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1.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e23, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100871

ABSTRACT

Objective: Assess the impact of interventions introduced in Costa Rica during 2020 and 2021 to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A Bayesian Poisson regression model was used, incorporating control or intervention measures as independent variables in the changes in reported case numbers per epidemiological week. Results: The results showed the relative and combined impact of containment policies and measures on the reduction of cases: mainly vehicular traffic restrictions, use of masks, and implementation of health guidelines and protocols. Evidence of impact was optimized and made available for decision-making by the country's health and emergency authorities. Several iterations were generated for constant monitoring of variations in impact at four different moments in the pandemic's spread. Conclusion: The simultaneous implementation of different mitigation measures in Costa Rica has been a driving force in reducing the number of COVID-19 cases.


Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto das intervenções realizadas na Costa Rica durante 2020 e 2021 para o controle da pandemia de COVID-19. Método: Foi utilizado um modelo Bayesiano de regressão de Poisson que incorporou as medidas de controle ou intervenção como variáveis independentes sobre a variação do número de casos por semana epidemiológica. Resultados: Os resultados evidenciaram o efeito relativo e conjunto que as políticas ou medidas de contenção tiveram na redução de casos, principalmente as restrições a veículos, o uso de máscaras e a implementação de diretrizes e protocolos de saúde. As evidências dos efeitos foram otimizadas e disponibilizadas às autoridades sanitárias e de emergência do país para auxiliar na tomada de decisão. Diversas iterações foram geradas para o monitoramento constante da variação nos efeitos em quatro momentos distintos do avanço da pandemia. Conclusão: A aplicação simultânea de diferentes medidas de mitigação na Costa Rica tem sido um agente promotor da diminuição de casos de COVID-19.

2.
31st IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN 2022 ; JOUR: 345-350,
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2097654

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, especially with the Covid-19 pandemic, researchers are focusing their attention on the remote delivery of devices designed for rehabilitation purposes, allowing people to recover without the physical presence of a doctor. Manual therapy is a physical treatment that is used by therapists for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain and/or disabilities. The aim of this work is to present HAPP, a new haptic portable device, designed to help patients suffering of different patholohgies, as for instance the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type-I disease, and more in general to investigate the effects of manual therapy for diseases of the carpus and metacarpus, by mimicking traditional mechanical and rhythmic stimuli characteristics of manual treatments. Its structure consists of a plate oriented by revolute-prismatic-spherical joints, with a rack-pinion mechanism that actuates the end-effector, stimulating the user's hand palm. We provide details about the device, such as the mechanical design, the mathematical model and a graphical user interface. Preliminary studies in order to evaluate the device force exerted at the user's palm were carried out. © 2022 IEEE.

3.
G Chir ; 42(2): e02, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097497

ABSTRACT

Background: The present study aims to evaluate how the measures to contain the SARS-CoV-2 spreading affected the surgical site infections (SSIs) rate in patients who underwent nondeferrable breast cancer surgery (BCS). Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from a consecutive series of patients underwent nondeferrable BCS in a regional Italian Covid-free hub during two different period: March to April 2020 (pandemic cohort [PC]) and March till April 2019 (control cohort [CC]). SSIs were defined according to the criteria established by the Center for disease control and prevention (CDC) and additional treatment, serous discharge, erythema, purulent exudate, separation of deep tissues, isolation of bacteria, and stay (ASEPSIS) scoring systems. Results: One hundred ninety-nine patients were included in the present study: 100 and 99 patients who underwent nondeferrable BCS from March to April 2020 (PC) and from March to April 2019 (CC), respectively. The overall SSIs rate in this series was 9.1% according to CDC criteria and 6.5% according to ASEPSIS criteria. The SSIs incidence decreased during the pandemic period. Moreover, the SSIs rate according to ASEPSIS criteria was statistically lower in the PC than in the CC. We observed significant evidence of higher SSIs, both in terms of CDC and ASEPSIS score, in patients having undergone breast reconstruction compared with patients not undergoing immediate reconstruction. Conclusions: The restrictive measures issued during the lockdown period seemed to lower the SSIs rates in patients undergoing nondeferrable BCS.

4.
Science ; JOUR(6617):232-232, 378.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2092085

ABSTRACT

The article discusses administration of former President Donald Trump repeatedly pressured senior staff at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to edit or suppress reports offering grim news about COVID-19.

