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1.
Buildings ; 13(5), 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20241600

ABSTRACT

This study utilizes the enclosed and stable environment of underground space for long-term sustainable planning for urban epidemics and disasters. Owing to the COVID-19 epidemic, cities require long-term epidemic-disaster management. Therefore, this study proposed a strategy for integrating multiple functions to plan a comprehensive Underground Resilience Core (URC). A planning and assessment methods of URC were proposed. With this methodology, epidemic- and disaster- URCs were integrated to construct a comprehensive-URC in underground spaces. The results show: (1) Epidemic-resilient URCs adopting a joint progressive approach with designated hospitals can rapidly suppress an epidemic outbreak. (2) The regularity of the morphology of underground spaces determines the area of the URC. Bar-shaped underground spaces have the potential for planning disaster-URCs. (3) The URC planning efficiency ranking is as follows: Bar shapes lead overall, T shapes are second under seismic resilience, and Cross shapes are second under epidemic resilience. (4) The potential analysis of planning a comprehensive-URC in the underground parking in Chinese cities showed that the recovery time can be advanced from 29% to 39% and the comprehensive resilience can be improved by 37.63%. The results of this study can serve as sustainable urban planning strategies and assessment tools for long-term epidemic-disaster management.

2.
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20235787

ABSTRACT

In this note, we present the preliminary findings from a qualitative interview-based study among migrant workers in India who went through much hardship in the wake of one of most strict pandemic-induced lockdown in 2020. Through this study, we narrate the four ways in which digital technologies enabled the relief and crisis mitigation efforts targeted to migrant workers and how that in turn shaped the workers' experience of the crisis and associated relief efforts. We argue that more flexible use of familiar digital tools and channels, collaboration across state and non-state actors and assistance from human intermediaries in navigating ICTs make for more effective and inclusive relief measures. © 2022 ACM.

3.
Lentera Hukum ; 9(3):459-492, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20232607

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, a globally unprecedented disease outbreak, has alarmed all governments to reconsider the importance of disaster management policies at the domestic level. At the same time, handling transboundary disasters was another challenge faced by regional organizations such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). As a result of this pandemic, all member states tended to act more independently by closing their territories and isolating their citizens from cross-border migration. This paper aimed to examine ASEAN's existing measures to address the COVID-19 pandemic, following the importance of considering domestic policies taken by its member states to portray the possible action at the regional level. In practice, each ASEAN member state had various approaches, from strict lockdowns such as those implemented in Singapore to Indonesian policies that were far from being prepared. While COVID-19 is a non-natural disaster but has had a devastating impact on Southeast Asia, the future of regional integration is at stake. This paper showed that each member state's different social, economic, and political situations influenced the absence of early common practices at the domestic level to overcome this pandemic. Simultaneously, market stability in Southeast Asia was the key to regional development, whereas this pandemic harmed ASEAN's aim to meet economic integration. This paper suggested that ASEAN should establish guidelines regarding disaster management as experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic for member states' domestic policies to anticipate possible adverse episodes in the future that may hamper the integration progress. © 2022 by Author(s).

4.
Public Works Manag Policy ; 28(3): 306-338, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244383

ABSTRACT

This study discusses risk management strategies caused by pandemic-related (Covid-19) suspensions in thirty-six engineering projects of different types and sizes selected from countries in the middle east and especially Iraq. The primary data collection method was a survey and questionnaire completed by selected project crew and laborers. Data were processed using Microsoft Excel to construct models to help decision-makers find solutions to the scheduling problems that may be expected to occur during a pandemic. A theoretical and practical concept for project risk management that addresses a range of global and local issues that affect schedule and cost is presented and results indicate that the most significant delays are due to a lack of good project risk management skills and remote project management capability which is exacerbated by shortfalls in technical development and information technology.

