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1.
Curr Med Chem ; 2022 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the last few years in silico tools, including drug repurposing coupled with structure-based virtual screening, have been extensively employed to look for anti-COVID-19 agents. OBJECTIVE: The present review aims to provide readers with a portrayal of computational approaches that could conduct more quickly and cheaply to novel anti-viral agents. Particular attention is given to docking-based virtual screening. METHOD: The World Health Organization website was consulted to gain the latest information on SARS-CoV-2, its novel variants and their interplay with COVID-19 severity and treatment options. The Protein Data Bank was explored to look for 3D coordinates of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in their free and bound states, in the wild-types and mutated forms. Recent literature related to in silico studies focused on SARS-CoV-2 proteins was searched through PubMed. RESULTS: A large amount of work has been devoted thus far to computationally targeting viral entry and searching for inhibitors of the S-protein/ACE2 receptor complex. Another large area of investigation is linked to in silico identification of molecules able to block viral proteases -including Mpro- thus avoiding maturation of proteins crucial for virus life cycle. Such computational studies have explored the inhibitory potential of the most diverse molecule databases (including plant extracts, dietary compounds, FDA approved drugs). CONCLUSION: More efforts need to be dedicated in the close future to experimentally validate the therapeutic power of in silico identified compounds in order to catch, among the wide ensemble of computational hits, novel therapeutics to prevent and/or treat COVID-19.

2.
Children (Basel) ; 8(6)2021 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234932

ABSTRACT

The initial bedside care of premature babies with an intact cord has been shown to reduce mortality; there is evidence that resuscitation of term babies with an intact cord may also improve outcomes. This process has been facilitated by the development of bedside resuscitation surfaces. These new devices are unaffordable, however, in most of sub-Saharan Africa, where 42% of the world's 2.4 million annual newborn deaths occur. This paper describes the rationale and design of BabySaver, an innovative low-cost mobile resuscitation unit, which was developed iteratively over five years in a collaboration between the Sanyu Africa Research Institute (SAfRI) in Uganda and the University of Liverpool in the UK. The final BabySaver design comprises two compartments; a tray to provide a firm resuscitation surface, and a base to store resuscitation equipment. The design was formed while considering contextual factors, using the views of individual women from the community served by the local hospitals, medical staff, and skilled birth attendants in both Uganda and the UK.

3.
Int J Technol Des Educ ; : 1-32, 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236342

ABSTRACT

Design education has traditionally been deemed a face-to-face endeavor causing online learning to be disregarded as a viable teaching option. Nonetheless, the recent impact of COVID-19 pressured design schools to rapidly migrate online, impelling many educators to utilize this unfamiliar and largely dismissed methodology. The impending problems exposed with this sudden shift point to a significant gap in research. Accordingly, this study proposes a set of guidelines targeting design knowledge-building, based on an in-depth look at student experience during an online design course. Data were collected through a 63-item course efficiency survey (n = 59) and a series of semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 16) with the enrolled students. The following overarching themes emerged through iterative thematic analysis of the interview data: (1) flexibility and handling stress, (2) managing self-pacing issues (3) formal conversation platform, (4) content variety and access options. The themes were interpreted in relation to the survey findings and the broader research on learning. The proposed guidelines emphasize initially clear goals and objectives, pacing flexibility with progress guidance, content and communication variety, sense of presence and peer exposure, and individualized feedback. It is expected that the guidelines will be helpful in building, conducting, and evaluating future online design knowledge-building experiences.

4.
Int J Technol Des Educ ; : 1-25, 2022 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236281

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic instigated a rapid shift to remote learning in schools of architecture in the United Kingdom. Through the largest survey of its kind of architectural students and tutors in the UK, this research compares experiences in the physical design studio and its remote equivalent. The context of the pandemic provided a unique opportunity to survey a range of cohorts, at different stages in their architectural education to compare these two modes of studio delivery. The findings show a fall in student satisfaction after the move to remote learning in every metric assessed. Peer interaction and support were particularly effected. More formal teaching interactions, such as reviews, crits and tutorials, also suffered but to a lesser extent. For teaching staff, some small improvements in the working environment were observed as well as organisational factors. However, these small gains were outweighed by the negative changes. The research suggests that despite the replication of teaching activities digitally, the situated learning of design education and the facilitation of informal learning scenarios are critical components of design education. This research contributes to the ongoing characterisation of architectural education's signature pedagogy and suggests that for effective remote learning, design studio education must be reconceptualised, and alternative pedagogies embraced. This can direct educators looking to develop remote design studio learning as well as highlighting areas in which the traditional model of architectural education may be enhanced.

