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1.
J Diabetes Complications ; 36(12): 108355, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Determine characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes and multiple chronic conditions (MCC) associated with being unable to obtain medical services during COVID-19. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of data from COVID-19 Supplements of Medicare Current Beneficiary Surveys administered in Summer (N = 11,114, unweighted) and Fall (N = 9686, unweighted) 2020, and Winter 2021 (N = 11,107, unweighted). Binary logistic regression was used to model for adjusted odds of self-reports of being unable to access different types of care. RESULTS: In three time periods from March 2020 through March/April 2021 beneficiaries with diabetes plus MCC combinations reported being unable to get medical care, compared to beneficiaries with diabetes alone. Notably, patterns persisted at the 12-month mark with beneficiaries with diabetes plus cancer (OR = 1.24), and diabetes plus cancer/stroke (OR = 2.53) experiencing increased odds of being unable to get care because of COVID-19, compared to beneficiaries with diabetes alone. By March/April 2021 beneficiaries with diabetes plus COPD (OR = 1.08), diabetes plus stroke (OR = 1.49), and diabetes plus Alzheimer's (OR = 1.09) experienced increased odds of being unable to get treatment for ongoing conditions. Beneficiaries with diabetes plus Alzheimer's (OR = 1.40) also experienced increased odds of being unable to get a regular check-up 12 months into the pandemic. Finally, members of racial/ethnic minority groups experienced increased odds of being unable to obtain services at various times during the pandemic compared to non-Hispanic Whites, with increased odds persisting at 12 months for non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Beneficiaries with MCC, and minorities, experienced increased odds of being unable to obtain some services during COVID-19, even when controlling for similar diabetes and MCC combinations. Work remains for providers and public health systems to dismantle and reimagine systems to provide equitable access to care.

2.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 67(10): 561-569, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101091

ABSTRACT

The study of the characteristics and dynamics of laboratory biomarkers in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent COVID-19-associated pneumonia is of great clinical importance for preventing the risk of adverse events. IN the study we used data from 65 patients in the present work. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included patients with CVD: arterial hypertension (AH) in combination with coronary artery disease (CAD) without DM2 (n=45), group 2 included patients with CVD and DM2 (n=20). Patients were examined at baseline in the infectious disease hospital and 3 months after discharge. During laboratory examination of blood biosamples we evaluated parameters of general blood test; biochemical and immunologicai parameters; elastic properties of the vascular wall. The analyzed leukocyte parameters and their index coefficients - increase in NLR ratio (neutrophils/lymphocytes) and decrease in LYM/CRP ratio (lymphocytes/CRP) were more significantly changed in DM2 group. Patients in both groups had a significant excess of baseline max CRP concentrations with decrease in parameters after 3 months, but with persistent excess values in group 2. Three months after discharge patients with DM2 had levels of hs-CRP, IL-1ß and TNFa and NT-proBNP, that exceeded both the reference values and those in group 1, which reflected the presence of more pronounced vascular inflammatory potential for possible adverse events in this group of patients in post-COVID period. The method of multiple regression showed that DM2 is an independent risk factor for increased stiffness of the vascular wall. Thus, dynamic control of laboratory parameters has prognostic value in assessing the nature of the course of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in patients with CVD and DM2 developing an algorithm for personalized monitoring of patients in the post-COVID period with the aim of timely prevention of unwanted vascular complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Biomarkers
3.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100702

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections can be related to vast spectrum of co-existent bacterial and fungal infections. A 49-year-old diabetic male was admitted with a history of fever, cough and breathlessness since 5 days. He developed persistent headache with right sided purulent nasal discharge. Relevant histo-pathological, biochemical, microbiological and imaging studies were performed which proved it to be a dual infection of Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis. We present one such case in a COVID-19 patient to highlight its unusual clinical features along with the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

4.
Nutricion Clinica Y Dietetica Hospitalaria ; JOUR(3):152-159, 42.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100424

