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1.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2109751

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the resource shortage and environmental degradation have made enterprises and governments increasingly aware of the importance of sustainable development. Meanwhile, the COVID-19 pandemic has also increased the shortage of medical materials. Based on this, we investigate the tradeoff of the critical medical devices refurbishing strategies when blockchain is used in three different structures: manufacturer refurbishing, retailer refurbishing, and third-party refurbishing in the two-period refurbishing strategies. We find that the manufacturer always benefits from the adoption of blockchain technology strategy in the manufacturer refurbishing scenario. However, for the retailer in the second period, the retailer references the adoption of blockchain only if the willingness to pay is extremely high. Additionally, when the medical supply chain channel member chooses retailer refurbishing or third-party strategy, the manufacturer always likes to use blockchain technology. That's because it will help the information value spillover from the retailer to the manufacturer, which leads the manufacturer to get more profits and a lower profit for the retailer. However, in the retailer refurbishing or third-part strategy, the whole channel profits are higher than not adopting blockchain technology. Therefore, business managers can be based on our research to achieve profits Pareto-improving.

2.
12th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Participative Computing for Sustainable Futures, NordiCHI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2108349

ABSTRACT

Remote work has become widely accepted after COVID-19 but comes with many complaints. This paper considers the lack of informal communication among colleagues in remote and hybrid settings. Former studies have acknowledged the value of informal communication in daily work, so we intend to improve the well-being of employees by supporting and stimulating it in remote settings. This exploratory study aimed to understand the situation from a design perspective, and we adopted the research-through-design approach and created designs derived from the design-for-awareness strategy. The study was conducted using online interviews and comprised two sessions: sensitization to immerse participants in the context and exploration for in-depth feedback on new design concepts. Five themes result from the open coding analysis of the interview data. The results provide insights into next steps of design implications for special aspects of remote work, challenges in information sharing, and the role of social factors. © 2022 Owner/Author.

3.
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2107789

ABSTRACT

Purpose The study aims to introduce a cloud-based virtual reality (VR) approach and investigate its applicability and performance in aiding the remote design evaluation process by assessing the clients' convenience perception toward cloud-based VR-aided design evaluation (Cloud-based VR Approach) compared to 3D model-aided design evaluation (3D Model Approach) and rendering images-aided design evaluation (Image Approach). Design/methodology/approach A multicriteria comparative study was conducted with 26 university students using the "analytic hierarchy process" technique to compare the three approaches applied to home finishing material selection tasks based on the five "service convenience" dimensions, consisting of access convenience, decision convenience, transaction convenience, benefit convenience and post-benefit convenience. Findings The results indicated that the "Cloud-based VR Approach" was perceived to be more convenient than the "3D Model Approach" and the "Image Approach" based on the aspects of "decision convenience", "transaction convenience", "benefit convenience" and "post-benefit convenience". The only aspect that the Cloud-based VR Approach was comparatively less convenient than the 3D Model Approach and Image Approach for the user was "access convenience". Overall, the findings showed that the developed Cloud-based VR Approach had more potential than the conventional approaches in aiding the design evaluation process under ongoing social distancing measures requiring designers and clients to work remotely. Originality/value The disastrous impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on logistical systems have resulted in massive disruptions to the construction industry worldwide. Various construction activities have been halted and most meetings moved online. Design evaluation conducted between clients and designers is one of the important activities affected by such an impact. Thus, this study presents the Cloud-based VR Approach as an innovative means to maintain essential ongoing activities and meeting of the current design evaluation approach with respect to the social distancing measures.

