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1.
Russian Journal of Cardiology ; 27(9):7-15, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2091088

ABSTRACT

Aim. To assess the changes in cardiology diagnostics scope in the Russian Federation during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Material and methods. In an online survey organized by the Division of Human Health of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), including questions about changes in the workflow of diagnostic laboratories and the scope of cardiac diagnostics from March 2019 (pre-pandemic) to April 2020 (first wave of the pandemic) and April 2021 (recovery stage), 15 Russian medical centers from 5 cities took part. Results. The decrease in the diagnostics scope by April 2020 by 59,3% compared to March 2019, by April 2021, stopped and was replaced by growth (+7,1%, the recovery rate, 112,1%). The greatest increase was in routine examinations, such as echocardiography (+11,6%), stress echocardiography (+18,7%), stress single photon emission computed tomography (+9,7%), and to a lesser extent resting computed tomography angiography (+7,0%) and magnetic resonance imaging (+6,6%). The performance of stress electrocardiography, stress magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography for the diagnosis of endocarditis in April 2021 compared to March 2019 decreased by 10,3%, 63,2% and 62,5%, respectively. Conclusion. Due to the resumption of patient admissions for cardiac examinations during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, with the anti-epidemic measures taken and certain changes in the workflow, there has been a recovery in the diagnostics scope in most of the included centers. Copyright © 2022, Silicea-Poligraf. All rights reserved.

2.
Medicine (Madr) ; 13(66): 3909-3912, 2022 Nov.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086543

ABSTRACT

Persistent COVID is a symptomatic disease involving multiple organs which affects patients who have had COVID-19 and who continue to have symptoms (asthenia, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, dyspnea, cough, chest pain, dysphonia) for more than 4-12 weeks after infection. Its presentation is independent of the severity of the acute COVID-19 phase. It is predominant in middle-aged women. Symptoms frequently fluctuate. It can progress in the form of flare-ups and cannot be explained by an alternative underlying pathology. The incidence of persistent COVID is estimated to be about 10% of those infected. In addition to this symptomatic disease, it is possible that survivors of COVID-19 pneumonia may present with lung sequelae. It is probable that a high number of patients who have had COVID-19 pneumonia will require specialized follow-up by the pulmonology department after overcoming the acute phase. Different algorithms are being established to ensure proper follow-up for these patients.

4.
Non-conventional in English | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754790
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0130722, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078738

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has increased use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). In winter 2021 to 2022, the Omicron variant surge made it apparent that although RDTs are less sensitive than quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), the accessibility, ease of use, and rapid readouts made them a sought after and often sold-out item at local suppliers. Here, we sought to qualify the Abbott BinaxNOW RDT for use in our university testing program as a method to rule in positive or rule out negative individuals quickly at our priority qRT-PCR testing site. To perform this qualification study, we collected additional swabs from individuals attending this site. All swabs were tested using BinaxNOW. Initially as part of a feasibility study, test period 1 (n = 110) samples were stored cold before testing. In test period 2 (n = 209), samples were tested immediately. Combined, 102/319 samples tested severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive via qRT-PCR. All sequenced samples were Omicron (n = 92). We calculated 53.9% sensitivity, 100% specificity, a 100% positive predictive value, and an 82.2% negative predictive value for BinaxNOW (n = 319). Sensitivity would be improved (75.3%) by changing the qRT-PCR positivity threshold from a threshold cycle (CT) value of 40 to a CT value of 30. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve shows that for qRT-PCR-positive CT values of between 24 and 40, the BinaxNOW test is of limited value diagnostically. Results suggest BinaxNOW could be used in our setting to confirm SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals with substantial viral load, but a significant fraction of infected individuals would be missed if we used RDTs exclusively to rule out infection. IMPORTANCE Our results suggest BinaxNOW can rule in SARS-CoV-2 infection but would miss infections if RDTs were exclusively used.