5.
Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience: Disaster Risk Management Strategies ; : 1-473, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2322963

ABSTRACT

This book is part of a six-volume series on Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience. The series aims to fill in gaps in theory and practice in the Sendai Framework, and provides additional resources, methodologies and communication strategies to enhance the plan for action and targets proposed by the Sendai Framework. The series will appeal to a broad range of researchers, academics, students, policy makers and practitioners in engineering, environmental science and geography, geoscience, emergency management, finance, community adaptation, atmospheric science and information technology.This volume offers the international guidelines and global standards for resilient disaster risk reduction and lessons learned from disasters, particularly the COVID-19 and Cholera pandemics. A resilient health system and an effective disaster risk management Index are then suggested. The book further emphasizes urban resilience strategies with local authorities, adaptation strategies for urban heat at regional, city and local scales, and lessons from community-level interventions. Also addressed are coastal erosion, displacement and resettlement strategies. Land use planning and green infrastructure are suggested as tools for natural hazards reduction. Human security in times of climate change and urban heat at regional, city and local scales is discussed for an integrated action, with case studies based in Manila, Burkina Faso, Chad, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Nigeria, India, Spain, and Ghana. Structure design for cascading disasters resulting from mining and flooding is presented and sustainable smart city planning using spatial data is recommended. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 302: 881-885, 2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322082

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 remains an important focus of study in the field of public health informatics. COVID-19 designated hospitals have played an important role in the management of patients affected by the disease. In this paper we describe our modelling of the needs and sources of information for infectious disease practitioners and hospital administrators used to manage a COVID-19 outbreak. Infectious disease practitioner and hospital administrator stakeholders were interviewed to learn about their information needs and where they obtained their information. Stakeholder interview data were transcribed and coded to extract use case information. The findings indicate that participants used many and varied sources of information in the management of COVID-19. The use of multiple, differing sources of data led to considerable effort. In modelling participants' activities, we identified potential subsystems that could be used as a basis for developing an information system specific to the public health needs of hospitals providing care to COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Disease Outbreaks , Public Health
7.
International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management ; 19(3-4):237-259, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2318640

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research is to describe the use of telemedicine applied to patients characterised by a particular state of illness, which often drives them toward a frail and chronic status, in a systematic manner. This work employed the Tranfield approach to carry out a systematic literature review (SLR), in order to provide an efficient and high-quality method for identifying and evaluating extensive studies. The methodology was pursued step by step, analysing keywords, topics, journal quality to arrive at a set of relevant open access papers that was analysed in detail. The same papers were compared to each other and then, they were categorised according to significant metrics, also evaluating technologies and methods employed. Through our systematic review we found that most of the patients involved in telemedicine programs agreed with this service model and the clinical results appeared encouraging. Findings suggested that telemedicine services were appreciated by patients, they increased the access to care and could be a better way to face emergencies and pandemics, lowering overall costs and promoting social inclusion.Copyright © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

8.
Professional Safety ; 68(5):23-25, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2314333

ABSTRACT

[...]in 1996, with campus president support, an umbrella safety council was created that includes representation of both OSH and non-OSH activities. Over time, the non-OSH representation has expanded, incorporating representatives from areas such as human resources, building facilities management, employee assistance and wellness, mental health, environmental waste management, campus security and disaster preparedness. With the safety councils support, the wellness and employee assistance programs conducted focus group discussions and determined a major cause of the observed stress was rooted in personal financial management challenges. With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the safety council members became concerned about the overall well-being of the university community and, as such, assisted in the conduct of two waves of a campus-wide survey measuring aspects such as mental health, well-being concerns about COVID-19, personal finance worries and accessing reliable sources of information.