4.
Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2107761

ABSTRACT

Purpose - This longitudinal study aims at assessing the impact of openness to experience and neuroticism on affective states experienced by the academics from the Malaysian public universities during the first strict COVID-19 lockdown in 2020. Design/methodology/approach - The author collected data for openness to experience and neuroticism at the beginning of the lockdown, and for positive and negative affect, when the lockdown ended. The author used the efficient partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLSe2-SEM) methodology to fit the model to the screened data (N = 291). Findings - The results showed that openness to experience had a negative effect on negative affect and a positive effect on positive affect. The author also observed that neuroticism had a positive effect on negative affect and a negative effect on positive affect. These findings provided support for the proposition of the impact of personality traits on affective states amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in academic settings. Practical implications - The study shows that careful assessment of lecturers' personality traits should be considered during the process of selection and recruitment since these factors, theoretically and empirically, trigger affective states which, in turn, lead to behaviors and attitudes. Originality/value - This is the first study on examining the impact of academics' personality traits on their affective states. Also, it is amongst the few longitudinal studies on evaluating personality traits during the COVID-19 pandemic. As a methodological novelty, the author used the PLSe2 methodology to test the model and compared the results with maximum likelihood (ML) results.

5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 923106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109760

ABSTRACT

First-generation anit-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were highly successful. They rapidly met an unforeseen emergency need, saved millions of lives, and simultaneously eased the burden on healthcare systems worldwide. The first-generation vaccines, however, focused too narrowly on antibody-based immunity as the sole marker of vaccine trial success, resulting in large knowledge gaps about waning vaccine protection, lack of vaccine robustness to viral mutation, and lack of efficacy in immunocompromised populations. Detailed reviews of first-generation vaccines, including their mode of action and geographical distribution, have been published elsewhere. Second-generation clinical trials must address these gaps by evaluating a broader range of immune markers, including those representing cell-mediated immunity, to ensure the most protective and long-lasting vaccines are brought to market.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans
6.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 9(4): e40110, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has led to over 500 million cases and 6.2 million deaths around the world. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) like Armenia face unique infrastructure, financial, and capacity challenges that in many cases result in worse outcomes. Health care facilities across Armenia experienced a shortage of resources, including hospital beds and oxygen, which was further exacerbated by the war with neighboring Azerbaijan. Without a framework for home-based care, health care facilities were severely strained by COVID-19 patients who had prolonged oxygen requirements but were otherwise clinically stable. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes our approach to establishing an international collaboration to develop a web app to support home monitoring of patients with COVID-19 with persistent oxygen requirements. METHODS: The app was developed using a rapid, coordinated, and collaborative approach involving an international group of clinicians, developers, and collaborators. Health screening, monitoring, and discharge forms were developed into a lightweight OpenMRS web app and customized for the local Armenian context. RESULTS: The software was designed and developed over 2 months using human-centered design and agile sprints. Once live, 5087 patient records were created for 439 unique patients. CONCLUSIONS: This project suggests a promising framework for designing and implementing remote monitoring programs in LMICs, despite pandemic and geopolitical challenges.

7.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 133(5): 1226-1227, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108368

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Chemical Science ; 13(43):12634-12642, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2106536

ABSTRACT

Phage display is the most widely used technique to discover de novo peptides that bind to target proteins. However, it is associated with some challenges such as compositional bias. In this study, to overcome these difficulties, we devised a 'pattern enrichment analysis.' In this method, two samples (one obtained by affinity selection, the other simply amplified without selection) are prepared, and the two sequence datasets read on next-generation sequencer are compared to find the three-residue pattern most enriched in the selected sample. This allows us to compare two sequence datasets with high coverage and facilitates the identification of peptide sequences and the key residues for binding. We also demonstrated that this approach in the combination with structured peptide libraries allowed spatial mapping of the enriched sequence patterns. Here, we prepared a phage library displaying chemically stapled helical peptides with the X1C2X3X4X5X6X7X8C9X10 sequence, where X is any amino acid. To validate our method, we performed screening against the HDM2 protein. The results showed that the hydrophobic residues (Phe, Tyr, Trp and Leu) that are key to interactions with HDM2 were clearly identified by the pattern enrichment analysis. We also performed selection targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD in the same manner. The results showed that similar patterns were enriched among the hit peptides that inhibited the protein-protein interaction.