6.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(9): 1376-1384, 2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066666

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of COVID-19 is considered a significant step in the management of the disease that is causing a major worldwide public health challenge from the time of its emergence in December 2019. Since it has been established that SARS-CoV-2 spreads rapidly, timely detection of the positive cases and isolation of such individuals and their contacts helps in containing viral transmission. In this paper, we review the in vitro technology platforms for testing and diagnosing COVID-19 patients: molecular tests, rapid antigen tests, and serology tests. As part of our review of each category of tests, we discuss the commercialized testing platforms, their analyzing systems, specimen collection protocols, and testing methodologies. Moreover, the efficacy and limitations of each technique are also discussed. The key structural components of the virus are presented to provide an understanding of the scientific principles behind the testing tools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods
7.
Interfaces ; 52(5):398, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065085

ABSTRACT

In the summer of 2020, in collaboration with the Greek government, we designed and deployed Eva-the first national-scale, reinforcement learning system for targeted COVID-19 testing. In this paper, we detail the rationale for three major design/algorithmic elements: Eva's testing supply chain, estimating COVID-19 prevalence, and test allocation. Specifically, we describe the design of Eva's supply chain to collect and process thousands of biological samples per day with special emphasis on capacity procurement. Then, we propose a novel, empirical Bayes estimation strategy to estimate COVID-19 prevalence among various passenger types with limited data and showcase how these estimates were instrumental in making a variety of downstream decisions. Finally, we propose a novel, multiarmed bandit algorithm that dynamically allocates tests to arriving passengers in a nonstationary environment with delayed feedback and batched decisions. All our design and algorithmic choices emphasize the need for transparent reasoning to enable human-in-the-loop analytics. Such transparency was crucial to building trust and acceptance among policymakers and public health experts in a period of global crisis.

8.
Interfaces ; 52(5):395, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065084

ABSTRACT

The judges for the 2021 Daniel H. Wagner Prize for Excellence in the Practice of Advanced Analytics and Operations Research selected the five finalist papers featured in this special issue of the INFORMS Journal on Applied Analytics. The prestigious Wagner Prize-awarded for achievement in implemented operations research, management science, and advanced analytics-emphasizes the quality and originality of mathematical models along with clarity of written and oral exposition. This year's winning application describes the design and deployment of Eva, the Greek COVID-19 testing system used as Greece was opening up for tourism in 2020. The remaining four papers describe the stochastic modeling and mixed-integer programming system used to optimize the Atlanta police patrol zones for better police balance and reduced response time to emergency calls;Lyft's new priority dispatch system, which solves the ride-sharing productivity paradox whereby increases in efficiency do not benefit the drivers;the application of advanced analytics to assist local and federal law enforcement organizations in their efforts to disrupt sex-trafficking networks;and the development of a new after-sales service concept, which increases chip availability for ASML's customers.

9.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 378, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064099

ABSTRACT

Adding oropharyngeal to nasal sampling is not the answer to underperforming tests

10.
AJN American Journal of Nursing ; 122(10):15-15, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2062991

ABSTRACT

The article announces the appointment of Ann Kurth as the next president of the New York Academy of Medicine (NYAM), the first nurse and first nonphysician to lead the institution.

11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(7): 1384-1390, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2057184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify various emerging diagnostics parameters of coronavirus disease 2019 related to disease progression and fatality. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Mardan Medical Complex, Khyber Pakhtunkhwah, Pakistan, from February 9, 2021, to April 21, 2021, and comprised patients of either gender aged >18 years diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 on the basis of polymerase chain reaction testing and who were admitted to the hospital using the World Health Organisation interim guidelines. Disease progression was categorised as mild, moderate, severe and critical, and they were monitored closely till the final outcome. Data was analysed using SPSS 26. RESULTS: Of the 408 patients, 215(52.69%) were male and 193(47.30%) were female. The overall median age of the sample was 55 years (interquartile range: 18-84 years). Symptoms included cough 92(22.54%), fever 80(19.60%), shortness of breath 78(19.60%), fatigue 60(14.70%) and loss of smell and test 52(12.74%), while 46(11.27%) were asymptomatic. Azithromycin was the most used drug 304(74.50%), while antiviral Remdesivir was given to 279(68.38%) patients and hydrocortisone to 143(35.04%). Plasma treatment was given to 55(13.48%) patients and mechanical ventilation to 87(21.32%). Compared to baseline, disease progression was mild in 72(17.64%) patients, moderate 96(23.52%), severe 98(24.01%) and critical in 89(21.81%), while no change was seen 53(12.99%) cases. Severity level was significantly associated with liver and renal function parameters (p<0.05). Overall, 47(11.51%) patients died. CONCLUSIONS: Different severity levels during hospitalisation among patients of coronavirus disease 2019 were noted, and severity level was significantly associated with liver and renal function parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Wellcome Open Research ; 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2056407