9.
IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science ; 1164(1):011001, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2313029

ABSTRACT

International Conference on Geospatial Science for Digital Earth Observation (GSDEO 2021)The international conference on "Geospatial Science for Digital Earth Observation” (GSDEO) 2021 was successfully held on a virtual platform of Zoom on March 26th and 27th, 2021. The conference was jointly organized by the Indian Society of Remote Sensing (ISRS), Kolkata chapter, and the Department of Geography, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Adamas University. Due to the non-predictable behaviour of the COVID-19 second wave, which imposed restrictions on organizing offline events, the GSDEO (2021) organizing committee decided to organize the conference online, instead of postponing the event.Remotely sensed data and geographic information systems have been increasingly used together for a vast range of applications, which include land use/land cover mapping, water resource management, weather forecasting, environmental monitoring, agriculture, disaster management, etc. Currently, intensive research is being carried out using remotely sensed data on the geoinformatics platform. New developments have led to dynamic advances in recent years. The objective of the international conference on Geospatial Science for Digital Earth Observation (GSDEO 2021) was to bring the scientists, academicians, and researchers, in the field of geo-environmental sciences on a common platform to exchange ideas and their recent findings related to the latest advances and applications of geospatial science. The call for papers received an enthusiastic response from the academic community, and over 100+ participants from 50+ colleges, universities, and institutions participated in the conference. In total 50+ research papers had been presented through the virtual Zoom conference platform in GSDEO 2021.The conference witnessed the presentation of research papers from diverse applied fields of geospatial sciences, which include the application of geoinformatics in geomorphology, hydrology, urban science, land use planning, climate, and environmental studies. There were four sessions namely, TS 1: Geomorphology and Hydrology, TS 2: Urban Science, TS 3: Social Sustainability and Land Use Planning, and TS 4: Climate and Environment. Each session was further subdivided, into two parts, namely Technical Session 1-A and 1-B. Each sub-session had been designed with one keynote speech and 5 oral presentations. Oral sessions were organized in two parts and offered through live and pre-recorded components based on the preference of the presenters. The presentation session was followed by a live Q&A session. The session chairs moderated the discussions. Similarly, poster sessions were organized in three parts and offered e-poster, live, and pre-recorded components. The best presenter of each sub-session received the best paper award.Dr. Prithvish Nag, Ex-Director of NATMO & Ex Surveyor General of India delivered the inaugural speech, and Dr. P. Chakrabarti, Former Chief Scientist of the DST&B, Govt. of West Bengal delivered a special lecture after the inaugural session. Eight eminent keynote speakers, Prof. S.P. Agarwal from the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Prof. Ashis Kumar Paul from Vidyasagar University, Prof. Soumya Kanti Ghosh from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Prof. L. N. Satpati from the University of Calcutta, Prof. R.B. Singh from the University of Delhi, Dr. A.K. Raha, IFS (Retd), Prof. Gerald Mills from the University College Dublin and Prof. Sugata Hazra from Jadavpur University enriched the knowledge of participants in the field of geoinformatics by their informative lectures. The presentations and discussions widely covered the various spectrums of geoinformatics and its application in monitoring natural resources like vegetation mapping, agricultural resource monitoring, forest health assessment, water, and ocean resource management, disaster management, land resource management, water and climate studies, drought vulnerability assessment, groundwater quality monitoring, accretion mapping and the use of geospatial sci nce in studying morphological, hydrological, and other biophysical characteristics of a region etc. Application of geoinformatics in predicting urban expansion, urban climate, disaster management, healthcare accessibility, anthropogenic resource monitoring, spatial-interaction mapping, and, sustainable regional planning were well-discussed topics of the conference.List of Committees, photos are available in the pdf.

10.
J Soc Econ Dev ; : 1-15, 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318827

ABSTRACT

Odisha is among handful of states that is at the forefront of India's fight against a rapidly growing COVID-19 pandemic. Even before the national lockdown was imposed by the Union government on March 24, Odisha was only state to have imposed partial lockdown in select districts. It was also first state that took proactive steps to ramp up its health care system particularly having a COVID-19 hospital with intensive care units (ICUs) on public-private partnership mode. Importantly, Odisha was among few states to have created a COVID-19 hospital at each district in record time. In addition, the state took many proactive measures including setting up a taskforce to oversee the COVID-19 response, put up a critical information and communication system with daily press briefings among others to stay on the top of pandemic management. But come May when the migrants rush unfolded, the state experienced steady surge in infections as the pandemic started spreading to relatively dense rural hinterlands. The migrant endowed districts like Ganjam became the epicentres of new spread and the state is struggling to rein on the growing pandemic. What led to the state losing its initial gains? How did the state manage it so ably in the initial period and what led to the surge? What are the unique features of Odisha's pandemic response? Is there an Odisha Model as claimed by several observers? (Patnaik et al. in The Wire, 2020) This paper endeavours to chronicle Odisha's response to COVID-19 in relations to policies and programmes initiatives and actors and dynamics shaping these responses? Key aim is to identify strengths and experience of the eastern state which has a long and credible record of fighting natural disasters.

