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1.
Work ; 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to widespread changes in the way people work. Some of these changes represent the same kinds of work modifications or adjustments that have often been requested as workplace accommodations, and which may improve labour market and employment outcomes for people with disabilities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this scoping review was to examine the literature on workplace accommodations in the pandemic and their impacts and implications for people with disabilities. METHODS: Following a search of six international databases, articles were selected by two reviewers, and data were abstracted in accordance with scoping review methodology. A thematic analysis was used to report the relevant findings. RESULTS: Thirty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria, and three main themes were identified: positive impacts of pandemic-related workplace accommodations on people with disabilities (e.g., improved accessibility, reduced stigma around workplace accommodations, rapid implementation of workplace accommodations, opportunities for advocacy); negative impacts (e.g., worsened physical and mental health, new accommodation needs); and action needed and recommendations (e.g., revisit legislation and policy on accommodations, ensure representation of people with disabilities). Overall, our review identified a mixed assessment of the impacts of pandemic-related accommodations on people with disabilities. However, there was a broader consensus regarding the importance of learning from the experiences of the pandemic to improve workplace accommodation policies in the future. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic may present opportunities for improving workplace accommodation policies, but our review also highlights the need for more research examining how workplace changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic have impacted people with disabilities.

3.
Biomedical Engineering Applications for People with Disabilities and the Elderly in the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond ; : 145-154, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2060233

ABSTRACT

A most life-threatening situation caused by a novel coronavirus has been unfolding over the last 2years at breakneck speed. The general public is desperate to learn more about how the current situation with COVID-19 is unfolding, including statistics on the number of people who have been affected, as well as news about deaths, recovery rates, and the various ages of people who have been affected across India, particularly those with disabilities and the elderly. This chapter is intended to combine the COVID-19 demand and proceeds with the available statistics onto a single platform. The virus has spread across the globe, and much of the information in the public domain is not accurate. It also affects people adversely if information is unreliable, and so there should be dependable and trustworthy data that individuals can use and rely on in such perilous situations. COVID HUB, a valuable smart application, will provide the public with the accurate information that they deserve. This suggested handy application includes data on the number of people impacted, death rates, recovery rates, and the numbers of elderly and differently abled people affected. The information sources for this new smart app are observed through the application program interface, which obtains data from a remote source, maps its key points and values, and aligns them in a data center. Once the app is started automatically by the system, the application program interface call is made. If COVID symptoms are detected in one or more of the neighboring states, this function collects all of the phone numbers to be dialed from each state. Dart is used for implementation of this COVID HUB. Flutter, which supports both Android and iOS, as well as being a tool chain, coding platform, SDK management, and Dart extensions, are all included in this implementation. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