5.
J Sci Educ Technol ; 31(2): 258-271, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235928

ABSTRACT

Prompted by the sudden shift to remote instruction in March 2020 brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers explored online resources to support their students learning from home. We report on how twelve teachers identified and creatively leveraged open educational resources (OERs) and practices to facilitate self-directed science learning. Based on interviews and logged data, we illustrate how teachers' use of OER starkly differed from the typical uses of technology for transmitting information or increasing productivity. These experiences provide insights into ways teachers and professional developers can take advantage of OER to promote self-directed learning when in-person instruction resumes.

6.
AIP Conference Proceedings ; 2685, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20245368

ABSTRACT

With the continuous improvement of living standards, people pay more attention to the knowledge of medical health than before. The knowledge also brings the popularity and development of medical information. However, in the information age of today, tedious and redundant information floods people's lives make it impossible for people to quickly understand and grasp the content they need. Especially after the outbreak of the COVID-19, apart from the epidemic, the large amount of generated medical waste has become an issue of concern, but the current publicity of related knowledge is difficult to resonate with people. After collecting and reconstructing the knowledge about medical waste, a visual information hierarchy design is established to reflect the hierarchical relationships between different medical waste information intuitively and clearly through such a visual presentation. Thus, people better understand and learn them. At the same time, it helps people to put into action together for the disposal of medical waste and provide solutions for the visualization design of rapid and professional sorting and treatment of the increasing amount of medical waste. © 2023 Author(s).

7.
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20245332

ABSTRACT

Large crowds in public transit stations and vehicles introduce obstacles for wayfinding, hygiene, and physical distancing. Public displays that currently provide on-site transit information could also provide critical crowdedness information. Therefore, we examined people's crowd perceptions and information preferences before and during the pandemic, and designs for visualizing crowdedness to passengers. We first report survey results with public transit users (n = 303), including the usability results of three crowdedness visualization concepts. Then, we present two animated crowd simulations on public displays that we evaluated in a field study (n = 44). We found that passengers react very positively to crowding information, especially before boarding a vehicle. Visualizing the exact physical spaces occupied on transit vehicles was most useful for avoiding crowded areas. However, visualizing the overall fullness of vehicles was the easiest to understand. We discuss design implications for communicating crowding information to support decision-making and promote a sense of safety. © 2023 ACM.

8.
Sustainability ; 15(11):9031, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20245074

ABSTRACT

The multi-generational workforce presents challenges for organizations, as the needs and expectations of employees vary greatly between different age groups. To address this, organizations need to adapt their development and learning principles to better suit the changing workforce. The DDMT Teaching Model of Tsing Hua STEAM School, which integrates design thinking methodology, aims to address this challenge. DDMT stands for Discover, Define, Model & Modeling, and Transfer. The main aim of this study is to identify the organization development practices (OD) and gaps through interdisciplinary models such as DDMT and design thinking. In collaboration with a healthcare nursing home service provider, a proof of concept using the DDMT-DT model was conducted to understand the challenges in employment and retention of support employees between nursing homes under the healthcare organization. The paper highlights the rapid change in human experiences and mindsets in the work culture and the need for a design curriculum that is more relevant to the current and future workforce. The DDMT-DT approach can help organizations address these challenges by providing a framework for HR personnel to design training curricula that are more effective in addressing the issues of hiring and employee retention. By applying the DDMT-DT model, HR personnel can better understand the needs and motivations of the workforce and design training programs that are more relevant to their needs. The proof-of-concept research pilot project conducted with the healthcare nursing home service provider demonstrated the effectiveness of the DDMT-DT model in addressing the issues of hiring and employee retention. The project provides a valuable case study for other organizations looking to implement the DDMT-DT model in their HR practices. Overall, the paper highlights the importance of adapting HR practices to better suit the changing workforce. The DDMT-DT model provides a useful framework for organizations looking to improve their HR practices and better address the needs of their workforce.