ABSTRACT

Both home sample collection and home testing using rapid point-of-care diagnostic devices can offer benefits over attending a clinic/hospital to be tested by a healthcare professional. Usability is critical to ensure that in-home sampling or testing by untrained users does not compromise analytical performance. Usability studies can be laborious and rely on participants attending a research location or a researcher visiting homes;neither has been appropriate during COVID-19 outbreak control restrictions. We therefore developed a remote research usability methodology using videolink observation of home users. This avoids infection risks from home visits and ensures the participant follows the test protocol in their home environment. In this feasibility study, volunteers were provided with models of home blood testing and home blood sampling kits including a model lancet, sampling devices for dried blood spot collection, and model lateral flow device. After refining the study protocol through an initial pilot (n = 7), we compared instructions provided either as written instructions (n = 5), vs addition of video instructions (n = 5), vs written and video instructions plus videolink supervision by the researcher (n = 5). All users were observed via video call to define which test elements could be assessed remotely. All 22 participants in the study accessed the video call and configured their videolink allowing the researcher to clearly observe all testing tasks. The video call allowed the researcher to assess distinct errors during use including quantitative (volume of blood) and qualitative (inaccurate interpretation of results) errors many of which could compromise test accuracy. All participants completed the tasks and returned images of their completed tests (22/22) and most returned completed questionnaires (20/22). We suggest this remote observation via videolink methodology is a simple, rapid and powerful methodology to assess and optimise usability of point-of-care testing methods in the home setting.

13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053048

ABSTRACT

Serosurveillance among animals, including pets, plays an important role in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, because severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in animal populations could result in the establishment of new virus reservoirs. Serological assays that offer the required sensitivity and specificity are essential. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of three different commercially available immunoassays for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in pets, namely two ELISA tests for the detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid [ID Screen SARS CoV-2 double antigen multispecies (Double antigen) and ID Screen® SARS-CoV-2-N IgG indirect ELISA (Indirect)] and one test for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding-domain [surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT)]. The obtained results were compared with those of conventional virus neutralization test (VNT), which was regarded as reference method. A total of 191 serum samples were analysed. Thirteen (6.8%) samples showed VNT-positive results. The overall sensitivity was higher for sVNT (100%) compared to nucleocapsid-based ELISA assays (23% for Double antigen and 60% for Indirect). The specificity was 100% for Indirect ELISA and sVNT, when a higher cut-off (>30%) was used compared to the one previously defined by the manufacturer (>20%), whereas the other test showed lower value (99%). The sVNT test showed the highest accuracy and agreement with VNT, with a perfect agreement when the higher cut-off was applied. The agreement between each nucleocapsid-based ELISA test and VNT was 96% for Indirect and 94% for Double antigen. Our findings showed that some commercially available serological tests may lead to a high rate of false-negative results, highlighting the importance of assays validation for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in domestic animals.

14.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(9)2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051821
15.
Nature ; 609(7929):881, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2050298

ABSTRACT

The programme is backed by nonprofit organizations such as the Clinton Health Access Initiative, Americares and the COVID Collaborative, along with Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, and other partners. The authors factored in excess-deaths data from the World Health Organization, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in Seattle, Washington, and newspaper The Economist, along with fertility rates - which gave them an idea of how many children were affected by each death in a given country. The children affected are more likely than others to experience mental-health problems, abuse and chronic illness.