4.
Journal of Community Psychology ; 50(6):2531-2764, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2044735

ABSTRACT

This special issue consists of 12 papers that explore how synergistic connections between COVID-19 and many health and well-being variables unfolded across the world with different vulnerable populations, including survivors of sexual assault, people with disabilities, college students, Black Americans, caregivers, survivors of domestic violence, pregnant women, and people living in low-income neighborhoods.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on persons with disabilities (PwDs) in India. About 27.4 million cases were reported as of 27 May 2021. The continuing pandemic in the form of subsequent waves is expected to have negative repercussions for the disabled globally, particularly in India, where access to health, rehabilitation, and social care services is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown restrictions on PwDs in India. OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of disruption due to COVID-19 and the associated countrywide lockdown restrictions on PwD in India during the first wave. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach, data were collected from a representative sample of 403 persons with disabilities in 14 states in India during the COVID-19 first wave at two different points in time (Lockdown and post-lockdown phase). Factors associated with the negative impact were examined using the Chi-square test for associations. The paired comparisons between 'lockdown' with the 'post-lockdown' phase are presented using McNemar's test and the marginal homogeneity test to compare the proportions. Additionally, a subsample of the participants in the survey was identified to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to gain in-depth insights on the study question and substantiate the quantitative findings. The framework approach was used to conduct a thematic analysis of the qualitative data. RESULTS: About 60% of the PwDs found it difficult to access emergency medical services during the lockdown, and 4.6% post lockdown (p < 0.001). Likewise, 12% found it difficult to access rehabilitation services during the lockdown, and 5% post lockdown (p = 0.03). About 76% of respondents were apprehensive of the risk of infection during the lockdown, and this increased to 92% post lockdown (p < 0.001). Parents with children were significantly impacted due to lockdown in the areas of Medical (p = 0.007), Rehabilitation (p = 0.001), and Mental health services (p = 0.001). The results from the qualitative study supported these quantitative findings. PWDs felt that the lockdown restrictions had negatively impacted their productivity, social participation, and overall engagement in everyday activities. Access to medicines and rehabilitation services was felt to be extremely difficult and detrimental to the therapeutic benefits that were gained by them during the pre-pandemic time. None of the pandemic mitigation plans and services was specific or inclusive of PWDs. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 and the associated lockdown restrictions have negatively impacted persons with disabilities during the first wave in India. It is critical to mainstream disability within the agenda for health and development with pragmatic, context-specific strategies and programs in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics
6.
Br J Sports Med ; 56(22): 1266-1267, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019964

Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Sports , Humans
7.
Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development ; 62(6):31-40, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2017046

ABSTRACT

This review article discusses the following: (1) infectious diseases and the Sustainable Development Goals, (2) pandemic proofing and the SDGs, (3) climate change and food insecurity, (4) antibiotics and antibiotic resistance, (5) vaccines, prevention, and vaccine hesitancy, (6) plastics, waste, and pollution. Therefore, it is increasingly clear that the pandemic is disproportionately impacting the most vulnerable of our communities: the elderly, persons with preexisting conditions, and persons living with disabilities, as well as communities of color, immigrants, our prison population, and front-line workers, who often have low income. Promoting respect for cultural diversity (SDG16) within a human-rights-based approach helps facilitate cultural understanding and peace, prevents conflicts, and protects the rights of marginalised groups.

8.
Therapeutic Recreation Journal ; 56(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010711

ABSTRACT

This issue contains five articles dealing with: the perceived competence of therapeutic recreation interns during the COVID-19 pandemic;therapeutic recreation service delivery for adults with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities in community-based settings;the impact of COVID-19 countermeasures on individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and the role of recreation therapy interventions;the use of virtual reality in therapeutic recreation for individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities;and the National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification's response to COVID-19 related to certification standards, interpretive guidelines, and financial assistance programs.

9.
Acta Ortop Bras ; 30(spe1): e248102, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938480

ABSTRACT

Children and adolescents with physical disabilities have motor and social-emotional challenges that interfere with their health-related quality of life and put them at greater risk of developing secondary conditions. Moreover, services that provide them therapies are more likely to be restricted, especially for the low-income population. There must be broader actions towards health promotion, offering not only means for physical habilitation and rehabilitation but for social and emotional improvements as well. This goal is attainable by adaptive sports and recreational activities where physical conditioning is accompanied by an improvement in self-esteem and social benefits. With the COVID-19 pandemic and social isolation, children and adolescents with physical disabilities were even further deprived of assistance. Our aim was to report the efforts of a non-governmental sports organization in maintaining physical and psychological care through virtual consultations and to analyze the perceptions of those affected by the process. Level of evidence IV; case series .


