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1.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244050

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While SARS-CoV-2 infection appears not to be clinically evident in the testes, indirect inflammatory effects and fever may impair testicular function. To date, few long-term data of semen parameters impairment after recovery and comprehensive andrological evaluation of recovered patients has been published. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection affect male reproductive health. METHODS: Eighty patients were recruited three months after COVID-19 recovery. They performed physical examination, testicular ultrasound, semen analysis, sperm DNA integrity evaluation (TUNEL), anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) testing, sex hormone profile evaluation (Total testosterone, LH, FSH). In addition, all patients were administered International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire (IIEF-15). Sperm parameters were compared with two age-matched healthy pre-COVID-19 control groups of normozoospermic (CTR1) and primary infertile (CTR2) subjects. RESULTS: Median values of semen parameters from recovered SARS-CoV-2 subjects were within WHO 2010 fifth percentile. Mean percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation (%SDF) was 14.1 ± 7.0%. Gelatin Agglutination Test (GAT) was positive in 3.9% of blood serum samples, but no positive semen plasma sample was found. Only five subjects (6.2%) had total testosterone levels below the laboratory reference range. Mean bilateral testicular volume was 31.5 ± 9.6 ml. Erectile dysfunction was detected in 30% of subjects. CONCLUSION: Our data remark that COVID-19 does not seem to cause direct damage to the testicular function, while indirect damage appears to be transient. It is possible to counsel infertile couples to postpone the research of parenthood or ART procedures around three months after recovery from the infection.

2.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 10(1):1335-1345, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2168813

ABSTRACT

Background: It is well knowledge that various viral illnesses may interfere with a man's ability to father children. Through the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor, which is highly concentrated in testicular tissue, the corona virus illness known as COVID-19 may cause harm to several organs. On the other hand, there is a paucity of data about the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in sperm, as well as the virus's influence on spermatogenesis and the capacity for fertility. We intended to look into whether or not COVID-19 guys' sperm contained SARS-CoV-2 as well as examine how COVID-19 affected the overall quality of the sperm and the degree to which it's DNA was fragmented. Material(s) and Method(s): The survey was conducted between May 2022 to October 2022, with the participation of 40 male COVID-19 patients who were between the ages of 19 and 45 and enrolled at the RSDKS, Government Medical College, Ambikapur, Chhattisgarh. We tested each sample of sperm with a real-time reverse transcriptase and found no abnormalities. At the time of the initial sample, which took place during COVID-19, a comprehensive examination of the sperm was carried out. This analysis included the calculation of the sperm DNA Fragmentation Index. After 74 days had passed since the first sample, we were able to get the second specimen and carried out the aforementioned tests once again. Result(s): All of the sperm samples that were examined using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) came back negative for SARS-CoV-2. These samples were taken during the first and second sampling. The initial sample had considerably lower levels of fructose, semen volume, vitality, total motility, sperm concentration, total sperm count, percentage of normal morphology, and cytoplasmic droplet percentage than the subsequent samples. On the other hand, the agglutination of the semen, the percentage of head defects, the DNA Fragmentation Index, the liquefaction time, the viscosity of the semen, and the number of leukocytes all rose. At the second sample, these results were inverted, but not to the level that would be considered optimal. These results all had a p-value less than 0.05, meaning they were statistically significant. As a result, COVID-19 has a detrimental impact on the characteristics of the sperm, including the sperm DNA fragmentation index. Conclusion(s): The quality of the semen remained low up until the second time it was sampled, despite the fact that we were unable to discover SARS-CoV-2 in the sample. It is recommended that assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics and sperm banking facilities evaluate the quality of the sperm produced by males infected with COVID-19 and exclude men who have a history of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 until the men's sperm quality recovers to normal. Copyright © 2023 Ubiquity Press. All rights reserved.