16.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1234-1235, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045563

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SFN is a relatively rare condition related to finer fibers of peripheral nervous system. A specific diagnostic procedure is necessary to reach a correct diagnosis.The most frequently reported symptoms are: pain (described as burning or a sensation of intense heat, as "aching cold", "pinpricks", "electric shocks),paraesthesia (spontaneous sensations of tingling,numbness,itching),dysesthesia and allodynia. Some published papers hypothesized a correlation between SFN and anticovid vaccine. Objective: Study target was to analyze the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) reported in our ASL (resident population 1,221,857, ¼ regional population) potentially linked to the SFN symptoms. Methods: Data relating to AEFI were extrapolated from the National Pharmacovigilance Network (NPN), while data referring to administered doses were extracted from the ASL QlinkView platform. Results: From 27 December 2020 to 26 April 2022, 624 reports, relating to vaccines anticovid AEFI, were received and recorded in the NPN. 2.109 AEFI were described in these reports. Administered vaccines: Comirnaty (346/624 sheets;1.164/2.109AEFI;2.092.042/ 3.028.781 total administered doses), the most reported AEFI were related to general pathologies: pain, wheal or erythema at the injection site, headache, fever, asthenia, nausea, malaise, tachycardia, muscle pain, fatigue, joint pain (25% of 1.164 AEFI). Other described symptoms: other pains, burning, itching, paraesthesia, tingling, numbness, allodynia, potentially linked to SFN (17.3% of 1.164 AEFI);Spikevax (112/624 sheets;392/2.109 AEFI;607.626/ 3.028.781 doses),the most reported AEFI, like Comirnaty, were related to the injection site (26% of 392 AEFI), while the potentially symptoms related to SFN were the 20.2% of 392 AEFI;Vaxzevria (146/624 sheets;512/2.109 AEFI;298.188/3.028.781 doses), the most reported AEFI, related to general pathologies, were the 33% of 512 AEFI, while potentially symptoms related to SFN were the 18.8%. Finally, as regards the Janssen vaccine (10/624 sheets;32/2.109 AEFI;30.702/3.028.781 doses), the most described events, related to general pathologies, are the 47% of the 32 AEFI, while 31% are potentially linked to the of SFN symptoms. No AEFI was reported related to the 223 doses about Novavax vaccine. The causality assessment was defined correlatable about 37 records (6% of 624 records). 12/37 records describe potentially linked to SFN symptoms (6 Vaxzevria (1%), 3 Comirnaty (0.5%) and 3 Spikevax (0.5%)). Conclusion: The analysis about AEFI reported in our ASL related to anticovid vaccines underlined the existence of symptoms potentially linked to SFN, although only in a few cases it was evaluated a causality assessment to vaccination. Just a specific diagnostic procedure can confirm the diagnosis and the correlation. Therefore, the correlation between SFN and vaccine needs larger-scale studies and insights for a correct evaluation.

17.
The COVID-19 Response ; : 53-68, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041397

ABSTRACT

Public health systems in the U.S. were not adequately prepared for the demands placed on laboratory systems, equipment, staffing, or information technology by the COVID-19 pandemic. Limited capacity early in the pandemic was a critical barrier to effective surveillance testing for COVID-19 infections, which allowed the virus to spread undetected through many communities, in part due to the proportion of cases that were asymptomatic. As the availability of testing increased, sensitivity (the ability of a test to correctly identify positive cases) and specificity (the ability of a test to correctly identify negative cases) of various testing approaches remained a concern. Members of racial and ethnic minority groups often had unequal access to testing, while at the same time being disproportionately affected by COVID-19 infections, hospitalizations, and deaths. The rise of the Delta variant in summer 2021 and the subsequent reopening of schools and workplaces in many parts of the U.S. raised additional questions about COVID testing capacity and the effectiveness of screening programs, which were further challenged by the Omicron variant surge in early 2022. Major investments in laboratory systems and information technologies are needed to address gaps identified during the COVID-19 response to ensure preparedness for future public health threats.

18.
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education ; 86(6):668-672, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2034288

ABSTRACT

The profession of pharmacy is complex and diverse, encompassing a wide range of necessary practice skills. Decisions regarding which skills are essential for students are made by faculty of skills-based laboratory courses, who also determine how these skills are taught and assessed. This commentary aims to further the discussion regarding how the essential skills taught and assessed in skills laboratory curricula are identified, with the intention of preparing student pharmacists for both current and future pharmacy practice. Guidance on essential skills is provided by various organizations and documents, but ultimately each institution has the autonomy to decide what to teach. As such, this piece discusses the importance of frequent curriculum evaluation to determine how to train pharmacists of the future so they will practice at the top of their license rather than simply meet competency with historical skills.

20.
Non-conventional in English, Russian, Arabic | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754664
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