Crianças e adolescentes com deficiência física apresentam desafios motores e socioemocionais que interferem na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde e os colocam em maior risco de desenvolver doenças secundárias. Além disso, estão mais sujeitos a restrições de serviços adequados que ofereçam terapias, principalmente para a população de baixa renda social. Torna-se necessário oferecer ações voltadas para a promoção da saúde em um sentido mais amplo, oferecendo não só meios de habilitação e reabilitação física, mas também de ganhos sociais e emocionais. Este objetivo pode ser atingido com esportes adaptados e atividades recreativas nos quais o condicionamento físico é acompanhado por ganhos em autoestima e benefícios sociais. Com a pandemia de COVID-19 e o isolamento social, crianças e adolescentes com deficiência física ficaram ainda mais privados de assistência. Relatamos aqui o esforço de uma organização não-governamental esportiva em manter o atendimento físico e psicológico por meio de consultas virtuais, e avaliamos as percepções das partes interessadas no processo. Nível de evidência IV; série de casos .

10.
6th International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics, ICOEI 2022 ; : 222-226, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1901450

ABSTRACT

In the modern era computers are becoming faster, smarter and better. Their usage is rising in the fields such as medicine, business administration, education etc. So there is a need for simplifying the operability and usability of a computer. Digital virtual assistants are known for easing the interaction with computers. Since most of the digital virtual assistants use voice as mode of communication deaf and dumb persons are finding it difficult to use virtual assistants on their devices. This research work attempts to propose a voice and gesture based virtual assistant that can be used by disabled as well as non disabled persons to perform common tasks on their computers. The main aim of this research paper is to develop natural human-machine interaction. Input to the virtual assistant is the user's choice. Users can choose to communicate using voice and gestures or operate a mouse pointer using gestures. In thee proposed system, gestures are recognized even in low light conditions. So, the proposed system is very much helpful in all day conditions. It can be of great help in times like Covid-19 pandemic to be contact free as well as for people with disabilities. © 2022 IEEE.

11.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e44, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1897301

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify surveys that included questions about disability during the COVID-19 pandemic, in the period 2020-2021; and based on this, to determine what actions the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean implemented in the areas of education, health, and social protection that explicitly included the population with disabilities. Methods: Documents from the national statistics institutes of the countries of the region were reviewed, as well as the Socioeconomic Impact Assessment platform and webpages of international institutions such as the World Bank, the United Nations Development Program, and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, seeking to identify national or regional surveys implemented during 2020 and the first half of 2021. Additionally, a documentary analysis was conducted of the measures implemented in the health, education, and social protection sectors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These documents were studied to determine whether the population with disabilities was explicitly mentioned. Results: Twenty-three countries in Latin America and the Caribbean collected information from statistical surveys during 2020-2021. Of these, only four (Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru) included questions on disability in their national surveys and although some specific surveys were conducted for the population with disabilities, in the region there is a general lack of associated data on this population during the pandemic. Only 10 countries explicitly included the population with disabilities in health measures, 12 in education, and 13 in social protection. Conclusions: The lack of data on the population with disabilities in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean during the COVID-19 pandemic shows that this population remains invisible in information collection processes. This is associated with the low number of countries that explicitly included the population with disabilities in policies implemented to mitigate the impact of the pandemic.


Objetivo: Identificar pesquisas que incluíram perguntas sobre deficiência realizadas no período de 2020-2021 da pandemia de COVID-19 e, a partir dessa informação, determinar as ações em saúde, educação e assistência social empreendidas nos países da América Latina e do Caribe e que incluíram explicitamente pessoas com deficiência. Métodos: Documentação obtida dos institutos nacionais de estatística dos países da Região, da plataforma Socioeconomic Impact Assessment (avaliação do impacto socioeconômico) e de sites de organismos internacionais (como Banco Mundial, Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento e Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe) foi analisada com o objetivo de identificar as pesquisas nacionais ou regionais realizadas em 2020 e no primeiro semestre de 2021. Também foi realizada uma pesquisa documental da regulamentação para ações em saúde, educação e assistência social destinadas a enfrentar a pandemia de COVID-19, com vistas a identificar a menção explícita de pessoas com deficiência. Resultados: Vinte e três países da América Latina e do Caribe fizeram a coleta de dados estatísticos em pesquisas realizadas no período 2020-2021. Apenas quatro países incluíram perguntas sobre deficiência em pesquisas nacionais: Colômbia, Costa Rica, México e Peru. Apesar de ter havido pesquisas direcionadas para pessoas com deficiência, a Região em geral carece de dados relativos à situação dessa população na pandemia. Somente 10 países empreenderam ações em saúde com a inclusão explícita de pessoas com deficiência, 12 em educação e 13 em assistência social. Conclusões: A falta de dados sobre a situação das pessoas com deficiência nos países da América Latina e do Caribe durante a pandemia de COVID-19 demonstra a invisibilidade deste segmento populacional nos processos de coleta de dados. Como resultado, um número reduzido de países incluiu explicitamente as pessoas com deficiência nas políticas implementadas para o enfrentamento da pandemia.