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Skipping meals has been associated with cardiometabolic risk factors such as overweight and insulin re-sistance. Despite this, data on the frequency of meals and the influence on the nutritional and metabolic status of individu-als with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) are scarce.Objective: To investigate the correlation between missed meals, body mass index (BMI) and metabolic profile of DM2 patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methodology: Cross-sectional study with 107 individuals followed at a Nutrition outpatient clinic of a reference hospi-tal in Fortaleza, Ceara. Socioeconomic, clinical, anthropomet-ric and biochemical data were collected. Meal omission was verified using a 24-hour dietary recall. The correlation be-tween the variables was verified by the Spearman and Chi -Square test, considering p<0.05 as significant.Results: The mean age of participants was 62 +/- 11.34 years, where most were women (57.9%). The mean BMI was 28.67 +/- 5.13 kg/m2 and most were overweight (68%). Participants ate an average of 5 +/- 0.94 meals per day. The median number of meals skipped was 1 (0 -3) and 60.7% skipped at least 1 meal. The most missed meals were supper (41%) and a morning snack (38%). There was a significant positive correlation between the number of skipped meals with BMI and weight.Conclusion: The number of skipped meals is directly cor-related with the nutritional status of older adults and elderly people with DM2.

5.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(11): e38862, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the confinement that was implemented in Argentina generated a need to implement innovative tools for the strengthening of diabetes care. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is a core element of diabetes care; however, because of COVID-19 restrictions, in-person diabetes educational activities were suspended. Social networks have played an instrumental role in this context to provide DSME in 2 cities of Argentina and help persons with diabetes in their daily self-management. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate 2 diabetes education modalities (synchronous and asynchronous) using the social media platform Facebook through the content of posts on diabetes educational sessions in 2 cities of Argentina during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we explored 2 modalities of e-learning (synchronous and asynchronous) for diabetes education that used the Facebook pages of public health institutions in Chaco and La Rioja, Argentina, in the context of confinement. Social media metrics and the content of the messages posted by users were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 332 messages were analyzed. We found that in the asynchronous modality, there was a higher number of visualizations, while in the synchronous modality, there were more posts and interactions between educators and users. We also observed that the number of views increased when primary care clinics were incorporated as disseminators, sharing educational videos from the sessions via social media. Positive aspects were observed in the posts, consisting of messages of thanks and, to a lesser extent, reaffirmations, reflections or personal experiences, and consultations related to the subject treated. Another relevant finding was that the educator/moderator role had a greater presence in the synchronous modality, where posts were based on motivation for participation, help to resolve connectivity problems, and answers to specific user queries. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show positive contributions of an educational intervention for diabetes care using the social media platform Facebook in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although each modality (synchronous vs asynchronous) could have differential and particular advantages, we believe that these strategies have potential to be replicated and adapted to other contexts. However, more documented experiences are needed to explore their sustainability and long-term impact from the users' perspective.

6.
Ann Pharmacother ; : 10600280221133577, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No study has yet systematically evaluated the effect of antidiabetic therapy on clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of different antidiabetic therapy on clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with T2D. METHODS: We comprehensively retrieved the published research which examined the effect of antidiabetic therapy on clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with T2D. The odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for clinical outcomes were calculated using the random-effects model, and meta-regression was adopted to evaluate the potential sources of heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: A total of 54 studies were included in this study. We found that the use of metformin (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.58-0.75), SGLT-2i (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.73-0.88), and GLP-1ra (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.98) were significantly associated with lower mortality risk in COVID-19 patients with T2D, while insulin use might unexpectedly increase the ICU admission rate (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.34-4.01) and risk of death (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.32-1.75). No statistically significant associations were identified for DPP-4i, SUs, AGIs, and TZDs. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: We demonstrated that the usage of metformin, SGLT-2i, and GLP-1ra could significantly decrease mortality in COVID-19 patients with T2D. The heterogeneity across the studies, baseline characteristics of the included patients, shortage of dosage and the duration of antidiabetic drugs and autonomy of drug selection might limit the objectivity and accuracy of results. Further adequately powered and high-quality randomized controlled trials are warranted for conclusive findings.