9.
Think Skills Creat ; 46: 101190, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106087

ABSTRACT

This study investigated how COVID-19 impacted creative adolescent engagement with their creative activities, as well as how they utilized technology to cope with the pandemic. Using qualitative methods, this study was guided by phenomenology using both constructivist and transformative paradigms. Participants were English-speaking adolescents from the Midwest in the United States. They were identified as creative by their teachers according to known creative profiles and were invited to attend an all-day creative career workshop over Zoom, where the focus groups occurred for this study. Five focus groups, consisting of 25 participants, were conducted, guided by semi-structured interviews. The transcripts from the focus groups were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis by the first, second, and third authors. Results indicated that COVID-19 affected creative adolescent engagement with creative activities in positive and negative ways, caused changes in emotions and motivation, and increased virtual creative engagement. Creative adolescents coped with COVID-19 using digital technology to connect with others virtually, to engage in virtual creative expression, inspiration, and growth, and to meet their personal needs. Implication of results is discussed.

10.
Data Brief ; 45: 108735, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104792

ABSTRACT

The datasets include relevant psychological and demographic variables relating to people's relationships, perceptions, and reactions to the Covid-19 pandemic. Participants were recruited from the United States (N = 396), China (N = 156), and Iran (N = 248). Participants were directed to an online survey that assessed their psychological well-being, affective states, factors related to life satisfaction, and their experiences with the Covid-19 pandemic. For the United States, participants were separated by developmental stage (e.g., young adults between 18 and 35 years old and older adults who were 55 years old or older). Participants from China and Iran were 18 years old or older. Participants from the United States also provided qualitative data in the form of a text-box response where they described their reactions to the Covid-19 pandemic. These data may be relevant for researchers who want to investigate cross-cultural or developmental differences in people's psychological states, perceptions, and reactions in the beginning phases of the Covid-19 pandemic.

11.
Viral Infections and Antiviral Therapies ; : 169-209, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104207

ABSTRACT

Among the microorganisms, viruses have the simplest of structures. Despite this, they are the cause of a number of diseases, wherein the discovery of new antivirals is one of the most difficult tasks in medicinal chemistry. There are several approved drugs for numerous pathological conditions caused by viral agents. At the same time, there is a significant lack of effective treatments. Furthermore, many diseases remain without any specific treatment, due to several factors that make it difficult. In this context, this chapter addresses the main difficulties encountered in the discovery of antiviral agents, as well as some analogs that could overcome such limitations, which can be useful against herpes, influenza, coronavirus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, dengue, Ebola, and Lassa. In fact, one of the main limitations for designing new antivirals is related to the rapid emergence of virus resistance to drugs. Thus, there is considerable need for new scaffolds that can overcome this enormous challenge. Furthermore, low bioavailability of nucleoside analogs and low quality in vitro assays are among the major limitations found currently. Finally, we hope that this chapter encourages medicinal chemists around the world to find possibilities to overcome these limitations by developing new methodologies for testing compounds and designing new chemical agents that could represent future treatments for these diseases.

12.
International Journal of Engineering Education ; 38(5):1660-1667, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2102777

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the changes for a degree in Industrial Electronics and Automation Engineering at a Spanish university in the confinements caused by the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. The purpose was to find out the practices that the faculty university intuitively choose for use in teaching and evaluation, and to check if they were adequate in the emergency situation. The challenges faced by university faculty worldwide following the confinements caused by the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic were enormous and have no precedence in the digital knowledge era. The study of the teaching transitions realized allow the university and all agents involved to better reinforce the strong points and to focus improvements on the weak points with the goal of better preparedness for future crises. Three aspects of the transition to online teaching are considered: the changes in the evaluation systems, the preferred modes (synchronous, asynchronous, or bichronous) and the tools most used. According to the results, the evaluation systems enjoyed a level of stability that indicated institutional tools already existed providing online support for successful execution. The interaction between teacher and student dominated the basic training and compulsory course subjects, while asynchronous teaching was more apt for the elective subjects. Text-type teaching resources were chiefly used. While it was true more multimedia types could have been used, the suddenness of the changes as well as the uncertainty around their durations may have contributed to their incomplete development.