9.
Artificial Intelligence in Covid-19 ; : 239-256, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20245007

ABSTRACT

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is contributing to the campaign against the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since 2019, more and more AI frameworks and applications in COVID-19 have been proposed, and the recent research has shown that AI is a promising technology because AI can achieve a higher degree of scalability, a more comprehensive and identification of patterns in the vast amount of unstructured and noisy data, accelerated processing power, and strategies to outperform traditional methods in many specific tasks. In this chapter, we focus on the specific AI applications in the clinical immunology/immunoinformatics for COVID-19. More precisely, on one hand, we discuss the application of deep learning in designing SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, and, on the other hand, we discuss the development of a machine learning framework for investigating the SARS-CoV-2 mutations that can help us better respond to the future mutant viruses, including designing more robust vaccines based on such AI approaches. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

10.
IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings ; 2023-March, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244833

ABSTRACT

The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission is NASA's first planetary defense mission to demonstrate the viability of kinetically impacting an asteroid and deflecting its trajectory. The DART spacecraft successfully launched on November 24, 2021 from the Vandenberg Space Force Base and successfully made impact on Dimorphos, the smaller asteroid in the Didymos system, on September 26, 2022. The DART spacecraft has one instrument called Didymos Reconnaissance and Asteroid Camera for Optical navigation (DRACO). DRACO is an imaging telescope that, in conjunction with the SMART Navigation algorithm, autonomously guided the DART spacecraft to the asteroid. Because DRACO is a mission critical and light sensitive instrument, the DRACO Door mechanism was designed as the protective cover. The door functions to shield DRACO from stray light during launch, to deploy in space once when commanded, and to stay 180 degrees open for the duration of the mission. The DRACO Door went through several iterations during the design phase with decisions on various components such as Frangibolts ®, torsion springs, hardstops, and latches. After fabrication and assembly, the door went through a rigorous environmental testing plan, which included deployment testing, vibration testing, and thermal vacuum testing. After successful qualification of the mechanism, the door was installed and integrated into the DART spacecraft. It should be noted that during the fabrication of the mechanism piece-parts, the COVID-19 pandemic began, and the effects of the pandemic were seen in the challenges faced during the DRACO door assembly and testing. Under the constraints of the pandemic, the DART spacecraft was successfully built, tested, and launched, and the DRACO door was successfully deployed on December 7, 2021. The door has continued to function as intended. This paper will discuss the design choices behind the door components, the environmental qualification test program, and the installation of the door onto the DART spacecraft. In addition, this paper will discuss the lessons learned and the challenges of fabricating and testing the flight hardware. © 2023 IEEE.

11.
Cancer Research Conference: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, ACCR ; 83(7 Supplement), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244699

ABSTRACT

Cultural competency is the ability to respectfully engage, understand, and communicate through conscientious interaction, enabling effective work and meaningful relationships in cross-cultural situations. Cultural competency recognizes the importance for organizations of participants' diverse social and cultural values, beliefs, and behaviors, and has gained attention because it can bridge health perspectives, understanding, and respect between health professionals and patients. There remains a need for cultural competency in healthcare as disparities persist across the U.S. in racial and ethnic minority groups who experience worse health outcomes and lower healthcare quality than the general public. Therefore, a cultural competency training curriculum was created using various resources to improve interactions between Pacific Islander patients and healthcare professionals. This training helps to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare by encouraging mutual understanding and improving patient satisfaction, adherence to medical instructions, and overall health outcomes by highlighting patient-centered care as a result of utilizing components of cultural competency. To improve patient experiences in Hawai'i, healthcare professionals need the tools to better interact with patients from different cultures, such as Pacific Islanders. This training provides healthcare professionals with culturally-based content for improving cultural competence techniques for interacting with Pacific Island patients. This training was pilot tested with key stakeholders from community organizations and Cancer Center faculty/staff. Local health clinics, providers, and practices will have the opportunity to participate in this training through a Zoombased electronic training format and be provided with three continuing medical education credits. The initial delivery of the training was intended for in-person sessions;however, a virtual format was adapted due to the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent social distancing regulations. Healthcare providers are provided pre-training resources, a pre- and post-test, and a course evaluation to determine the validity of training objectives. To date, two Federally Qualified Health Centers have been provided the training, n=60, as well as one Cancer Health Equity Partnerships' Scientific Workshop, n=40. For attendees, the analysis of correct responses from the pretest to post-test showed a significant improvement on 6 of the 12 questions. Respondents also agreed that the training resources aligned with the course objectives. Improved patient interactions from this training can help support better patient outcomes, adherence to medical advice regarding cancer screenings, and many other aspects of improving health equity for Pacific Islanders.