3.
Cureus ; 14(11): e31776, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203331

ABSTRACT

Background It is well known that some viral infections may affect male fertility. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can lead to multiorgan damage through the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor, abundant in testicular tissue. However, little information is available regarding the shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in semen and its impact on spermatogenesis and fertility potential. We planned to investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the semen of COVID-19 males and to study the effect of COVID-19 on semen quality and sperm DNA fragmentation index. Material and method Thirty COVID-19 male patients aged 19-45 registered to AIIMS Patna hospital participated in the survey between October 2020 and April 2021. We conducted a real-time reverse transcriptase test on all the semen samples. Detailed semen analysis, including the sperm DNA Fragmentation Index, was done at first sampling that is during COVID-19. After 74 days of the first sampling, we obtained the second sampling and repeated all the above tests. Results All semen samples collected in the first and second sampling tested with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were negative for SARS-CoV-2. In the first sampling, semen volume, vitality, total motility, sperm concentration, total sperm count, % normal morphology, % cytoplasmic droplet, and fructose were significantly lower. In contrast, semen agglutination, % head defect, DNA Fragmentation Index, liquefaction time, semen viscosity, and leukocytes were increased. These findings were reversed at the second sampling but not to the optimum level. All these findings were statistically significant (p < 0.05 for all). Thus, COVID-19 negatively affects semen parameters, including sperm DNA fragmentation index. Conclusion Although we could not find SARS-CoV-2 in the semen, the semen quality remained poor until the second sampling. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics and sperm banking facilities should consider assessing the semen of COVID-19 males and exclude men with a positive history of SARS-CoV-2 until their semen quality returns to normal.

4.
Andrologia i Genital'naa Hirurgia ; 23(3):72-84, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2145731

ABSTRACT

Aim. To compare sperm parameters and the DNA fragmentation in patients after the COVID-19 infection and in men without a history of infection. Materials and methods. Sperm parameters and DNA fragmentation index were evaluated in 172 patients examined in 2020–2022. Based on the data on COVID-19 infection in the anamnesis, the patient’s cohort was divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 16) and group 2 (n = 65) – patients who had an infectious disease less than 75 days and more than 75 days before the delivery of the ejaculate, respectively, and group 3 (control, n = 91) – men have no coronavirus infection. A standard semen examination was performed according by the WHO guidelines (2010) recommendation. Sperm DNA fragmentation was evaluated by fluorescent labeling of single- and double-strand DNA breaks (TUNEL method). Results. The percentage of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA in group 1 varies from 2 to 48 %, in group 2 – from 0.9 to 39 %, in group 3 (control group) – from 1.3 to 52.9 %. The average number of gametes with DNA breaks in group 1 (11.7 ± 3.3 %) is greater than in group 2 (10.6 ± 0.8 %) and in group 3 (10.7 ± 0.8%), but without a statistically significant differences. The proportions of patients whose DNA fragmentation index exceeds the reference value (≤15 %) in groups 1, 2 and 3 are 18.8;13.8 and 18.7 %, respectively. The count of progressively motile (PR) and morphologically normal spermatozoa in group 2 is statistically significantly greater than in group 3 (22.5 ± 1.6 % vs 18.0 ± 1.2 % and 5.52 ± 0.47 % vs 4.03 ± 0.31 %, respectively). Conclusion. The content of sperm with fragmented DNA is higher in men examined less than 75 days after COVID-19 disease, than in patients, examined more than 75 days after COVID-19 and in men who have no history of this infection. In group 1 an increased DNA fragmentation index was noted mainly in patients who had suffered from the disease in a moderate form. © 2022 ABV-Press Publishing House. All rights reserved.

5.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):6860-6870, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067308

ABSTRACT

The year 2019 is a outbreak year during which the whole globe has suffered from Covid19 pandemic which has been spotted initially in China and later spread to the whole world;as a result of this viral disease, the whole world had shut down affecting billions of people but till today the Covid battle is on and people are suffering not only from this disease but also in terms of economy, starving being jobless etc. This paper briefs about Corona virus, its types, and structure;the replication and spreading of this virus, Covid19 detection methods, research on vaccination developed across the world to curb this virus;virus impact on various sectors, precautions to be taken to stay away from this virus and Ayurvedic remedy for it. The waves of corona had taken many lives on the globe & have its effect on life style of people. To curb this virus, prevention vaccination has to be found and we people must change in a way so that we could avoid future consequences for the upcoming generation. Keywords.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010109

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 negatively affects semen characteristics, impairs various biochemical processes in seminal fluid and within spermatogenic cells ultimately leading to male fertility decline. However, the distinct mechanisms, in particular, the role of oxidative stress on the consequences of coronavirus infection, have not been well investigated, which is the purpose of the present study. The standard semen parameters, its pro- and antioxidant system state, as well as the level of sperm DNA fragmentation, were assessed in 17 semen samples of men five months after the coronavirus infection and in 22 age-matched control patients. We determined that the DNA fragmentation rate negatively correlated with the period after coronavirus recovery, as well as seminal fluid superoxide dismutase activity and uric acid level. It was demonstrated that COVID-19 is not always associated with increased DNA fragmentation, allowing them to be considered as two independent factors. Thus, the most significant changes were noted in the samples of men after COVID-19 and abnormal TUNEL results: increased round cell number, decreased seminal fluid's nitrotyrosine level, and total antioxidant capacity and Zn, as well as an increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine level within spermatozoa. The data obtained indicate that increased DNA fragmentation and diminished semen quality in men can be the result of an imbalance in semen pro- and antioxidant components after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infertility, Male , 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine , Antioxidants/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , DNA Fragmentation , Humans , Infertility, Male/metabolism , Male , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen/metabolism , Semen Analysis , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa/metabolism
7.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(8)2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987626