13.
International Journal of Engineering Education ; 38(5):1584-1594, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2102679

ABSTRACT

A survey instrument was administered to civil, computer, electrical, and mechanical engineering students to determine the impact that their design courses had on the development of their professional skills, which included engineering design, and attitudes about their program of study. The results of this survey were compared to results from the same survey administered to prior engineering students from the previous eight years to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of the survey, students identified challenges to academic learning, although the challenges generally did not adversely impact their attitudes about their program of study. Over three quarters of the students perceived that the pandemic had a negative impact on learning engineering design. Yet they rated their understanding of the design process similarly to the pre-pandemic groups, suggesting that they were able to overcome challenges presented to them during the pandemic. Nearly three quarters of the students perceived that the pandemic had a negative impact on the development of their professional skills. However, despite these challenges, the only professional skills students rated lower than the pre -pandemic period was oral communications and time management. The students rated their ability to manage a project, communicate in written form, and develop their leadership skills similarly to the pre-pandemic period. Finally, students rated an increase in their ability to work on a team and develop mentoring skills compared to the pre-pandemic period.

14.
International Journal of Engineering Education ; 38(5):1615-1628, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2102495

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, which began in spring 2020, led to the sudden termination of conventional learning systems. Since then, Synchronous Online Distance Learning (SODL) has been employed as an alternative teaching modality in engineering education. During this shift, educators were required to maintain successful Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs). Therefore, a substantial question was raised about how we could ensure that the knowledge presented through SODL approaches is of sufficient quality? This study aims to develop a tool to evaluate the students' knowledge acquisition while utilizing SODL approaches in engineering education in order to define the ability of this approach to maintain educational continuity, when forced to transition to SODL. A Design-Based Research (DBR) methodology was adopted to link the qualitative research variables in this study;the variable of dimensional analysis is one substantial approach to identifying the aspects of SLOs in a SODL Architectural Engineering (AE) senior project while the collaborative component of this study has been integrated as in-depth structured interviews. Following our analysis, findings indicate that SODL does not necessarily compromise students' skills in acquiring knowledge;furthermore, it advances the AE senior projects curricular paradigm positively.

15.
IUBMB Life ; 74(12): 1253-1263, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103574

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have been the causes of global pandemics, including the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019, which prompted the investigation into the infection mechanisms to find treatment and aid the vaccine design. Betacoronaviruses use spike glycoprotein on their surface to bind to host receptors, aiding their host attachment and cell fusion. Protein-glycan interaction has been implicated in the viral entry mechanism of many viruses and has recently been shown in SARS-CoV-2. Here, we reviewed the current knowledge on protein-glycan interactions that facilitate SARS-CoV-2 host entry, with special interest in sialoglycans present on both the virions and host cell surfaces. We also analyze how such information provides opportunities and challenges in glyco-based inhibitors.

16.
Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 29(5):154-158, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2100665

ABSTRACT

Previous laboratory studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) revealed that the stability of the virus in the air or on surfaces is sensitive to seasonally relevant environmental conditions. However, the seasonality of the virus in the real world remains unclear because each country adopted various infection control policies. Therefore, we investigated peak dates with regard to new confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and an association of these dates with the timing of the lockdown among G20 countries that have four seasons from 1 June 2020 to 18 February 2021. As a result, countries in both hemispheres experienced seasonal peaks in the number of COVID-19 cases both in the middle of warm and cold seasons. In addition, there were no apparent relationships between the peak date and periods with stringent measures. Our study demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 causes seasonal outbreaks in the winter and possibly summer and thus, countries might need to consider measures to prepare for resurgence of the virus in the middle of 2021. Copyright © Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2022.

17.
Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing ; 6(5), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2099609

ABSTRACT

Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM) is considered by many as one of the most promising approaches towards cost- and time-efficient mass customization. Compared to conventional manufacturing systems, DDM systems are not as common and incorporate several distinctive features, such as higher flexibility in product form and structure, lower economies of scale and higher potential for decentralized production network. The initial design phase of a DDM production system, where very important in term of efficiency and quality, decisions are made, is a relatively unexplored topic in the relevant literature. In the present study, the corresponding issues are investigated through a case study involving the direct digital production of a customized reusable face mask (respirator) for medical use. Investigated system design aspects include product, process, and facility design. Based on data generated through manufacturing tests, a preliminary cost analysis is performed and several scenarios regarding production throughput and facility planning are examined. According to the results, DDM of custom-made face masks is, to a large extent, technically and economically feasible. Interestingly, considering the whole process, a large part of production cost is associated with labor and materials. Finally, evidence for a fundamental trade-off between manufacturing cost and speed/flexibility is identified, implying that different implementations of DDM systems can be realized depending on strategic operational objectives.