7.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 6(10): nzac107, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097323

ABSTRACT

Background: Comanagement of glycemia and adiposity is the cornerstone of cardiometabolic risk reduction in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but targets are often not met. The intestinal microbiota and microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) influence glycemia and adiposity but have not been sufficiently investigated in longstanding T1D. Objectives: We evaluated the hypothesis that an increased abundance of SCFA-producing gut microbes, fecal SCFAs, and intestinal microbial diversity were associated with improved glycemia but increased adiposity in young adults with longstanding T1D. Methods: Participants provided stool samples at ≤4 time points (NCT03651622: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03651622). Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene measured abundances of SCFA-producing intestinal microbes. GC-MS measured total and specific SCFAs (acetate, butyrate, propionate). DXA (body fat percentage and percentage lean mass) and anthropometrics (BMI) measured adiposity. Continuous glucose monitoring [percentage of time in range (70-180 mg/dL), above range (>180 mg/dL), and below range (54-69 mg/dL)] and glycated hemoglobin (i.e., HbA1c) assessed glycemia. Adjusted and Bonferroni-corrected generalized estimating equations modeled the associations of SCFA-producing gut microbes, fecal SCFAs, and intestinal microbial diversity with glycemia and adiposity. COVID-19 interrupted data collection, so models were repeated restricted to pre-COVID-19 visits. Results: Data were available for ≤45 participants at 101 visits (including 40 participants at 54 visits pre-COVID-19). Abundance of Eubacterium hallii was associated inversely with BMI (all data). Pre-COVID-19, increased fecal propionate was associated with increased percentage of time above range and reduced percentage of time in target and below range; and abundances of 3 SCFA-producing taxa (Ruminococcus gnavus, Eubacterium ventriosum, and Lachnospira) were associated inversely with body fat percentage, of which two microbes were positively associated with percentage lean mass. Abundance of Anaerostipes was associated with reduced percentage of time in range (all data) and with increased body fat percentage and reduced percentage lean mass (pre-COVID-19). Conclusions: Unexpectedly, fecal propionate was associated with detriment to glycemia, whereas most SCFA-producing intestinal microbes were associated with benefit to adiposity. Future studies should confirm these associations and determine their potential causal linkages in T1D.This study is registered at clinical.trials.gov (NCT03651622; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03651622).

8.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 24(11): 789-796, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097242

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and the rapid expansion of telemedicine have increased the need for accurate and reliable capillary hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing. Nevertheless, validation studies of commercially available products suitable for home use have been in short supply. Methods: Three commercial home-use capillary blood sample HbA1c tests (Home Access, CoreMedica, and A1cNow+) were evaluated in 219 participants with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (4-80 years years of age, HbA1c 5.1%-13.4% [32-123 mmol/mol]) at four clinical sites. Comparisons were made between HbA1c measurements from the commercial tests and paired venous samples for which HbA1c was measured at two central reference laboratories. The primary outcome was percentage of commercial HbA1c values within 5% of the corresponding reference values. Results: HbA1c values were within 5% (relative difference) of paired reference values for 82% of Home Access samples, 29% of CoreMedica samples, and 46% of A1cNow+ samples. Absolute differences were within 0.3% of the reference value for 75% of Home Access samples, 28% of CoreMedica samples, and 44% of A1cNow+ samples and exceeded 0.5% for 8%, 55%, and 37%, respectively. Conclusions: None of the commercial home-use HbA1c tests produced the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program goal of ≥90% measurements within 5% of a DCCT venous reference. However, the Home Access product performed substantially better than the CoreMedica or A1cNow+ products. Telemedicine is likely to persist as a mainstay of diabetes care well after the COVID-19 era. As such, accurate home-based HbA1c assessment represents an urgent need for the diabetes community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Pandemics , Reference Standards
9.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 98(6): 587-589, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the impact of teleconsultation on glycemic control and prevention of acute complications related to diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents treated in a reference hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. METHOD: Descriptive study of data from pediatric diabetic patients who received teleconsultation between April and September 2020. RESULTS: During this period, 143 diabetic patients were evaluated, with a median of 3.4 teleconsultations per patient in the studied period, requiring adjustment of insulin doses in 84.6% of cases. The hospital admission rate was 8,4% due to diabetic decompensation. The metabolic control (HbA1c) became worse in 46% of the sample and improved in 37%. CONCLUSION: The teleconsultation promoted health care for patients with diabetes mellitus during the COVID-19 pandemic but was not able to guarantee adequate glycemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Remote Consultation , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Hospitals
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 202, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090887