11.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-7, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The transfer rate for patients from an Alternate Care Site (ACS) back to a hospital may serve as a metric of appropriate patient selection and the ability of an ACS to treat moderate to severely ill patients accepted from overwhelmed health-care systems. During the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, hospitals worldwide experienced acute surges of patients presenting with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: An ACS in Imperial County, California was re-established in November 2020 to help decompress 2 local hospitals experiencing surges of COVID-19 cases. The patients treated often had multiple comorbid illnesses and required a median supplemental oxygen of 3 L/min (LPM) on admission. Numerous interventions were initiated during a 2-wk period to improve clinical care delivery. RESULTS: The objectives of this retrospective observational study are to evaluate the impact of these clinical and staff interventions at an ACS on the transfer rate and to provide issues to consider for future ACS sites managing COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that continuous, real-time process-improvement interventions helped reduce the transfer rate back to hospitals from 36.7% to 14.5% and that an ACS is a viable option for managing symptomatic COVID-19 positive patients requiring hospital-level care when hospitals are overburdened.

12.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-10, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has presented unique challenges to pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) departments. The purpose of this study was to identify these challenges and ascertain how centers overcame barriers in creating solutions to continue to provide high-quality care and keep their workforce safe during the early pandemic. METHODS: This is a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with physicians in leadership positions who have disaster or emergency management experience. Participants were identified through purposive sampling. Interviews were recorded and transcribed electronically. Themes and codes were extracted from the transcripts by 2 independent coders. Constant comparison analysis was performed until thematic saturation was achieved. Member-checking was completed to ensure trustworthiness. RESULTS: Fourteen PEM-trained physicians participated in this study. Communication, leadership and planning, clinical practice, and personal adaptations were the principal themes identified. Recommendations elicited include improving communication strategies; increasing emergency department (ED) representation within hospital-wide incident command; preparing for a surge and accepting adult patients; personal protective equipment supply and usage; developing testing strategies; and adaptations individuals made to their practice to keep themselves and their families safe. CONCLUSIONS: By sharing COVID-19 experiences and offering solutions to commonly encountered problems, pediatric EDs may be better prepared for future pandemics.

13.
J Community Appl Soc Psychol ; 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318329

ABSTRACT

In the face of the first wave of COVID-19 contagion, citizens all over the world experienced concerns for their safety and health, as well as prolonged lockdowns - which brought about limitations but also unforeseen opportunities for personal growth. Broad variability in these psychological responses to such unprecedented experiences emerged. This study addresses this variability by investigating the role of personal and community resilience. Personal resilience, collective resilience, community disaster management ability, provided information by local authorities, and citizens' focus on COVID-19-related personal concerns and lockdown-related opportunities for personal growth were detected through an online questionnaire. Multilevel modelling was run with data from 3,745 Italian citizens. The potential of personal resilience as a driver for individuals to overcome adverse situations with positive outcomes was confirmed. Differently, the components of community resilience showed more complex paths, highlighting the need to pay more attention to its role in the face of far-reaching adverse events which hardly test individuals' as well as communities' adaptability and agency skills. The complexities linked to the multi-component and system-specific nature of resilience, as well as potential paths towards making the most out of citizens' and communities' ones, emerge. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