12.
International Medical Journal ; 30(2):96-98, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244677

ABSTRACT

Background: Pain is the main complaint felt by mothers during childbirth. Pain management can be done with non-pharma-cological techniques, one of which is using the Rebozo technique. Objective(s): This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the rebozo technique for active phase 1 labour pain in primipa-rous women. Method(s): The study used a quasi-experimental design with a pretest and posttest control group. An accidental sampling technique divided a sample of 30 people into control and intervention groups. The intervention group received Rebozo therapy, a therapy using a traditional cloth wrapped around the pelvis and buttocks with the mother kneeling, then shaking it slowly. The pain was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), ranging from 0-10. Bivariate test using Wilcoxon. Result(s): The majority of respondents were aged 21-29 years (56.7%), had high school education (83.3%) and were house-wives (50%). The majority of the control group showed moderate pain (53.3%), while the intervention group showed severe (60%). The reduction in pain in the intervention group was more significant than in the control group (2.27 > 0.73). Both the control group and the intervention group showed p < 0.001. Conclusion(s): The Rebozo technique effectively reduces labour pain in the active phase of the first stage in primiparous women. This technique is easy and inexpensive, so it can be an option for non-pharmacological therapy to treat labour pain.Copyright © 2023 Japan University of Health Sciences.

13.
Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST ; 481 LNICST:50-62, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244578

ABSTRACT

In recent years, due to the impact of COVID-19, the market prospect of non-contact handling has improved and the development potential is huge. This paper designs an intelligent truck based on Azure Kinect, which can save manpower and improve efficiency, and greatly reduce the infection risk of medical staff and community workers. The target object is visually recognized by Azure Kinect to obtain the center of mass of the target, and the GPS and Kalman filter are used to achieve accurate positioning. The 4-DOF robot arm is selected to grasp and transport the target object, so as to complete the non-contact handling work. In this paper, different shapes of objects are tested. The experiment shows that the system can accurately complete the positioning function, and the accuracy rate is 95.56%. The target object recognition is combined with the depth information to determine the distance, and the spatial coordinates of the object centroid are obtained in real time. The accuracy rate can reach 94.48%, and the target objects of different shapes can be recognized. When the target object is grasped by the robot arm, it can be grasped accurately according to the depth information, and the grasping rate reaches 92.67%. © 2023, ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

14.
Disaster Prevention and Management ; 32(1):27-48, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243949

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis paper aims to identify key factors for a contextualised Systemic Risk Governance (SRG) framework and subsequently explore how systemic risks can be managed and how local institutional mechanisms can be tweaked to deal with the complex Indonesian risk landscape.Design/methodology/approachUsing a case study from Palu triple-disasters in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, the authors demonstrate how inland earthquakes in 2018 created cascading secondary hazards, namely tsunamis, liquefactions and landslides, caused unprecedented disasters for the communities and the nation. A qualitative analysis was conducted using the data collected through a long-term observation since 2002.FindingsThe authors argue that Indonesia has yet to incorporate an SRG approach in its responses to the Palu triple-disasters. Political will is required to adopt more appropriate risk governance modes that promote the systemic risk paradigm. Change needs to occur incrementally through hybrid governance arrangements ranging from formal/informal methods to self- and horizontal and vertical modes of governance deemed more realistic and feasible. The authors recommend that this be done by focusing on productive transition and local transformation.Originality/valueThere is growing awareness and recognition of the importance of systemic and cascading risks in disaster risk studies. However, there are still gaps between research, policy and practice. The current progress of disaster risk governance is not sufficient to achieve the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015–2030) unless there is an effective governing system in place at the local level that allow actors and institutions to simultaneously manage the interplays of multi-hazards, multi-temporal, multi-dimensions of vulnerabilities and residual risks. This paper contributes to these knowledge gaps.

15.
Pharmaceutical Technology Europe ; 34(7):9-10,12,14, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243767

ABSTRACT

According to market research, the pharmaceutical packaging sector is expected to grow at a compound annual rate of 7.4% between 2022 and 2031, reaching an estimated USS178.8 billion (€171.8 billion) by the end of the forecast period (1). "Pharmaceutical waste continues to be a huge problem, so to eliminate non-biodegradable and single-use plastics from the supply chain, more research is taking place around bio-based PET [polyethylene terephthalate]. "By designing a product's primary and secondary packaging well from the outset (including investing ample resources into the process), manufacturers can reduce the amount of materials used and wasted, test new eco materials, ensure safety compliance and efficacy, and benefit from cheaper transportation costs," Quelch surmises. [...]pharma companies can benefit from a packaging supplier with a true global footprint," he says.