12.
21st International Conference on Advances in ICT for Emerging Regions, ICter 2021 ; : 30-35, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874309

ABSTRACT

Humans start their day by looking in the mirror at least once before leaving their homes every morning. In addition, they waste some considerable time of their busy workload in front of the mirror. To make this time more productive and useful, there ought to be a system that can be readily conducted, user-friendly, and smart according to the constant progress on the Internet of Things. The intelligent mirror is a new addition to the smart device family, which is a straightforward concept. There will be a screen placed behind a two-way mirror, and this Intelligent Mirror turns our room or bathroom mirror into a personal assistant with artificial intelligence. The purpose is to develop a smart mirror that can automate working humans' busy daily routines and manage their tasks when they spend their time in front of a mirror. To make the most of this moment, users can securely access all the relevant details of the day by looking in the mirror simultaneously. The intelligent mirror, which a single voice command can activate, will significantly help disabled persons and the general. Raspberry Pi has been used to build the proposed intelligent mirror, linked to the digital world via the Internet. The mirror can communicate with the user through voice commands and reply appropriately. The monitoring of emotions and health measuring function will provide a distinctive experience to the users. The mirror will reflect important elements such as weather, date & time, covid-19 situation reports, local news, To-do list, water reminder, home workouts, and meal plans. The mirror can also handle specialized functions such as automating and controlling home IoT devices. © 2021 IEEE.

13.
6th World Conference on Qualitative Research, WCQR 2022 ; 466 LNNS:137-152, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1872325

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The pandemic of COVID-19 imposed the elaboration and dissemination of content about protection and prevention of the disease for different audiences. Objective: Analyze videos released by government institutions related to COVID-19 protection and prevention for people with disabilities (PWD) in light of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML). Methods: Documentary research, carried out on the official websites of the governmental spheres of Brazil and on the YouTube video sharing platform. Results: Identified 33 videos produced in 2020 and their contents presented understandable language, clear and varied colors, devoid of figures or animations. Of these, 29 videos included the Libras interpreter and one used audio description of the images. Two categories were identified: Protective Measures of COVID-19 in PWD and Preventive Measures of COVID-19 in PWD. According to the principles of the Theory it was observed adequacy in the conveying of information on the protective measures regarding the principles of coherence, signaling, spatial and temporal contiguity, pre-training, modality, multimedia and customization in the language on individual and collective protection measures, educational inclusion and accessibility to rehabilitation assistance by telehealth. In the preventive measures, the principles of multimedia, personalization, voice, image, signaling, and personalization are attended to, as hand washing, respiratory etiquette, correct use of the face mask and with lip visor, facing COVID-19 for intellectual PWD, hygiene of support equipment, and protocols used in inclusive residences were explained. Conclusions: The principles of CTML contributed satisfactorily to the visual materials published about COVID-19 for PWD, however, this communication modality needs a greater reach to the interested public. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785626