14.
J Sch Nurs ; : 10598405231172758, 2023 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315421

ABSTRACT

Mental health issues have been exacerbated by COVID-19; therefore we examined how the school nurses' role in addressing mental health changed during the pandemic. We administered a nationwide survey in 2021, guided by the Framework for the 21st Century School Nurse, and analyzed self-reported changes in mental health interventions by school nurses. Most mental health practice changes after the start of the pandemic occurred in the care coordination (52.8%) and community/public health (45.8%) principles. An overall decrease in students visiting the school nurse's office (39.4%) was seen, yet the frequency of students visiting with mental health concerns had increased (49.7%). Open-ended responses indicated that school nurse roles changed due to COVID-19 protocols, including decreased access to students and changes in mental health resources. These insights into the role of school nurses in addressing student mental health during public health disasters have important implications for future disaster preparedness efforts.

15.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e41168, 2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health-related hazards have a detrimental impact on society. The health emergency and disaster management system (Health EDMS), such as a contact-tracing application, is used to respond to and cope with health-related hazards. User compliance with Health EDMS warnings is key to its success. However, it was reported that user compliance with such a system remains low. OBJECTIVE: Through a systematic literature review, this study aims to identify the theories and corresponding factors that explain user compliance with the warning message provided by Health EDMS. METHODS: The systematic literature review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020 guidelines. The search was performed using the online databases Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, IEEE, and PubMed, for English journal papers published between January 2000 and February 2022. RESULTS: A total of 14 papers were selected for the review based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Previous research adopted 6 theories when examining user compliance, and central to the research was Health EDMS. To better understand Health EDMS, based on the literature reviewed, we mapped the activities and features of Health EDMS with the key stakeholders involved. We identified features that require involvement from individual users, which are surveillance and monitoring features and medical care and logistic assistance features. We then proposed a framework showing the individual, technological, and social influencing factors of the use of these features, which in turn affects compliance with the warning message from Health EDMS. CONCLUSIONS: Research on the Health EDMS topic increased rapidly in 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. An in-depth understanding of Health EDMS and user compliance before designing the system is essential for governments and developers to increase the effectiveness of Health EDMS. Through a systematic literature review, this study proposed a research framework and identified research gaps for future research on this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , PubMed
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 16(1): 79, 2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319278

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The unprecedented nature of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown order projected to contain the pandemic and the global use of the police to enforce the order has necessitated the investigation of public (non-compliant) behavior and police intervention (misconduct). Given that the phases of easing the lockdown and reopening of the economy were already underway in Nigeria in September 2020, four months post-lockdown, this period was deemed suitable to collect the data. DATA DESCRIPTION: The data consists of 30 participants' (25 individuals and five police personnel) views regarding the reasons that exacerbated the violation and the 'alleged' unethical practices of police personnel while enforcing the lockdown. However, it benefits the broader scientific community in areas such as policing, disaster risk reduction, pandemic management and public administration. It is valuable in police reforms against unethical practices and gives clear policy directions to policymakers and authorities in managing future public health emergencies. Also, it is useful in understanding the public awareness about the pandemic and public (mis)trust and disposition towards the government authorities on the obedience to law and public health safety advisories to contain a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Police , Humans , Law Enforcement , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cooperative Behavior , Nigeria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control
17.
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering-English Edition ; 9(6):893-911, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2310938