18.
Acta Med Acad ; 51(2): 134-146, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093996

ABSTRACT

Herein, we present a bird's eye view of common observational study designs utilized for measurement of vaccine effectiveness. Assessing vaccines effectiveness is an integral part of vaccine research, particularly for the newly developed vaccines. A cohort study is prospective, directing from an exposure to one or more outcomes. The design is the best method to ascertain the attack rate of an infectious disease. A traditional case-control study is retrospective, directing from a given outcome to one or more exposures. The design cannot provide the relative risk, but it can provide the odds ratio, which is a good estimation of the relative risk when the attack rate is low. Critically depending on laboratory test results and performance, the test-negative case-control study design is another type of observational study commonly used nowadays for the evaluation of the vaccine effectiveness. Comparing to cohort and traditional case-control designs, conducting a test-negative case-control study is relatively cheaper and faster. Herein, we describe each of the above-mentioned study designs through examples generated by a Monte-Carlo simulation program assuming real-world conditions. CONCLUSION: The simulation shows that regardless of the study design employed, the diagnostic test specificity is of utmost importance in providing a valid estimate of the vaccine effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Vaccine Efficacy , Vaccines , Humans , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099496

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many areas of life, including the formation of nursing students. After the COVID-19 crisis, learning during clinical training created different challenges. Nursing schools are responsible for ensuring that structures are in place to facilitate coping in the changed clinical setting. This study aimed to analyze nursing students' perceptions during clinical training while caring for COVID-19 patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological study that explored nursing students' perceptions of learning in clinical settings with COVID-19 patients was performed. A total of 15 semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with nursing students who carried out their clinical practices in COVID-19 units during February and April 2022. RESULTS: Through content analysis, categorization, and the method of comparison constant, four categories emerged: feelings, challenges, coping methods, and clinical practices. The students had to learn to "work" with fear and uncertainty and self-manage the emotional burden using different coping techniques to deal with learning during their practices. Interacting with professors and clinical tutors during the clinical practice were positive experiences. CONCLUSIONS: This study constituted an opportunity to build new and adapted educational approaches for teachers to train nursing students to deal with their emotions and thoughts in future pandemic situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing , Humans , Students, Nursing/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods , Learning
20.
9th International Conference on Harmonisation between Architecture and Nature, ARC 2022 ; 210:115-125, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2099041

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, biophilic design under the concept of creating strong connections between nature and manmade environments have spread significantly. Because of the rapidly increasing environmental crises and climate change phenomena globally. Consequently, biophilic design has become associated with sustainable applications, the question this research discusses is if this approach contributes to achieve the aspects of sustainability, under the umbrella of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study will investigate biophilic approach contribution to sustainable design through defining aspects of nature that most influence human satisfaction of built environment. Aligned with the European Commission (2015) series actions titled “nature-based solutions” that are inspired by nature systems. During the COVID-19 lockdown, humans had minimal interaction with nature, and access to green public spaces, at the same time, an increasing interest to integrate nature in design, reducing humans impact on nature were recognized in the contemporary built environment. The study adopts William Browning’s (2014) “14 Patterns of Biophilic Design” framework, that lays out a series of tools experiencing science and nature contribution for promising opportunities creating sustainable built environment design applications. In addition to identifying and analysing the current practices for biophilic design in the built environment and its’ impacts on nature and human wellbeing. The results conduct design strategies, and guidelines that integrate biophilic approach as a base, within the 14 patterns framework for better practices creating innovative and responsible built environment. © 2022 WIT Press.

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