ABSTRACT

This study identified the acceptance of disability's impact on self-esteem among adults with disabilities in South Korea. This is a four-year follow-up study that obtained data from the Panel Survey of Employment for Persons with Disabilities from 2017 to 2020. In total, 3329 individuals participated. Logistic regression examined the acceptance of disability's effect on self-esteem. These variables were categorized based on the acceptance of disability (high→high, low→high, high→low, and low→low) and self-esteem (low and not low). Compared to the participants with a consistently high acceptance of disability, those with constantly low acceptance were 2.35 times (95% CI 1.81-3.04) more likely to have low self-esteem. When the acceptance of disability was low→high and high→low, the low self-esteem probability was 1.23 and 1.66 times, respectively. Low self-esteem was prominent for the following: men, 50-64-year olds, married, urban, economic activists, the mid-low household income category, and those with sensory disability. Acceptance of disability can adversely affect self-esteem when it is consistently low or changes from high to low. Among socio-economic factors, there were several risk factors that could make individuals more vulnerable to low self-esteem. Therefore, it is necessary to help people accept their disabilities to maintain healthy self-esteem levels.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Adult , Employment , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea , Self Concept
16.
South African Journal of Sports Medicine ; 32(8986), 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1761335

ABSTRACT

The lockdown regulations due to the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) that broke out towards the end of 2019 and continued to spread throughout most countries in the world had a negative effect on the sporting community. The South African government eased the lockdown rules to Level 1 from 21 September 2020. In Part 2 of this Position Statement of the South African Sports Medicine Association (SASMA), the authors address the position regarding the safe return to sports for athletes who were infected by the virus. An update on clinical manifestations and multi-organ involvement, testing for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), prolonged positive real time polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR) and the role of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in informing return to sports, grading of disease severity, individualised management of infected athletes and graduated return to play guidelines (GRTP) is provided. The authors also share thoughts on athletes with disabilities, immunisation, the using of masks during exercise and utilising biologically safe environments (BSE). Finally the SASMA Guidelines for Safe RTP in Level 1 lockdown during SARS-Cov-2 are introduced.

17.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 76(6): 550-555, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723844

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) may be at higher risk of COVID-19 death. We compared COVID-19 infection, severe infection, mortality, case fatality and excess deaths, among adults with, and without, ID. METHODS: Adults with ID in Scotland's Census, 2011, and a 5% sample of other adults, were linked to COVID-19 test results, hospitalisation data and deaths (24 January 2020-15 August 2020). We report crude rates of COVID-19 infection, severe infection (hospitalisation/death), mortality, case fatality; age-standardised, sex-standardised and deprivation-standardised severe infection and mortality ratios; and annual all-cause mortality for 2020 and 2015-2019. FINDINGS: Successful linkage of 94.9% provided data on 17 203 adults with, and 188 634 without, ID. Adults with ID had more infection (905/100 000 vs 521/100 000); severe infection (538/100 000 vs 242/100 000); mortality (258/100 000 vs 116/100 000) and case fatality (30% vs 24%). Poorer outcomes remained after standardisation: standardised severe infection ratio 2.61 (95% CI 1.81 to 3.40) and mortality ratio 3.26 (95% CI 2.19 to 4.32). These were higher at ages 55-64: 7.39 (95% CI 3.88 to 10.91) and 19.05 (95% CI 9.07 to 29.02), respectively, and in men, and less deprived neighbourhoods. All-cause mortality was slightly higher in 2020 than 2015-2019 for people with ID: standardised mortality ratio 2.50 (95% CI 2.18 to 2.82) and 2.39 (95% CI 2.28 to 2.51), respectively. CONCLUSION: Adults with ID had more COVID-19 infections, and worse outcomes once infected, particularly adults under 65 years. Non-pharmaceutical interventions directed at formal and informal carers are essential to reduce transmission. All adults with ID should be prioritised for vaccination and boosters regardless of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged
18.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 93:213-228, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1653396