ABSTRACT

Determining the optimal vehicle routing of emergency material distribution (VREMD) is one of the core issues of emergency management, which is strategically important to improve the effectiveness of emergency response and thus reduce the negative impact of large-scale emergency events. To summarize the latest research progress, we collected 511 VREMD-related articles published from 2010 to the present from the Scopus database and conducted a bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer software. Subsequently, we cautiously selected 49 articles from these publications for system review;sorted out the latest research progress in model construction and solution algorithms;and summarized the evolution trend of keywords, research gaps, and future works. The results show that do -mestic scholars and research organizations held an unqualified advantage regarding the number of published papers. However, these organizations with the most publications performed poorly regarding the number of literature citations. China and the US have contributed the vast majority of the literature, and there are close collaborations between researchers from both countries. The optimization model of VREMD can be divided into single-, multi-, and joint-objective models. The shortest travel time is the most common optimization objective in the single-objective optimization model. Several scholars focus on multiobjective optimization models to consider conflicting objectives simultaneously. In recent literature, scholars have focused on the impact of uncertainty and special events (e.g., COVID-19) on VREMD. Moreover, some scholars focus on joint optimization models to optimize vehicle routes and central locations (or material allocation) simultaneously. So-lution algorithms can be divided into two primary categories, i.e., mathematical planning methods and intelligent evolutionary algorithms. The branch and bound algorithm is the most dominant mathematical planning algorithm, while genetic algorithms and their enhancements are the most commonly used intelligent evolutionary algorithms. It is shown that the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) can effectively solve the multiobjective model of VREMD. To further improve the algorithm's performance, re-searchers have proposed improved hybrid intelligent algorithms that combine the ad-vantages of NSGA-II and certain other algorithms. Scholars have also proposed a series of optimization algorithms for specific scenarios. With the development of new technologies and computation methods, it will be exciting to construct optimization models that consider uncertainty, heterogeneity, and temporality for large-scale real-world issues and develop generalized solution approaches rather than those applicable to specific scenarios.(c) 2022 Periodical Offices of Chang'an University. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co. Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC -ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

18.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ; 92:103704, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2310850

ABSTRACT

Social capital has become a major factor for analysing vulnerabilities and resilience in the context of disaster studies in recent years. Usually, it is studied along its three forms of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital, and it is often framed as a static characteristic that a person either has at his or her disposal or not. Based on the results of case studies conducted in Germany and Estonia focusing on four different crises (floods in Germany;long-term disruption of electricity due to a major storm in Estonia;a cyber-attack in Estonia;as well as the COVID-19 pandemic in both countries) we claim that this description and analysis of social capital does not allow for a comprehensive understanding of all the challenges disaster management has to deal with to decrease vulnerabilities and increase resilience. Using qualitative content analysis, we present a heuristic framework which not only asks whether bonding, bridging, and linking social capital is available to individuals, but also whether social capital is accessible and activatable when responding to or recovering from a disaster. In doing so, the paper helps to improve the overall usability of official or unofficial social support to cope with crises.

19.
Ieee Transactions on Big Data ; 9(1):1-21, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2310263

ABSTRACT

Situational awareness tries to grasp the important events and circumstances in the physical world through sensing, communication, and reasoning. Tracking the evolution of changing situations is an essential part of this awareness and is crucial for providing appropriate resources and help during disasters. Social media, particularly Twitter, is playing an increasing role in this process in recent years. However, extracting intelligence from the available data involves several challenges, including (a) filtering out large amounts of irrelevant data, (b) fusion of heterogeneous data generated by the social media and other sources, and (c) working with partially geo-tagged social media data in order to deduce the needs of the affected people. Spatio-temporal analysis of the data plays a key role in understanding the situation, but is available only sparsely because only a small fraction of people post relevant text and of those very few enable location tracking. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey on data analytics to assess situational awareness from social media big data.

20.
Decis Support Syst ; : 113983, 2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309231

ABSTRACT

Managing an extreme event like a healthcare disaster requires accurate information about the event's circumstances to comprehend the full consequences of acting. However, information quality is rarely optimal since it takes time to determine the information of relevance. The COVID-19 pandemic showed that even official data sources are far from optimal since they suffer from reporting delays that slow decision-making. To support decision-makers with timely information, we utilize data from online social networks to propose an adaptable information extraction solution to create indices helping to forecast COVID-19 case numbers and hospitalization rates. We show that combining heterogeneous data sources like Twitter and Reddit can leverage these sources' inherent complementarity and yield better predictions than those using a single data source alone. We further show that the predictions run ahead of the official COVID-19 incidences by up to 14 days. Additionally, we highlight the importance of model adjustments whenever new information becomes available or the underlying data changes by observing distinct changes in the presence of specific symptoms on Reddit.

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