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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0219822, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097937

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus in pigs, is one of the major pathogens for lethal watery diarrhea in piglets and poses a threat to public health because of its potential for interspecies transmission to humans. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25HC), a derivative of cholesterol, exhibits multiple potential modulating host responses to pathogens, including viruses and bacteria, as well as pathogen-induced inflammation, while its antiviral effect on PDCoV and how it mediates the biological process of host cells to counter against infections remain poorly understood. Here, we thoroughly explored the antiviral effect of 25HC on PDCoV infection and tried to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. 25HC showed no toxic effect in LLC-PK1 cells and exerted antiviral ability against PDCoV infection in vitro. The viral cycle and time-of-addition analyses showed that 25HC mainly restricted the early and middle periods of the PDCoV postentry stage to inhibit infection. 25HC regulated disordered cholesterol metabolism induced by PDCoV infection and stimulated interferon-related lipid droplet accumulation. Transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1), screened by bioinformatic analyses, seemed to play an important role in PDCoV infection and was downregulated by 25HC. One interesting finding is that inhibition of TGF-ß1 with the inhibitor asiaticoside exhibited a similar antiviral capacity to 25HC and demonstrated regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Taking all of the findings together, we verified the antiviral effect of 25HC on PDCoV through interference with cholesterol metabolism, which may be related to its suppression of TGFß1. IMPORTANCE As an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus in pigs, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) causes giant economic loss in the pig industry because of lethal diarrhea and possesses the potential for transmission from animals to humans. Several pieces of evidence have suggested the antiviral potential of cholesterol-25-hydroxylase and importance of cholesterol in viral infection. This study reports that 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) significantly restricted PDCoV infection through modulation of cholesterol metabolism, and we identified that lipid droplets play important roles in interferon response against virus infection. Moreover, this study identified the importance of TGF-ß1 in CoV infection by bioinformatic analysis and verified that the inhibition of TGF-ß1 showed anti-PDCoV capacity. Moreover, we uncovered the relationship between TGF-ß and cholesterol metabolism initially. Given that the importance of cholesterol in viral infection, 25HC has a great potential to treat PDCoV infection and TGF-ß1 can be a crucial antiviral target.

2.
Virus Res ; 322: 198954, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050063

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) are the main porcine enteric coronaviruses that cause severe diarrhoea in piglets, posing huge threat to the swine industry. Our previous study verified that the co-infection of PDCoV and PEDV is common in natural swine infections and obviously enhances the disease severity in piglets. However, the effects of co-infection of PDCoV and PEDV on intestinal microbial community are unknown. In current study, the microbial composition and diversity in the colon of piglets were analyzed. Our results showed that both of PDCoV and PEDV were mainly distributed in the small intestines and caused severe damage of ileum but not colon in the co-inoculated piglets. Furthermore, we observed that PDCoV and PEDV co-infection alters the gut microbiota composition at the phylum, family and genus levels. The abundance of Mitsuokella and Collinsella at genus level were significantly increased in PDCoV-PEDV co-infection piglets. Spearman's correlation analysis further suggested that there existed strong positive correlation between Mitsuokella and TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, these two factors may together aggravating the small intestine pathological lesions. These results proved there existed obvious correlation between the disease severity caused by PDCoV-PEDV co-infection and intestinal microbial community.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Coinfection/veterinary
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 972499, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029965

ABSTRACT

Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an enveloped positive-strand RNA virus that causes respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, is widely spread worldwide, but there is no effective drug or vaccine against it. This study investigated the optimal Selenium Nano-Particles (SeNPs) addition concentration (2 - 10 µg/mL) and the mechanism of PDCoV effect on ST (Swine Testis) cell apoptosis, the antagonistic effect of SeNPs on PDCoV. The results indicated that 4 µg/mL SeNPs significantly decreased PDCoV replication on ST cells. SeNPs relieved PDCoV-induced mitochondrial division and antagonized PDCoV-induced apoptosis via decreasing Cyt C release and Caspase 9 and Caspase 3 activation. The above results provided an idea and experimental basis associated with anti-PDCoV drug development and clinical use.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Selenium , Swine Diseases , Animals , Apoptosis , Coronavirus/physiology , Male , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Swine
4.
Acta Microbiologica Sinica ; 7(23), 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025659

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study is to screen an ideal adjuvant for an inactivated porcine deltacoronavirus(PDCoV) vaccine to induce mucosal immunity and reduce the side effect of the vaccine. We used different mucosal adjuvants to prepare the inactivated PDCoV vaccines. We then used mouse model to evaluate the humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses induced by the inactivated vaccines via different immunization routes.

5.
Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica ; 53(7):2260-2267, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025546

ABSTRACT

The C-terminal domain (CTD) of porcine deltacoronavirus S1 subunit is the main region which induces the neutralizing antibody. S1-CTD was expressed by HEK-293T eukaryotic expression system and purified, and porcine ileal epithelium cells membrane proteins were extracted to investigate porcine host proteins that interact with it. Thirty-two suspected interacting host proteins were obtained by co-inmunprecipitation (Co-IP) and mass spectrometry. Eukaryotic expression plasmid of KIF1 binding protein (KIFBP) was constructed, and the interaction between KIFBP and S1-CTD was identified by Co-IP and laser confocal microscopy. All results proved that KIFBP interacted with S1-CTD and co-located in cytoplasm. Further research indicated that overexpression of KIFBP could effectively reduce the viral mRNA level and the viral titer in which the mRNA level decreased by about 70%, and the viral titer decreased by 101.6TCID50. In conclusion, a host protein KIFBP interacting with PDCoV S1-CTD was screened and identified in this study which provides a theoretical basis for understanding the pathogenesis of PDCoV.

6.
Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica ; 53(6):2024-2028, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025545

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the proliferation characteristics of porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) in suspension cultured porcine kidney cells LLC-PK1, so as to provide Candidate cell for large-scale production of PDCoV inactivated vaccine. LLC-PK1 cells were suspended by gradually decreasing serum method. PDCoV adaptive monoclonal cell lines were screened by limited dilution method. Indirect immunofluorescence method was used to identify the infectivity of PDCoV. The initial cell density, MOI, time of receiving virus collection and TPCK pancreatin concentration were screened to determine the best suspension culture conditions. The suspension cell strain LLC-PK1Sa which can proliferate PDCoV efficiently was screened out;PDCoV can specifically infect LLC-PK1 cells;PDCoV inoculated LLC-PK1Sa cells with a density of 2 x 106 cells.mL-1 according to the MOI of 10-3, When the final concentration of TPCK pancreatin reached 7.5 g.mL-1, the titer of virus solution harvested 48 h after inoculation was the highest. In this study, the efficient proliferation of PDCoV in LLC-PK1Sa suspension cells was realized for the first time, and the suspension culture conditions were preliminarily optimized, which could provide theoretical reference for large-scale production of PDCoV inactivated vaccine.

7.
Virulence ; 13(1): 1471-1485, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017508

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogen causing severe diarrhoea, dehydration, and death in nursing piglets and enormous economic losses for the global swine industry. Furthermore, it can infect multiple animal species including humans. Therefore, a rapid, definitive diagnostic assay is required for the effective control of this zoonotic pathogen. To identify PDCoV, we developed a nucleic acid detection assay combining reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification (RT-RAA) with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) targeting the highly conserved genomic region in the ORF1b gene. The RT-RAA-LFD assay exhibited good PDCoV detection reproducibility and repeatability and could be completed within 11 min. Ten minutes at 40 °C was required for nucleic acid amplification and 1 min at room temperature was needed for the visual LFD readout. The assay specifically detected PDCoV and did not cross-react with any other major swine pathogens. The 95% limit of detection (LOD) was 3.97 median tissue culture infectious dose PDCoV RNA per reaction. This performance was comparable to that of a reference TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR (trRT-PCR) assay for PDCoV. Of 149 swine small intestine, rectal swab, and serum samples, 71 and 75 tested positive for PDCoV according to RT-RAA-LFD and trRT-PCR, respectively. The diagnostic coincidence rate for both assays was 97.32% (145/149) and the kappa value was 0.946 (p < 0.001). Overall, the RT-RAA-LFD assay is a user-friendly diagnostic tool that can rapidly and visually detect PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Nucleic Acids , Recombinases , Animals , Deltacoronavirus , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Recombinases/genetics , Recombinases/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcription , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
8.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010308

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogen which mainly causes diarrhea, dehydration and death in nursing piglets, threatening the global swine industry. Moreover, it can infect multiple animal species and humans. Hence, reliable diagnostic assays are needed to better control this zoonotic pathogen. Here, a blocking ELISA was developed using a recombinant nucleocapsid (N) protein as the coating antigen paired with an N-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) as the detection antibody. The percent inhibition (PI) of the ELISA was determined using 384 swine serum samples, with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) as the reference method. Through receiver operating characteristic analysis in conjunction with Youden's index, the optimal PI cut-off value was determined to be 51.65%, which corresponded to a diagnostic sensitivity of 98.79% and a diagnostic specificity of 100%. Of the 330 serum samples tested positive via IFA, 326 and 4 were tested positive and negative via the ELISA, respectively, while the 54 serum samples tested negative via IFA were all negative via the ELISA. The overall coincidence rate between the two assays was 98.96% (380/384). The ELISA exhibited good repeatability and did not cross-react with antisera against other swine pathogens. Overall, this is the first report on developing a blocking ELISA for PDCoV serodiagnosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Swine
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 274: 109551, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996617

ABSTRACT

Viroporins are virus-encoded proteins that mediate ion channel (IC) activity, playing critical roles in virus entry, replication, pathogenesis, and immune evasion. Previous studies have shown that some coronavirus accessory proteins have viroporin-like activity. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that encodes three accessory proteins, NS6, NS7, and NS7a. However, whether any of the PDCoV accessory proteins possess viroporin-like activity, and if so which, remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the biochemical properties of the three PDCoV-encoded accessory proteins and found that NS7a could enhance the membrane permeability of both mammalian cells and Escherichia coli cells. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay results further indicated that NS7a is an integral membrane protein and can form homo-oligomers. A bioinformation analysis revealed that a putative viroporin domain (VPD) is located within amino acids 69-88 (aa69-88) of NS7a. Experiments with truncated mutants and alanine scanning mutagenesis additionally demonstrated that the amino acid residues 69FLR71 of NS7a are essential for its viroporin-like activity. Together, our findings are the first to demonstrate that PDCoV NS7a possesses viroporin-like activity and identify its key amino acid residues associated with viroporin-like activity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Swine Diseases , Swine , Animals , Viroporin Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Amino Acids/metabolism , Alanine/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Ion Channels/metabolism , Mammals
10.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(9):1147-1158, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994654

ABSTRACT

To understand the genetic diversity of porcine deltacoronavirus(PDCo V) in Guangxi Province, clinical diarrhea samples were collected from suspected piglets in Guangxi Province from2017 to 2019, detected by RT-PCR for PDCoV, and the positive samples were used for amplification and sequence of S, M, N genes. Finally, 16 S, M and N gene sequences of PDCoV were obtained. Homology analysis showed that the S, M, N gene nucleotide identity among Guangxi strains were 95.8% -99.9%, 95.9%-100% and 97.9%-99.9%, respectively. The nucleotide identity of S, M and N genes among Guangxi strains and other reference strains were 95.1%-100%, 95.0%-100%and 96.3%-99.9%, respectively. Sequence alignment showed that S1 protein existed amino acid mutations and insertions, and there were some variations among different epidemic strains. Phylogenetic trees based on S, M and N genes obtained similar topological diagram and all strains could be divided into Group I, Group II and GroupIII, of which Group I came from USA, Japan and Korea, Group II came from China, and Group III came from China, Vietnam, Laos and Thailand. Most strains from Guangxi Province distributed in Group II, individual strain distributed in Group III and some strains formed a single small branch. The evolutionary rates of S, M and N genes of Guangxi strains and other reference strains were 2.57 x 10-4, 2.07 x 10-4, 1.70 x 10-4 substitutions/site/year, respectively, showing that the evolutionary rate of S gene was the fastest. The results indicated that the S, M, N genes of PDCo V strains from Guangxi Province had some variations and existed genetic diversity.

11.
Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica ; 53(5):1587-1597, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994513

ABSTRACT

HEK293 cells were used as the cell model to investigate the role of human aminopeptidase N (hAPN) in the invasion of porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) into human cells. The proliferation of PDCoV on HEK293 cells was firstly identified by RT-qPCR/RT-PCR. And then, hAPN knockout cell line was constructed by CRISPR/Cas9 technology and cell viability of HEK293 hAPN knockout and wild-type cells was verified by CCK-8 assay. Effect of hAPN knockout and overexpression on PDCoV replication was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. Meanwhile, interaction of PDCoV S protein and hAPN protein was analyzed by homology modeling and molecular docking. Results showed that PDCoV virus copies rapidly increased at 12-36 h and reached peak level at 36 h, it could propagate at least for passage 2 on HEK293 cells. There was no significant difference in cell viability between hAPN knockout cells and wild-type cells. Knockout of hAPN inhibit PDCoV replication and overexpression of hAPN enhance PDCoV replication. Homology modeling and molecular docking analysis showed S1 protein could bind hAPN domain II. Residues TYR92, THR51, THR48, PHE16 and MET14of S1 protein receptor binding motif 1 (RBM1) can form hydrogen bonds with residues PHE490, GLN531, ARG528 and SER529 of hAPN. This study indicates that hAPN plays a critical role in HEK293 cells during PDCoV infection, which provides new theoretical evidence for further studies on the mechanism of PDCoV entry into host cells and cross-species transmission.

12.
Microb Pathog ; 170: 105723, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983663

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emenging swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that can cause high mortality rate. It affects pigs of all ages, but most several in neonatal piglets. Little is known regarding the pathogenicity of PDCoV against 27-day-old piglets. In this study, 27-day-old piglets were experimentally infected with PDCoV CZ2020 from cell culture, the challenged piglets do not have obvious symptoms from 1 to 7 days post-challenge (DPC), while viral shedding was detected in rectal swab at 1 DPC. Tissues of small intestines displayed slight macroscopic and microscopic lesions with no viral antigen detection. On the other hand, 27-day-old piglets were infected with PDCoV from intestinal contents, the piglets developed mild to severe diarrhea, shedding increasing from 2 to 7 DPC, and developed macroscopic and microscopic lesions in small intestines with clear viral antigen confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. Indicating the small intestine was still the major target organ in PDCoV-challenged pigs at the age of 27-day-old. Diarrhea caused by PDCoV from intestinal contents in 27-day-old piglets is less reported. Thus, our results might provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Swine Diseases , Animals , Cell Culture Techniques , Deltacoronavirus , Diarrhea/pathology , Gastrointestinal Contents , Swine , Virulence
13.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 896416, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979079

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) causes watery diarrhea, vomiting, and 30-40% mortality in newborn piglets. A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for PDCoV detection is valuable in its surveillance and control. Here, we developed a novel, cleaved probe-based reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (CP-RT-LAMP) method for PDCoV detection. A cleaved probe with a ribonucleotide insertion that targeted the N gene of PDCoV was designed. During the reaction, the enzyme ribonuclease H2 is activated only when the cleaved probe is perfectly complementary to the template, leading to the hydrolytic release of a quencher moiety and signal output. This method can be easily used on a real-time fluorescence quantitative equipment or an on-site isothermal instrument combined with a smartphone. The specificity assay showed no cross-reactivity with other porcine enteric pathogens. This method had a detection limit of 25 copies/µL, suggesting comparable sensitivity with reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In detecting 100 clinical samples (48 fecal swab specimens and 52 intestinal specimens), the detection rate of the CP-RT-LAMP method (26%) was higher than that of RT-qPCR (17%). Thus, it is a highly specific and sensitive diagnostic method for PDCoV, with a great application potential for monitoring PDCoV in the laboratory or point-of-care testing in the field.

14.
J Virol ; 96(16): e0102722, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973796

ABSTRACT

Protein acetylation plays an important role during virus infection. Thus, it is not surprising that viruses always evolve elaborate mechanisms to regulate the functions of histone deacetylases (HDACs), the essential transcriptional and epigenetic regulators for deacetylation. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets and has the potential to infect humans. In this study, we found that PDCoV infection inhibited cellular HDAC activity. By screening the expressions of different HDAC subfamilies after PDCoV infection, we unexpectedly found that HDAC2 was cleaved. Ectopic expression of HDAC2 significantly inhibited PDCoV replication, while the reverse effects could be observed after treatment with an HDAC2 inhibitor (CAY10683) or the knockdown of HDAC2 expression by specific siRNA. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PDCoV-encoded nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5), a 3C-like protease, was responsible for HDAC2 cleavage through its protease activity. Detailed analyses showed that PDCoV nsp5 cleaved HDAC2 at glutamine 261 (Q261), and the cleaved fragments (amino acids 1 to 261 and 262 to 488) lost the ability to inhibit PDCoV replication. Interestingly, the Q261 cleavage site is highly conserved in HDAC2 homologs from other mammalian species, and the nsp5s encoded by seven tested mammalian coronaviruses also cleaved HDAC2, suggesting that cleaving HDAC2 may be a common strategy used by different mammalian coronaviruses to antagonize the antiviral role of HDAC2. IMPORTANCE As an emerging porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus that possesses the potential to infect humans, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is receiving increasing attention. In this work, we found that PDCoV infection downregulated cellular histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Of particular interest, the viral 3C-like protease, encoded by the PDCoV nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5), cleaved HDAC2, and this cleavage could be observed in the context of PDCoV infection. Furthermore, the cleavage of HDAC2 appears to be a common strategy among mammalian coronaviruses, including the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), to antagonize the antiviral role of HDAC2. To our knowledge, PDCoV nsp5 is the first identified viral protein that can cleave cellular HDAC2. Results from our study provide new targets to develop drugs combating coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deltacoronavirus/metabolism , Histone Deacetylase 2/metabolism , Swine Diseases , Animals , Humans , Mammals , Peptide Hydrolases , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5723-5738, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971295

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that causes diarrhea in suckling piglets and has the potential for cross-species transmission, posing a threat to animal and human health. However, the susceptibility profile of different species of mice to PDCoV infection and its evolutionary characteristics are still unclear. In the current study, we found that BALB/c and Kunming mice are susceptible to PDCoV. Our results showed that there were obvious lesions in intestinal and lung tissues from the infected mice. PDCoV RNAs were detected in the lung, kidney, and intestinal tissues from the infected mice of both strains, and there existed wider tissue tropism in the PDCoV-infected BALB/c mice. The RNA and protein levels of aminopeptidase N from mice were relatively high in the kidney and intestinal tissues and obviously increased after PDCoV infection. The viral-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against PDCoV were detected in the serum of infected mice. An interesting finding was that two key amino acid mutations, D138H and Q641K, in the S protein were identified in the PDCoV-infected mice. The essential roles of these two mutations for PDCoV-adaptive evolution were confirmed by cryo-electron microscope structure model analysis. The evolutionary characteristics of PDCoV among Deltacoronaviruses (δ-CoVs) were further analyzed. δ-CoVs from multiple mammals are closely related based on the phylogenetic analysis. The codon usage analysis demonstrated that similar codon usage patterns were used by most of the mammalian δ-CoVs at the global codon, synonymous codon, and amino acid usage levels. These results may provide more insights into the evolution, host ranges, and cross-species potential of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Amino Acids , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , CD13 Antigens/genetics , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Deltacoronavirus , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Phylogeny , RNA , Swine
16.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases ; 69(2):632-644, 2022.
Article in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-1971026

ABSTRACT

BIRDS : The variety and widespread of coronavirus in natural reservoir animals is likely to cause epidemics via interspecific transmission, which has attracted much attention due to frequent coronavirus epidemics in recent decades. Birds are natural reservoir of various viruses, but the existence of coronaviruses in wild birds in central China has been barely studied. Some bird coronaviruses belong to the genus of Deltacoronavirus. To explore the diversity of bird deltacoronaviruses in central China, we tested faecal samples from 415 wild birds in Hunan Province, China. By RT-PCR detection, we identified eight samples positive for deltacoronaviruses which were all from common magpies, and in four of them, we successfully amplified complete deltacoronavirus genomes distinct from currently known deltacoronavirus, indicating four novel deltacoronavirus stains (HNU1-1, HNU1-2, HNU2 and HNU3). Comparative analysis on the four genomic sequences showed that these novel magpie deltacoronaviruses shared three different S genes among which the S genes of HNU1-1 and HNU1-2 showed 93.8% amino acid (aa) identity to that of thrush coronavirus HKU12, HNU2 S showed 71.9% aa identity to that of White-eye coronavirus HKU16, and HNU3 S showed 72.4% aa identity to that of sparrow coronavirus HKU17. Recombination analysis showed that frequent recombination events of the S genes occurred among these deltacoronavirus strains. Two novel putative cleavage sites separating the non-structural proteins in the HNU coronaviruses were found. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis showed that the south coast of China might be a potential origin of bird deltacoronaviruses existing in inland China. In summary, these results suggest that common magpie in China carries diverse deltacoronaviruses with novel genomic features, indicating an important source of environmental coronaviruses closed to human communities, which may provide key information for prevention and control of future coronavirus epidemics

17.
Journal of Swine Health and Production ; 30(3):145-148, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1970073

ABSTRACT

Using retrospective data from 6 breedto- wean herds over 4 years, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) statuses were assigned by week according to the 2021 American Association of Swine Veterinarians PRRSV classification. Productivity changes were characterized as herds transitioned through status categories. Overall, productivity improved as farm status improved.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 895741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952425

ABSTRACT

Deltacoronavirus (DCoV) is a genus of coronavirus (CoV) commonly found in avian and swine, but some DCoVs are capable of infecting humans, which causes the concern about interspecies transmission of DCoVs. Thus, monitoring the existence of DCoVs in animals near communities is of great importance for epidemic prevention. Black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) are common migratory birds inhabiting in most urban and rural wetlands of Yunnan Province, China, which is a typical habitat for black-headed gulls to overwinter. Whether Yunnan black-headed gulls carry CoV has never been determined. In this study, we identified three strains of DCoVs in fecal samples of Yunnan black-headed gulls by reverse-transcriptional PCR and sequenced their whole genomes. Genomic analysis revealed that these three strains shared genomic identity of more than 99%, thus named DCoV HNU4-1, HNU4-2, and HNU4-3; their NSP12 showed high similarity of amino acid sequence to the homologs of falcon coronavirus UAE-HKU27 (HKU27), houbara coronavirus UAE-HKU28 (HKU28), and pigeon coronavirus UAE-HKU29 (HKU29). Since both HKU28 and HKU29 were found in Dubai, there might be cross-border transmission of these avian DCoVs through specific routes. Further coevolutionary analysis supported this speculation that HNU4 (or its ancestors) in black-headed gulls originated from HKU28 (or its homologous strain) in houbara, which was interspecies transmission between two different avian orders. In addition, interspecies transmission of DCoV, from houbara to falcon, pigeon and white-eye, from sparrow to common-magpie, and quail and mammal including porcine and Asian leopard cat, from munia to magpie-robin, was predicted. This is the first report of black-headed gull DCoV in Asia which was highly homolog to other avian DCoVs, and the very "active" host-switching events in DCoV were predicted, which provides important reference for the study of spread and transmission of DCoVs.

19.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology ; 54(4):1899-1904, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904009

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus consists of single-stranded, enveloped and RNA virus, largest genome among all RNA viruses and has 4 proteins i.e. envelope, spike, nucleocapsid and membrane. Coronaviruses are classified into 4 genera: Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. Betacoronavirus most probably originated from bats and the virus may have jumped to avian species and evolved as Deltacoronavirus group. The avian coronaviruses jumped among other avian species, giving rise to Gammacoronavirus from Deltacoronavirus, while Betacoronavirus may have given rise to Alphacoronavirus. It is known that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Betacoronavirus. This most similar virus is verified in bat and Malayan Pangolin. Analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 most probably originated by recombination of both bat and pangolin viruses. Viral protein seroconversion and viral specific nucleotide positive documented in all COVID-19 patients tested provides confirmation of a link between the presence of this virus and the disease.

20.
Vet Microbiol ; 271: 109494, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886124

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that has the potential for cross-species infection. Many viruses have been reported to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR). To date, little is known about whether and, if so, how the UPR is activated by PDCoV infection. Here, we investigated the activation state of UPR pathways and their effects on viral replication during PDCoV infection. We found that PDCoV infection induced ERS and activated all three known UPR pathways (inositol-requiring enzyme 1 [IRE1], activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], and PKR-like ER kinase [PERK]), as demonstrated by IRE1-mediated XBP1 mRNA cleavage and increased mRNA expression of XBP1s, ATF4, CHOP, GADD34, GRP78, and GRP94, as well as phosphorylated eIF2α expression. Through pharmacologic treatment, RNA interference, and overexpression experiments, we confirmed the negative role of the PERK-eIF2α pathway and the positive regulatory role of the ATF6 pathway, but found no obvious effect of IRE1 pathway, on PDCoV replication. Taken together, our results characterize, for the first time, the state of the ERS response during PDCoV infection and identify the PERK and ATF6 pathways as potential antiviral targets.


Subject(s)
Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Unfolded Protein Response , Animals , Deltacoronavirus , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Swine , eIF-2 Kinase/genetics , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism
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