ABSTRACT

Seminal oxidative stress and sperm DNA damage are potential etiologies of male factor infertility. The present study aims to evaluate the relationship between oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), a measure of oxidative stress, and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant clinical data. A literature search was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The COVIDENCE tool was used to screen and identify studies evaluating seminal ORP and SDF. Studies (n = 7) that measured seminal ORP and SDF of 3491 semen samples were included in the analysis. The fixed-effects model revealed a significant pooled correlation coefficient (r = 0.24; p < 0.001) between seminal ORP and SDF. Furthermore, subgroup analyses indicated that the pooled correlation coefficient between ORP and sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) assay was less than other SDF assays (0.23 vs. 0.29). There was a moderate level of heterogeneity (I2 = 42.27%) among the studies, indicating a lack of publication bias. This is the first meta-analysis to reveal a positive correlation between seminal ORP and SDF. Furthermore, this study indicates the role of oxidative stress in the development of sperm DNA damage and thus warrants prospectively exploring the clinical value of these sperm function tests.

8.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(2): 474-479, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1928742

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La reciente pandemia de la COVID-19 ha sacudido a la sociedad teniendo una importante repercusión en el campo de la salud y de la investigación. Dada su relevancia, se han llevado a cabo estudios sobre los efectos del SARS-CoV-2 en la fisiología humana. En concreto, sobre la posible presencia y transmisión del virus a través del sistema reproductor masculino y su posible efecto en el éxito reproductivo. Conocer si la presencia del virus altera los órganos responsables del desarrollo y maduración de las células de la serie espermatogénica podría revelarnos su implicación en la calidad seminal. Por ello, nos planteamos esta revisión, con el fin de analizar las principales evidencias científicas sobre los efectos del SARS-CoV-2 en la histofisiología del sistema reproductor masculino y sobre la capacidad fecundante de los espermatozoides.


SUMMARY: The recent COVID-19 pandemic has shaken up society, having a significant impact on the field of health and research. Given its relevance, studies have been performed on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on human physiology. In particular, the possible presence and transmission of the virus through the male reproductive system could affect reproductive success. Knowing if the presence of the virus disrupts the organs responsible for the development and maturation of the cell lines involved in spermatogenesis could reveal its implications in sperm quality. For that reason, we proposed this review, in order to analyze the main scientific evidence on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the histophysiology of the male reproductive system and sperm fertilizing capacity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , COVID-19 , Genitalia, Male/virology , Infertility, Male/virology , Spermatozoa/virology , DNA Fragmentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Genitalia, Male/physiopathology , Infertility, Male/physiopathology
9.
Journal of Urology ; 207(SUPPL 5):e358, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1886496

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Current evidence has proven the systemic nature of COVID19, including its involvement in the male reproductive tract. We aimed to investigate seminal parameters of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 men during the convalescence phase. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 18 to 50-yearold men with confirmed moderate-to-severe COVID-19. Patients were enrolled 15 to 45 days after the diagnosis. After a urologist's initial clinical evaluation, semen samples were obtained by masturbation and processed within one hour. Semen analysis was performed using the World Health Organization (WHO) manual (6th edition). Sperm function tests were conducted in an andrology laboratory, including Reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation, and Creatine Kinase (CK) analysis. An essential endocrine evaluation was performed. Patients with a history of disorders that could impair testicular function were excluded. A group of pre-vasectomy baseline samples was used as a control group. Statistical analysis was performed using R version 4.0.5. One-tailed and paired T-tests were used for comparisons between groups. RESULTS: The sample size was 26 men (mean 34.3±6.5 years;range: 21-50 years). Sperm concentration (mean 38.74±32, P <0.01) and total motile count (mean 55.3±66.8, P <0.01) were significantly reduced in the COVID-19 group. The DNA fragmentation (mean 41.1±29.2) and ROS (mean 4.84±8.7) were significantly higher in post-infection patients. Other parameters such as WHO/ Kruger morphology and progressive motility were also reduced in the disease group, albeit not statistically significant. Total testosterone (mean 409.2±201.2) was lower in the convalescent men. All semen samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 using the PCR analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that male reproductive injury can be a relevant component of SARS-CoV-2 systemic infection. High DNA fragmentation and ROS, hallmarks of tissue injury, might signal a direct testicular involvement. The morphological and functional damage could represent significant impairment of the male reproductive health if persistent after convalescence.