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) still remains on an upsurge trend. The second and the waves of this disease have led to panic in many countries, and some parts of the world suffering from the fourth wave. In the midst of this pandemic, COVID-19 patients are acquiring secondary infections such as mucormycosis also known as "black fungus disease". Mucormycosis is a serious, but rare opportunistic fungal infection that spreads rapidly, and hence prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to avoid mortality and morbidity rate. We report in this paper, a case of a diabetic patient who presented with bilateral nasal obstruction, anosmia, and frontal headache diagnosed with rhinocerebral mucormycosis developing after COVID-19 infection with a favorable outcome after a medico-surgical treatment. Through this case, we aim to aware patricians of this possible association and the importance of early diagnosis to optimize treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , Opportunistic Infections , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
11.
Technol Health Care ; 30(6): 1287-1298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic broke out in 2019 and rapidly spread across the globe. Most of the severe and dead cases are middle-aged and elderly patients with chronic systemic diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association between fasting blood glucose (FPG) and body mass index (BMI) levels in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) under different conditions. METHODS: Experimental-related information (age, gender, BMI, and FPG on the second day of admission) from 86 COVID-19 cases (47 males and 39 females) with an average age of (39 ± 17) years was collected in April and November 2020. These cases were divided into three groups according to the most severe classification of each case determined by the clinical early warning indicators of severe-critically illness, the degree of progression, and the treatment plan shown in the diagnosis and treatment plan of COVID-19 pneumonia. Statistical models were used to analyze the differences in the levels of FPG and BMI, age, and gender among the three groups. RESULTS: 1. Experimental group: 21 patients with asymptomatic or and mild symptoms (group A), 45 patients with common non-progression (group B), and 20 patients with common progression and severe symptoms (group C). 2. The age differences among the three groups were statistically significant and elderly patients had a higher risk of severe disease (t= 4.1404, 3.3933, 9.2123, P= 0.0001, 0.0012, 0.0000). There was a higher proportion of females than males in the normal progression and severe disease cases (χ2= 5.512, P= 0.019). 3. The level of FPG was significantly higher in group C than in group A (t= 3.1655, P= 0.0030) and B (t= 2.0212, P= 0.0475). The number of diabetes or IFG in group C was significantly higher than in group A (χ2= 5.979, P= 0.014) and group B (χ2= 6.088, P= 0.014). 4. BMI was significantly higher in group C than in groups A (t= 3.8839, P= 0.0004) and B (t= 3.8188, P= 0.0003). The number of overweight or obese patients in group C was significantly higher than in groups A (χ2= 8.838, P= 0.003) and B (χ2= 10.794, P= 0.001). 5. Patients' age, gender, and FPG were independent risk factors for COVID-19 disease progression (ß= 0.380, 0.191, 0.186; P= 0.000, 0.034, 0.045). CONCLUSION: The levels of FPG and BMI were significantly increased in the population with common progressive and severe COVID-19. FPG and age are independent risk factors for the progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle Aged , Aged , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Fasting , Pandemics
12.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088958