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 is having a significant impact on our everyday lives. One of the measures put in place to slow the spread of the disease is social distancing. Because of the abrupt implementation of these laws, it become impossible for a person to follow this form of lifestyle. So we have developed a device that can assist both normal and visually disabled people in maintaining physical distance from other people by using deep learning to identify an individual and verify if the other person is six feet away from the user so that social distance can be sustained, and virus spread can be reduced. Our architecture includes a Webcam and a Raspberry Pi 4 model B to run an advanced image processing algorithm SSD MobileNet for human detection. SSD MobileNet is implemented to determine if the other individual is physically close to the user. If an individual does not adhere to social distancing, an automated reading aid is activated, and an audio warning is sent to the user. Since the whole setup is light and portable, it can be conveniently installed with any mask. The job is evaluated in real time. The results show that the proposed device improves mobility, convenience, and ease of navigation for both normal and visually disabled people in this pandemic situation. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

19.
J Occup Rehabil ; 32(3): 464-472, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626766

ABSTRACT

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected the lives of people with disabilities (PWD). How the pandemic affects the employment of PWD and employers has yet to be determined. We aimed to investigate the employment consequences of the pandemic as experienced by PWD and employers. The research questions were: (1) What employment effects do PWD experience, and what business changes do employers encounter as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic? (2) What challenges have PWD encountered during the pandemic? Methods Cross-sectional online surveys of 733 PWD and 67 employers in the Midwestern United States. Results Compared to non-disabled peers, PWD encountered more challenges in employment during the pandemic. We found high percentages of both employers and PWD experiencing employment changes and business shutdown during the pandemic. For PWD whose employment was not affected, 14.6% of the participants (n = 107) expected a loss of income and worried about the economic uncertainty of the pandemic. Unemployment for PWD is high due to illness or disability, being laid-off or furloughed, business reductions, and not feeling safe to work. However, only about 18.6% of unemployed PWD (n = 16) received pay or benefits for the time they were not working even though more than half filed for unemployment benefits. Conclusions The pandemic adversely affected employment of PWD as reported by workers and employers. Findings parallel the experience of the non-disabled workforce, but reveal vulnerabilities that reflect disability consequences and the need for job accommodations. Results reveal emergent needs for policy supports to reduce the disparities experienced by PWD in the workplace.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Humans , Pandemics , Workplace
20.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 204, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with disabilities (PwD) have been facing multiple health, social, and economic disparities during the COVID-19 pandemic, stemming from structural disparities experienced for long time. This paper aims to present the PREparedness, RESponse and SySTemic transformation (PRE-RE-SyST): a model for a disability-inclusive pandemic responses and systematic disparities reduction. METHODS: Scoping review with a thematic analysis was conducted on the literature published up to mid-September 2020, equating to the initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Seven scientific databases and three preprint databases were searched to identify empirical or perspective papers addressing health and socio-economic disparities experienced by PwD as well as reporting actions to address them. Snowballing searches and experts' consultation were also conducted. Two independent reviewers made eligibility decisions and performed data extractions on any action or recommended action to address disparities. A thematic analysis was then used for the model construction, informed by a systems-thinking approach (i.e., the Iceberg Model). RESULTS: From 1027 unique references, 84 were included in the final analysis. The PRE-RE-SyST model articulates a four-level strategic action to: 1) Respond to prevent or reduce disability disparities during a pandemic crisis; 2) Prepare ahead for pandemic and other crises responses; 3) Design systems and policies for a structural disability-inclusiveness; and 4) Transform society's cultural assumptions about disability. 'Simple rules' and literature-based examples on how these strategies can be deployed are provided. CONCLUSION: The PRE-RE-SyST model articulates main strategies, 'simple rules' and possible means whereby public health authorities, policy-makers, and other stakeholders can address disability disparities in pandemic crises, and beyond. Beyond immediate pandemic responses, disability-inclusiveness is needed to develop everyday equity-oriented policies and practices that can transform societies towards greater resiliency, as a whole, to pandemic and other health and social emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Pandemics , Public Health Practice , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Models, Organizational , Pandemics/prevention & control
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