10.
Fertility and Sterility ; 116(3 SUPPL):e283-e284, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880835

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The ZyMot sperm separation device has proven favorable for use in elevated DNA fragmentation index (DFI) male factor patients, as an alternative to density gradient (DG) washing or surgically attained testicular sperm. In 2020, without fully understanding the infectivity and transmission potential of SARS-CoV2 in semen, a more liberal application of a timed ZyMot microfluidic swim-up was applied to our IVF patients to dilute out and minimize potential pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate whether the use of ZyMot sperm improved normal embryo development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of PGT-A/ICSI cycles (N= 3219) between 2016-2020 was conducted to assessed fertilization rates (FR), blastocyst development/utilization rates (BUR) and genetic outcomes. Sperm preparations were performed per standard operating or manufacturer advised (i.e., ZyMot) procedures. Cumulus oocyte complexes were harvested 36h post-hCG, stripped and ICSI performed 3-5hr later. Zygotes were assessed at 16-18hr post-ICSI, and embryos cultured under humidified tri-gas incubation for up to 7 days. Blastocyst (BL) development as evaluated, and expanded BL or greater were biopsied on Days 5, 6 or 7. All BL were vitrified and genetics determinations for euploidy, aneuploidy and mosaicism were contrast. Applying Chi-squared analysis, we compared potential differences (p<0.05) between oocytes inseminated by DG wash (n=23,549), ZyMot wash (n=7,331) or testicular sperm (n=815). RESULTS: No difference in FR (76%), D5 BL formation (52-56%) or BUR (52-53%) was detected between DG and ZyMot washed sperm, respectively. Meanwhile, testicular sperm had a lower FR (70%;p<0.05), fewer BL forming on D5 (48%;p<0.05) and a lower overall BUR (41%;p<0.05). In addition, fewer testicular-derived BL were euploid (39%;p<0.05) with more aneuploidy (54%;p<0.05) than DG wash (50%, 39%;respectively) or ZyMot swim-up (45%, 37%;respectively) derived-embryos. No difference in potentially viable BL (Euploidy+Mosiac outcome) was observed between DG or ZyMot wash groups (63-64%). CONCLUSIONS: Application of the ZyMot device in the general IVF population offered no benefit to embryo development outcomes compared to standard sperm wash procedures. Our data does support that microfluidic separation of sperm using ZyMot for male factor patients with elevated DFI is a more favorable and cost-effective approach to surgically attaining testicular sperm when ejaculated sperm is possible. However, when insufficient motile and or morphologically normal sperm are available in an ejaculate further analysis is needed to elucidate the benefit of testicular biopsy treatment, as our assessments in this study may be biased by including men with non-obstructive azoospermia. IMPACT STATEMENT: The timed selection of morphologically normal, highly progressive sperm by ICSI, PVP-swim-out likely mimics the potential benefits the ZyMot device may offer infertile men with elevated sperm DNA fragmentation generating similar blastocyst development and euploidy outcomes.