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients with diabetes have greater mortality than those without comorbidities, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study aims to identify the mechanistic interactions between diabetes and severe COVID-19. Microparticles (MPs), the cell membrane-derived vesicles released upon cell activation, are largely increased in diabetic patients. To date, many mechanisms have been postulated for increased severity of COVID-19 in patients with underlying conditions, but the contributions of excessive MPs in diabetic patients have been overlooked. This study characterizes plasma MPs from normal and type 2 diabetic human subjects in terms of amount, cell origins, surface adhesive properties, ACE2 expression, spike protein binding capacity, and their roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results showed that over 90% of plasma MPs express ACE2 that binds the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. MPs in diabetic patients increase 13-fold in quantity and 11-fold adhesiveness when compared with normal subjects. Perfusion of human plasma with pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus or spike protein-bound MPs into human endothelial cells-formed microvessels-on-a chip demonstrated that MPs from diabetic patients, not normal subjects, interact with endothelium and carry SARS-CoV-2 into cells through endocytosis, providing additional virus entry pathways and enhanced infection. Results also showed a large percentage of platelet-derived tissue factor-bearing MPs in diabetic plasma, which could contribute to thrombotic complications with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study reveals a dual role of diabetic MPs in promoting SARS-CoV-2 entry and propagating vascular inflammation. These findings provide novel mechanistic insight into the high prevalence of COVID-19 in diabetic patients and their propensity to develop severe vascular complications.

13.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088271

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A diagnosis of chronic illness posed a serious threat to people during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. People with chronic illnesses were faced with increased mortality and reduced access to healthcare. Self-care is the process of maintaining health and managing a chronic illness. Nurses working in specialist services provide healthcare education to people with chronic illnesses. Access to these nurses was decreased during periods of the COVID-19 virus escalation due to the reconfiguration of services and redeployment of nurses. The purpose of the research was to learn from the experiences of people with a chronic illnesses in self-care behaviors and accessing altered healthcare services to inform future practices. DESIGN: A population survey design. METHODS: A mixed methods survey was designed, combining validated questionnaires and scales with open-ended questions. A convenience sample was utilized via using social media platforms. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistics. Content analysis was used to analyze open-ended responses. RESULTS: There were 147 responses, with approximately half reporting no changes in face-to-face healthcare contact, 41% reporting decreased contacts and 12% increased contacts. Non-face-to-face contacts were reduced by almost 9%, did not change by almost 60%, while 33% indicated an increase. Participants reported mixed perceptions in contact with healthcare providers during restrictions. In the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care and the Self-Care of Chronic Illness scales, participants scored statistically lower scores than in previous studies. Participants indicated that public health restrictions negatively impacted their confidence, created challenges with re-engaging and that access to care was more difficult. CONCLUSION: This research highlights the importance of providing continued support to people with chronic illness irrespective of other challenges to healthcare services. A structured approach to virtual self-care education is required. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This research concluded that the experience of access to one healthcare professional as opposed to diverse multidisciplinary input was similar for a number of chronic illnesses groups of people during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was an altered dynamic of virtual contacts with healthcare providers and a lack of confidence interpreting what monitoring was required by people with a chronic illnesses due to a lack of preparedness for virtual healthcare delivery.

14.
Diabet Med ; : e14986, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088169

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This cohort study, based on Danish health registers, examined the post-acute consequences of hospitalization for COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. METHODS: The study population comprised all Danish citizens (≥18 years old) who had diabetes when the pandemic started. A patient was exposed if he/she had a hospitalization with COVID-19 after 1 March 2020. A patient was unexposed when he/she was not hospitalized with COVID-19 between 1 March 2020 and the end of follow-up (4 January 2022), or the first registered event of interest. The outcomes included post-COVID-19 hospitalizations and death. We used a Cox proportional hazards model with time varying exposure estimating the hazards ratio (HR) to analyze if the hazard for an outcome of interest was impacted by being hospitalized with COVID-19. RESULTS: In patients with type 1 diabetes, 101 were hospitalized with COVID-19, and 25,459 were not. We did not have sufficient statistical power to identify differences in risk for those with type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, 1515 were hospitalized with COVID-19, and 95,887 were not. The adjusted HRs of post-acute hospitalization for respiratory diseases and infections were 1.71 (95% CI 1.45-2.03) and 1.87 (95% CI 1.61-2.18), respectively. The HR of death was 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.43). Patients with uncertain type had results similar to those with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In type 2 diabetes and diabetes of uncertain type, hospitalization with COVID-19 was associated with an increased risk of post-acute hospitalization for respiratory diseases, infections and death.