16.
Pharmaceutical Technology Europe ; 34(12):27-29, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243763

ABSTRACT

Dissolution testing is an integral part of pharmaceutical development, providing drug companies with the analytical ability to determine the efficacy, bioequivalence, and bioavailability of the active drug substance, as well as control quality, stability, and consistency of the final drug product. [...]there is also a shift in focus to more novel and personalized dosage forms that is happening within the bio/pharma industry, requiring modifications to many different areas of drug development and manufacturing, including dissolution testing, Spisak added. Novel formulations can pose challenges when using standard apparatus;nanoparticles, for example, are not necessarily sufficiently separated from the dissolution medium with standard techniques. [...]modification of the instrumentation, such as that found in Agilent's NanoDis system, is required to ensure an accurate prediction of in-vivo performance of the drug product can be made.

17.
Pharmaceutical Technology Europe ; 33(5):17-18,20-21, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243761

ABSTRACT

According to recent market research, the vaccines market is expected to grow at a compound annual rate of 14.7% for the forecast period of 2020-2026 (1), the growth of which has been accelerated by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Durability of glass vials at very low temperatures and permeability of plastic vials has complicated the packaging decisions as well." Since the beginning of the pandemic, the bio/pharma industry has been under pressure to produce stable formulations for effective vaccines in accelerated timescales, Blouet asserts. [...]the drive for a COVID-19 vaccine has occurred during a period of increased basic scientific understanding, such as in genomics and structural biology, supporting a new wave of vaccine development and production, she says. According to Phadnis, in addition to single-use technologies, automation for high throughput and robust analytical assays are necessary for rapid turnover during development and manufacturing of vaccines.

18.
British Food Journal ; 125(7):2663-2679, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243718

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis study evaluates the impact of online menus and perceived convenience of online food ordering on consumer purchase intention and shows how a desire for food creates a relationship between an online menu and a customer's purchase intention. Suggestions for management are proposed to design an effective menu to improve business performance in the competitive market in Vietnam.Design/methodology/approachThe paper follows a quantitative method. Quantitative research aims to analyze and critically evaluate the research question(s) to discover new factors.FindingsFindings indicate a positive relationship between menu visual appeal (MV), menu informativeness (MI), desire for food (DF), the perceived convenience (PC) of ordering food online and intention to purchase (PI). The attractiveness of images and information is a significant factor affecting diners' desire to eat, while the demand for food and the convenience of ordering food online are also factors affecting purchase intention.Practical implicationsThe study confirms the importance of online menus to purchase intention. Economically, when supply and demand are reasonable, the market is stable and technology develops. In terms of social, hygiene, attractiveness and price factors, it is helpful to have an overview. Research is the premise for further studies with factors from menu to customer trust.Originality/valueThe study provides a solid foundation for further studies on restaurant menu elements as well as a new perspective on how restaurants improve their dishes.

19.
Qualitative Research in Criminology: Cutting-Edge Methods ; : 37-49, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20243423

ABSTRACT

In this chapter we explain why it may be appropriate to use a mixed methods research design to address particular research questions. Mixed methods approaches involve at least two different forms of data collection that are combined in one study. Here we focus on a type of mixed methods research protocol called a concurrent nested design in which data from a quantitative survey are combined with qualitative data from in-depth interviews. Using as an example a recent study on prison adjustment and reentry, we explain how to implement a concurrent nested design in the field and why it is a valuable approach to use for certain research questions. Because the example study that we are using was interrupted by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, we also address how unexpected events that arise during a research endeavor can be handled to ensure the successful completion of a project. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023. All rights reserved.

20.
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20243293

ABSTRACT

Documentation can support design work and create opportunities for learning and reflection. We explore how a novel documentation tool for a remote interaction design course provides insight into design process and integrates strategies from expert practice to support studio-style collaboration and reflection. Using Research through Design, we develop and deploy Kaleidoscope, an online tool for documenting design process, in an upper-level HCI class during the COVID-19 pandemic, iteratively developing it in response to student feedback and needs. We discuss key themes from the real-world deployment of Kaleidoscope, including: tensions between documentation and creation;effects of centralizing discussion;privacy and visibility in shared spaces;balancing evidence of achievement with feelings of overwhelm;and the effects of initial perceptions and incentives on tool usage. These successes and challenges provide insights to guide future tools for design documentation and HCI education that scaffold learning process as an equal partner to execution. © 2023 Owner/Author.

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