11.
Fertility and Sterility ; 116(3 SUPPL):e220-e221, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880691

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of COVID-19 in sperm cryopreservation processes, including functional parameters evaluated pre-cryopreservation and post-thaw, and to compare post-thaw results from COVID-19 patients to samples from others systemic and andrological Disease MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 37 semen samples of male patients aged 18 to 45 years at Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas of the University of Sao Paulo or at Androscience- Science and Innovation Center in Andrology, High-Complex Clinical and Research Andrology Laboratory, were initially recruited from April 2020 to April 2021. Patients were categorized as acute COVID-19 (n=15), confirmed by RT-PCR (COVID-19 group), and healthy individuals with normozoospermic semen samples (n=22;Control group). Were evaluated seminal parameters, cryosurvival rates (%), mitochondrial activity (%;3,30 -diaminobenzidine stain), reactive oxygen species levels (ROS;chemiluminescent technique) and DNA fragmentation (%;SCSA method) in precryopreservation and post-thaw samples. Samples were cryopreserved by the slow freezing technique. A complementary retrospective study was performed comparing post-thawed samples from COVID-19 group with data from patients with others male diseases: Male infertility (n=35);Severe infertility (n=62), caused severe oligozoospermia, grade 3 varicocele, gonadal dysgenesis, testicular nodule, testicular hypotrophy;testicular cancer (n=55);and other malignant diseases (leukemia, lymphoma, sarcoma, multiple myeloma;n=30). Was used T-test to statistical analysis (p<0.05). RESULTS: Macroscopy analysis of COVID-group revealed abnormal viscosity in 53.33%, semen volume = 4.50 ± 1.72 ml and pH = 8.13 ± 0.23. COVID-19 fresh samples demonstrated mean of progressive motility = 29.07±16.83%, sperm morphology = 2.07±1.58%, and DNA fragmentation index = 42.91±33.38%. Cryopreservation decreased progressive motility (to 5.39±7.92%;p=0.02), sperm vitality (70.46±8.50 vs. 72.20±23.27;p=0.042) and ROS (0.516±0.978 vs. 4.393±9.956 x 104 cpm;p=0.018). When we compared with cryopreserved normozoospermic samples, there was observed a significant difference in HDS (p=0.002). Cryosurvival rate from COVID-19 samples was 19.93;19.71%, and had significant difference when compared with severe infertility (40.16;31.05%;p=0.003), and other malignant diseases (53.14;28.55%, <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Seminal samples from patients with COVID-19 showed reduced fertile potential, especially when compared to the reference values. In the comparisons performed with samples from patients with different andrological diagnoses, common in the specialized andrology laboratory routine, we can suggest that samples from patients with the acute form of COVID-19 had the worst quality, with low cryosurvival rates. This information contribute to the conduct of these patients during assisted reproduction routines and preservation of male fertility. IMPACT STATEMENT: It will contribute to conducts in the cryopreservation of sperm in patients with acute COVID-19.

12.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(SUPPL 2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798324

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 194 papers. The topics discussed include: regional variation of human pancreatic islets dimension and its impact on beta cells in Indian population;cytogenetic effects of formalin exposure on buccal mucosa: a cross-sectional observational study;association of sperm DNA fragmentation with serum lipid profile among males with abnormal semen parameters;embryological and clinico-anatomical perspective of ilioinguinal nerve variations in inguinal region;student involved fun activities- a novel strategy to teach functional correlation of brain in anatomy lectures;anti-hyperglycemic activity of ethonalic extract of stem of cissus quadrangularis in streptozotocin induced experimental diabetic rats-blood parameters;attitude and response of first year medical students towards cadaveric dissection in medical colleges of south Karnataka;and unilateral ectopic pelvic kidney - a rare case.

13.
Crescent Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences ; 9(1):1-2, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1744376
14.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(2)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649122

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a condition that affects 0.1% to 0.5% of the adult population. The aim of this case report was to investigate the possible effects of the drugs taken for treatment of AS as well as mRNA vaccination for COVID-19 on semen quality by performing a highly detailed analysis. Materials and Methods: Sperm characteristics were examined by light microscopy, DNA fragmentation (DFI) was analysed by flow cytometry and morphology was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: Semen analysis under therapy with (1) celecoxib and sulphasalazine showed: concentration 47 million/mL, 53% progressive motility, 7% normal morphology and 9.6% DFI, (2) Golimumab and before mRNA Vaccination showed: concentration 108 million/mL, 82% progressive motility, 1% normal morphology and 7.6% DFI, and (3) Golimumab and after 3 doses of mRNA Vaccination showed: concentration 142 million/mL, 85% progressive motility, 1% normal morphology and 6.8% DFI. TEM revealed head, neck and tail abnormalities, as well as the presence of cells with incomplete spermiogenesis white cells and phagocytes in the sample under therapy with celecoxib and sulphasalazine. Golimumab treatment lead to an increased incidence of elongated heads but in general reduced inflammation as no white cells were evident in TEM. Conclusion: The anti-inflamatory drugs celecoxib and sulphasalazine had no adverse effect on sperm quality as all parameters were within normal limits and the patient achieved under that treatment 2 pregnancies following natural conception that lead to the birth of a healthy boy and girl respectively. Anti-TNFa treatment with Golimumab exerted a negative effect on morphology but not on concentration, motility and DFI. After 3 doses of mRNA Vaccination, sperm concentration increased while motility, morphology and DFI remained similar to the values before vaccination suggesting no negative effect of the mRNA vaccine for COVID-19 on sperm quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infertility, Male , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Infertility, Male/genetics , Male , Pregnancy , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen , Semen Analysis , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
15.
Fertil Steril ; 117(2): 287-296, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the contagiousness of sperm and its influence on fertility after recovery from COVID-19 infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: University medical center. PATIENT(S): One hundred twenty Belgian men who had recovered from proven COVID-19 infection. INTERVENTION(S): No intervention was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Semen quality was assessed using the World Health Organisation criteria. DNA damage to sperm cells was assessed by quantifying the DNA fragmentation index and the high density stainability. Finally antibodies against SARS-CoV2 spike-1 antigen, nuclear and S1-receptor binding domain were measured by Elisa and chemilumenscent microparticle immunoassays, respectively. RESULT(S): SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in semen during the period shortly after infection nor at a later time. Mean progressive motility was reduced in 60% of men tested shortly (<1 month) after COVID-19 infection, 37% of men tested 1 to 2 months after COVID-19 infection, and 28% of men tested >2 months after COVID-19 infection. Mean sperm count was reduced in 37% of men tested shortly (<1 month) after COVID-19 infection, 29% of men tested 1 to 2 months after COVID-19 infection, and 6% of men tested >2 months after COVID-19 infection. The severity of COVID-19 infection and the presence of fever were not correlated with sperm characteristics, but there were strong correlations between sperm abnormalities and the titers of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody against spike 1 and the receptor- binding domain of spike 1, but not against nucleotide, in serum. High levels of antisperm antibodies developed in three men (2.5%). CONCLUSION(S): Semen is not infectious with SARS-CoV-2 at 1 week or more after COVID-19 infection (mean, 53 days). However, couples with a desire for pregnancy should be warned that sperm quality after COVID-19 infection can be suboptimal. The estimated recovery time is 3 months, but further follow-up studies are under way to confirm this and to determine if permanent damage occurred in a minority of men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Semen/virology , Spermatozoa/physiology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/transmission , DNA Damage , DNA Fragmentation , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infertility, Male/virology , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa/abnormalities , Spermatozoa/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
16.
Andrologia ; 53(1): e13883, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087944

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus was recognised in December 2019 and caught humanity off guard. The virus employs the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for entry into human cells. ACE2 is expressed on different organs, which is raising concern as to whether these organs can be infected by the virus or not. The testis appears to be an organ enriched with levels of ACE2, while the possible mechanisms of involvement of the male reproductive system by SARS-CoV-2 are not fully elucidated. The major focus of the present studies is on the short-term complications of the coronavirus and gains importance on studying the long-term effects, including the possible effects of the virus on the male reproductive system. The aim of this review was to provide new insights into different possible mechanisms of involvement of male gonads with SARS-CoV-2 including investigating the ACE2 axis in testis, hormonal alterations in patients with COVID-19, possible formation of anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) and subsequently immunological infertility as a complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we suggest measuring the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) as a determiner of male fertility impairment in patients with COVID-19 along with other options such as sex-related hormones and semen analysis. Invasion of SARS-CoV-2 to the spermatogonia, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells can lead to sex hormonal alteration and impaired gonadal function. Once infected, changes in ACE2 signalling pathways followed by oxidative stress and inflammation could cause spermatogenesis failure, abnormal sperm motility, DNA fragmentation and male infertility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Infertility, Male/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Testis/virology , Androgens/blood , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , DNA Fragmentation , Gonadotropins/blood , Humans , Infertility, Male/diagnosis , Infertility, Male/physiopathology , Male , Orchitis/virology , Oxidative Stress , Spermatozoa/chemistry , Spermatozoa/enzymology , Spermatozoa/immunology , Testis/enzymology , Testis/physiopathology
17.
Postgrad Med ; 132(sup4): 28-34, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808832

ABSTRACT

Infertility is a significant global health issue affecting around 8-12% of couples worldwide with male factor infertility accounting for a substantial proportion of these cases. Despite significant advances within the past few decades, an etiology for male factor infertility cannot be identified in up to 80% of patients and thus, this continues to be an area of active study. This review aims to provide an update on recent advances in the field of male infertility including semen analysis and at-home semen testing, genetics, DNA fragmentation, surgical approaches, and the rise of telemedicine in the era of COVID19.


Subject(s)
Infertility, Male/diagnosis , Infertility, Male/therapy , DNA Fragmentation , Genetic Testing , Humans , Infertility, Male/etiology , Infertility, Male/surgery , Male , Men's Health , Risk Factors , Semen Analysis , Sperm Retrieval , Telemedicine/methods
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