation was 16 (IQR: 8-28) days; ICU length of stay was 18 (IQR: 9-29) days, and 28-day mortality was 32.1%. Multivariate regression analysis showed that old age [Odds Ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 1.03-1.21], active smoking [OR: 3, 95% CI: 2.51-3.66], pulmonary embolism [OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 2.65-3.36), decreased SpO2/FiO2 ratio [OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91-0.97], and increased lactate [OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 2.4-4.9], and D-dimers [OR: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.57-3.12] were mortality predictors. CONCLUSION: Old age, active smoking, pulmonary embolism, decreased SpO2/FiO2 ratio, and increased lactate and D-dimers were predictors of 28-day mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Embolism , Smoking/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Causality , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Lactic Acid/blood , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Oxygen Consumption , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL