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Indian Journal of Neurotrauma ; 20(1):55-56, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2317413
Neurol India ; 71(2): 209-227, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314756


Indian data regarding serious neurological and psychiatric adverse events, following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, are lacking. We, therefore, systematically evaluated cases of post-vaccinal serious neurological and psychiatric adverse reactions published from India. A systematic review of cases published from India, which were archived in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases, was performed; pre-print databases along with ahead-of-print contents were searched in addition. Retrieved articles, as on June 27, 2022, were evaluated following PRISMA guidelines. EndNote 20 web tool was used to make a PRISMA flow chart. Individual patients' data were compiled in a tabular form. The protocol of the systematic review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022324183). A total of 64 records describing 136 instances of serious neurological and psychiatric adverse events were identified. More than 50% (36/64) reports were from the following four states, namely, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, New Delhi, and West Bengal. The mean age of persons developing these complications was 44.89 ± 15.77 years. In the majority, adverse events occurred within 2 weeks of administration of the first dose of COVISHIELD vaccine. Immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) disorders were identified in 54 instances. Guillain-Barre syndrome and other immune-mediated peripheral neuropathies were reported in 21 cases. Post-vaccinal herpes zoster was recorded in 31 vaccine recipients. Psychiatric adverse events were recorded in six patients. In Indian recipients of COVID-19 vaccine, a variety of serious neurological complications were reported. The overall risk appears minuscule. Immune-mediated central and peripheral neuronal demyelinations were the most frequently reported post-vaccinal adverse events. A large number of cases of herpes zoster have also been reported. Immune-mediated disorders responded well to immunotherapy.

COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Herpes Zoster , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/complications
Neurol Sci ; 44(5): 1505-1513, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309853


IMPORTANCE: Vaccines are a safe and efficacious way to prevent a variety of infectious diseases. Over the course of their existence, vaccines have prevented immeasurable morbidity and mortality in humans. Typical symptoms of systemic immune activation are common after vaccines and may include local soreness, myalgias, nausea, and malaise. In the vast majority of cases, the severity of the infectious disease outweighs the risk of mild adverse reactions to vaccines. Rarely, vaccines may be associated with neurological sequela that ranges in severity from headache to transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). Often, a causal link cannot be confirmed, and it remains unclear if disease onset is directly related to a recent vaccination. OBSERVATIONS: This review serves to summarize reported neurologic sequelae of commonly used vaccines. It will also serve to discuss potential pathogenesis. It is important to note that many adverse events or reactions to vaccines are self-reported into databases, and causal proof cannot be obtained. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Recognition of reported adverse effects of vaccines plays an important role in public health and education. Early identification of these symptoms can allow for rapid diagnosis and potential treatment. Vaccines are a safe option for prevention of infectious diseases.

Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Myelitis, Transverse , Vaccines , Humans , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/chemically induced , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/chemically induced , Myelitis, Transverse/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders ; Conference: Abstracts of The Seventh MENACTRIMS Congress. Intercontinental City Stars Hotel, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2302969
Transcriptomics in Health and Disease, Second Edition ; : 249-275, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2293585
Neuroimmunology Reports ; 2 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2291036
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders ; Conference: Abstracts of The Seventh MENACTRIMS Congress. Intercontinental City Stars Hotel, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2290459
Cureus ; 15(3): e36387, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302845


Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is an uncommon form of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a neurological condition that is acquired, degenerative, demyelinating, and frequently characterized by gradual, symmetrical ascending paralysis. Ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia are common symptoms that follow a bacterial or viral infection. Here, we want to draw attention to a rare case of MFS in a 45-year-old Indian female who had dysphagia, dysphasia, ataxia, and dyskinesia while moving around. Unusually, she had no past medical history of Campylobacter jejuni infection, recent vaccinations, upper respiratory tract infections, or any sexually transmitted diseases. Since this disorder has excellent prognosis, early diagnosis and effective treatment are crucial to minimizing unnecessary medical intervention and psychological suffering.

Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295060


Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare immune-mediated acute polyradiculo-neuropathy that typically develops after a previous gastrointestinal or respiratory infection. This narrative overview aims to summarise and discuss current knowledge and previous evidence regarding triggers and pathophysiology of GBS. A systematic search of the literature was carried out using suitable search terms. The most common subtypes of GBS are acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). The most common triggers of GBS, in three quarters of cases, are previous infections. The most common infectious agents that cause GBS include Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and cytomegalovirus. C. jejuni is responsible for about a third of GBS cases. GBS due to C. jejuni is usually more severe than that due to other causes. Clinical presentation of GBS is highly dependent on the structure of pathogenic lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) that trigger the innate immune system via Toll-like-receptor (TLR)-4 signalling. AIDP is due to demyelination, whereas in AMAN, structures of the axolemma are affected in the nodal or inter-nodal space. In conclusion, GBS is a neuro-immunological disorder caused by autoantibodies against components of the myelin sheath or axolemma. Molecular mimicry between surface structures of pathogens and components of myelin or the axon is one scenario that may explain the pathophysiology of GBS.

Campylobacter jejuni , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , Amantadine , Autoantibodies , Axons/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 9-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278901


BACKGROUND: Albeit primarily a disease of respiratory tract, the 2019 coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) has been found to have causal association with a plethora of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological effects. This review aims to analyze them with a discussion of evolving therapeutic recommendations. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020 with the following key terms: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "pandemic", "neuro-COVID", "stroke-COVID", "epilepsy-COVID", "COVID-encephalopathy", "SARS-CoV-2-encephalitis", "SARS-CoV-2-rhabdomyolysis", "COVID-demyelinating disease", "neurological manifestations", "psychosocial manifestations", "treatment recommendations", "COVID-19 and therapeutic changes", "psychiatry", "marginalised", "telemedicine", "mental health", "quarantine", "infodemic" and "social media". A few newspaper reports related to COVID-19 and psychosocial impacts have also been added as per context. RESULTS: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are abundant. Clinical features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement are evident. These have been categorically analyzed briefly with literature support. Most of the psychological effects are secondary to pandemic-associated regulatory, socioeconomic and psychosocial changes. CONCLUSION: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of this disease are only beginning to unravel. This demands a wide index of suspicion for prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to prevent further complications and mortality.

Les impacts neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques d'une infection à la COVID-19. CONTEXTE: Bien qu'il s'agisse principalement d'une maladie des voies respiratoires, la maladie infectieuse à coronavirus apparue en 2019 (COVID-19) s'est avérée avoir un lien de causalité avec une pléthore d'impacts d'ordre neurologique, neuropsychiatrique et psychologique. Cette étude entend donc analyser ces impacts tout en discutant l'évolution des recommandations thérapeutiques se rapportant à cette maladie. MÉTHODES: Les bases de données PubMed et Google Scholar ont été interrogées entre les 1er janvier et 30 mai 2020. Les termes clés suivants ont été utilisés : « COVID-19 ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ¼, « Pandémie ¼, « Neuro ­ COVID ¼, « AVC ­ COVID ¼, « Épilepsie ­ COVID ¼, « COVID ­ encéphalopathie ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ encéphalite ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ rhabdomyolyse ¼, « COVID ­ maladie démyélinisante ¼, « Manifestations neurologiques ¼, « Manifestations psychosociales ¼, « Recommandations thérapeutiques ¼, « COVID-19 et changement thérapeutiques ¼, « Psychiatrie ¼, « Marginalisés ¼, « Télémédecine ¼, « Santé mentale ¼, « Quarantaine ¼, « Infodémique ¼ et « Médias sociaux ¼. De plus, quelques articles de journaux relatifs à la pandémie de COVID-19 et à ses impacts psychosociaux ont également été ajoutés en fonction du contexte. RÉSULTATS: Il appert que les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques des infections à la COVID-19 sont nombreuses. Les caractéristiques cliniques d'une implication des systèmes nerveux central et périphérique sautent désormais aux yeux. Ces caractéristiques ont fait l'objet d'une brève analyse systématique à l'aide de publications scientifiques. En outre, la plupart des impacts d'ordre psychologique de cette pandémie se sont révélés moins apparents que les changements réglementaires, socioéconomiques et psychosociaux. CONCLUSION: Les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques de cette maladie ne font que commencer à être élucidées. Cela exige donc une capacité accrue de vigilance en vue d'un diagnostic rapide, et ce, afin de prévenir des complications additionnelles et une mortalité accrue.

COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Brain Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebellar Ataxia/etiology , Cerebellar Ataxia/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Demyelinating Diseases/therapy , Disease Management , Dizziness/etiology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Epilepsy/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Meningoencephalitis/etiology , Meningoencephalitis/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/physiopathology , Myoclonus/etiology , Myoclonus/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Viral Tropism
Neuroimmunology Reports ; 2 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2267708
Russian Neurological Journal ; 27(5):69-72, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2266737
Russian Neurological Journal ; 27(5):69-72, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2266736
Russian Neurological Journal ; 27(5):69-72, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2266735
The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ; 52(1):32, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2266182
Neuroimmunology Reports ; 1 (no pagination), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2264113
Coronaviruses ; 3(3) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2250390
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology Conference: 34th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Neuroimmunology, JSNI Yokohama Japan ; 14(1), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2249863