15.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69 Suppl 2: S264-S266, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086306

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) are worldwide health burdens post-COVID-19. TB is the second-leading cause of death by a single infectious microbe. There is much evidence around the world about the responsibility of TB-DM co-morbidity. Both TB and DM prevalence is high in low- and middle-income countries. Especially the elderly with diabetes are more prone to TB infection due to compromised immune systems. Diabetic patients are three times as likely to develop tuberculosis as non-diabetic patients. DM interferes with the status of TB and leads to undesirable outcomes in the treatment of TB. This may later lead to the development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The coexistence of TB and DM leads to a high mortality rate and therefore becomes an enormous challenge for the medical field. This viewpoint includes the most current information about TB and DM, disease complications, treatment strategies, challenges to be faced in disease management and the importance of TB-DM bidirectional screening in older adults, which helps in early detection and better treatment programme.

16.
Hipertens Riesgo Vasc ; 2022 Oct 20.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086271

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular prevention measures place the emphasis on controlling cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). However, the most recent studies provide disappointing data, the impact of which remains to be determined. The objective of this study was to analyse the impact that the different CVRFs, and their degree of control, have on the prognosis of patients after acute coronary syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Epidemiological, pharmacological, and CVRF control data were collected from 1,689 consecutive patients admitted from 2018 to 2020 for acute coronary syndrome to a tertiary hospital. Finally, the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events was calculated. RESULTS: The patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome were predominantly men, with body mass index>25Kg/m2, smokers (or former smokers) and with poor CVRF control (50% for hypertension and diabetes and 35% for dyslipidaemia), especially those patients with a personal history of ischaemic heart disease. An underutilisation of useful drugs for CVRF control was found. A directly proportional relationship was observed between the number of CVRFs (or their poor control) and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events at 2 years, hypertension being the factor with the greatest cardiovascular impact. The SARS-CoV-2 lockdown worsened the degree of CVRF control and cardiovascular prognosis. CONCLUSION: There is still room for improvement in the control of CVRF, which would translate into a prognostic benefit for patients with ischaemic heart disease. The implementation of cardiovascular prevention campaigns seems essential.

17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 193: 110135, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086111

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore the impact of primarily telemedical care for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes by monthly video consultations on metabolic control and parents' treatment satisfaction and disease-specific burden during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this 12-month multicenter observational follow-up VIDIKI 2.0 study, 100 participants (3-18 years) received monthly video consultations, which partially replaced quarterly outpatient clinic appointments during the pandemic. The children's metabolic parameters as well as the parents' treatment satisfaction and diabetes specific burden were assessed at study entry and 12 months later. RESULTS: During the study, 912 video consultations took place (mean 0.84 ±â€¯0.23 / patient/month). The children's HbA1c remained stable, while mean sensor glucose level and glucose management indicator decreased. Simultaneously, parents' treatment satisfaction significantly increased, and their diabetes-specific burden and distress decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Primarily telemedical care of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic via monthly video consultations resulted in a significant improvement in parents' treatment satisfaction and their diabetes-specific burden and distress. It was associated with a slight improvement in mean sensor glucose and glucose management indicator, while HbA1c remained stable. Thus, video consultations offer great potential to enhance standard care for children and adolescents with diabetes.

18.
Hormones (Athens) ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085800

ABSTRACT

AIM: To compare the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NΑbs) against SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) between patients with T2DM and healthy controls. METHODS: NAb levels after the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine were compared between 50 patients with non-insulin treated T2DM and 50 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched healthy controls up to 3 months after the second dose. The median age of both groups was 70 years. RESULTS: On day 1, mean NAbs of the control and T2DM groups were 14.64% (standard error, SE = 2.30) and 14.04% (SE = 2.14), respectively (p value = 0.926). Three weeks later, the mean NAb values were 39.98% (SE = 3.53) in the control group and 40.97% (SE = 3.99) in participants with T2DM (p value = 0.698). One month after the second vaccination, mean NAb values increased to 87.13% (SE = 2.94) in the control group and 89.00% (SE = 2.18) in the T2DM group. Three months after the second vaccine dose, the mean inhibitory titers decreased to 83.49% (SE = 3.82) (control group) and 76.36% (SE = 3.33) (T2DM group). On all occasions, no significant difference was found between the two groups (all p values > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T2DM present similar immunological response to COVID-19 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to that of healthy subjects.

19.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; JOUR(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 83.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2083979

ABSTRACT

Study 1. As an active ingredient in lifestyle interventions, social support is shown to be effective for promoting positive health outcomes. However, many interventions do not directly assess social support, leaving its impact in these contexts ambiguous. The Diabetes Prevention Program is one of the most well supported lifestyle interventions, and specifically targets decreased weight and increased physical activity. The DPP intervention has many opportunities for the exchange of social resources, but these social aspects remain unassessed. The present study assesses the relationship between perceived social support and the Diabetes Prevention Program outcomes of weight and physical activity. Results demonstrate a significant negative relationship between intraindividual change in social support and intraindividual changes in weight across the trajectory of the intervention. Additionally, this relationship was significantly mediated by intraindividual changes in self-efficacy. However, these relationships were not supported for physical activity. This study contributes to the literature investigating the role of social support in lifestyle interventions, and is the first to do so within the Diabetes Prevention Program. Study 2. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in drastic restrictions limiting in-person social connection, but also drove adoption and progression in digital communication. Social support can act as a buffer for stress during such times of crisis. However, when social distancing was required, many adapted much of their social interaction into a digital context. There is minimal work understanding how digital social support differs from in-person social support, particularly during a time when in-person social support is already displaced. The present study investigates the relationship between strictness of distancing and perceived digital social support, perceived general social support, and higher perceived loneliness. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the present study also assessed the effectiveness of a brief video-based social support intervention for increasing perceived digital social support, increasing perceived general social support, and decreasing perceived stress. Higher strictness of distancing was related to lower perceived digital social support, perceived general social support, and perceived loneliness. Additionally, the intervention group had significantly greater increases in perceived digital social support than controls, but no significant difference in change for general social support or perceived stress. The present study demonstrates the unique context that COVID-19 created for social interaction, and provides initial evidence in support of a brief and low-resource intervention for increasing perceptions of digital social support. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

20.
Vaccine ; 40(48): 6900-6907, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The associations of doses of vaccine received with symptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 and negative conversion rate of viral RNA by BMI, diabetes, and age are unclear. METHODS: Included were adult cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized at a makeshift hospital in Shanghai (N = 38,592). Each case received a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test every day until discharge. Symptomatic cases had ≥1 pre-specified symptoms. Negative conversion time (NCT) was the duration between the specimen collection date associated with the first positive RT-PCR test and the first test date of the two consecutive negative tests at least 24 h apart. BMI-, diabetes- and age-stratified multivariable logistic and Poisson regressions were applied. FINDINGS: Coexistence of overweight/obesity and diabetes was associated with a higher risk of symptomatic infection and a longer NCT compared with coexistence of normal weight and without diabetes, but this association was primarily attributed to underlying comorbidities. Compared with absence of vaccination, booster vaccination, but not full vaccination, was consistently associated with a 42 %-56 % lower odds of symptomatic infection and ∼1.6-1.8 days of shorter NCT across different strata separately for weight and diabetes. Age-stratified analyses found that the effectiveness of booster vaccination did not attenuate with age, except for preventing symptomatic infection among adults with diabetes. INTERPRETATION: BMI and diabetes co-determined their associations with symptomatic infection and NCT. Booster vaccination but not full vaccination was associated a lower risk of symptomatic infection, a shorter NCT or both regardless of BMI, diabetes status and age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Viral/genetics , Body Mass Index , China , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Vaccination
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