5.
Italian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics ; JOUR(47): 79-90,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2081718

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly contagious and lethal virus-based disease. Social distancing is the only way to stop the virus from spreading. In this context, the researchers suggest a social distancing application named SDA-COVID-19. The suggested App (SDA-COVID-19) will help individuals maintain social distancing by the exchange of data among phones about potentially infected and/or contaminated people with COVID-19, with whom an individual socialized or came in contact, whereby, an indi-vidual will be alerted if a COVID-19 infected person is in close proximity. Two versions are suggested for SDA-COVID-19 one is Service-Oriented and the other is Bluetooth oriented.

7.
Non-conventional in English, Portuguese | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754782
9.
Coronavirus Disease: From Origin to Outbreak ; : 29-46, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075787

ABSTRACT

This chapter discusses when and how the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic following its first emergence in Wuhan, China. Different countries around the world tried to contain the virus through taking cautionary steps by initiating at least a 2-week lockdown and by following recommendations on implementing social distancing of 6 feet, the wearing of masks in public, and washing hands with warm water and soap for at least 20s. COVID-19 is believed to have originated from bats and believed to have spread all around the world before it was first diagnosed in Wuhan, China. As the virus swept the world, some countries, such as Italy, faced a shortage of hospital beds. New York, which also faced a hospital bed shortage very early on during the pandemic, was declared an epicenter of the virus in the United States. Moreover, nursing homes in many developing countries were badly hit and reported a high number of deaths related to COVID-19. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

10.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(10)2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071797

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) booster dose vaccination after completing the primary vaccination series for individuals ≥18 years and most-at-risk populations. This study aimed to estimate the pooled proportion of COVID-19 vaccine booster dose uptake and intention to get the booster dose among general populations and healthcare workers (HCWs). We searched PsycINFO, Scopus, EBSCO, MEDLINE Central/PubMed, ProQuest, SciELO, SAGE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect according to PRISMA guidelines. From a total of 1079 screened records, 50 studies were extracted. Meta-analysis was conducted using 48 high-quality studies according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale quality assessment tool. Using the 48 included studies, the pooled proportion of COVID-19 vaccine booster dose acceptance among 198,831 subjects was 81% (95% confidence interval (CI): 75-85%, I2 = 100%). The actual uptake of the booster dose in eight studies involving 12,995 subjects was 31% (95% CI: 19-46%, I2 = 100%), while the intention to have the booster dose of the vaccine was 79% (95% CI: 72-85%, I2 = 100%). The acceptance of the booster dose of COVID-19 vaccines among HCWs was 66% (95% CI: 58-74%), I2 = 99%). Meta-regression revealed that previous COVID-19 infection was associated with a lower intention to have the booster dose. Conversely, previous COVID-19 infection was associated with a significantly higher level of booster dose actual uptake. The pooled booster dose acceptance in the WHO region of the Americas, which did not include any actual vaccination, was 77% (95% CI: 66-85%, I2 = 100%). The pooled acceptance of the booster dose in the Western Pacific was 89% (95% CI: 84-92%, I2 = 100), followed by the European region: 86% (95% CI: 81-90%, I2 = 99%), the Eastern Mediterranean region: 59% (95% CI: 46-71%, I2 = 99%), and the Southeast Asian region: 52% (95% CI: 43-61%, I2 = 95). Having chronic disease and trust in the vaccine effectiveness were the significant predictors of booster dose COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. The global acceptance rate of COVID-19 booster vaccine is high, but the rates vary by region. To achieve herd immunity for the disease, a high level of vaccination acceptance is required. Intensive vaccination campaigns and programs are still needed around the world to raise public awareness regarding the importance of accepting COVID-19 vaccines needed for proper control of the pandemic.

11.
2022 European Control Conference, ECC 2022 ; : 743-748, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013200

ABSTRACT

We propose a model predictive control (MPC) approach for minimising the social distancing and quarantine measures during a pandemic while maintaining a hard infection cap. To this end, we study the admissible and the maximal robust positively invariant set (MRPI) of the standard SEIR compartmental model with control inputs. Exploiting the fact that in the MRPI all restrictions can be lifted without violating the infection cap, we choose a suitable subset of the MRPI to define terminal constraints in our MPC routine and show that the number of infected people decays exponentially within this set. Furthermore, under mild assumptions we prove existence of a uniform bound on the time required to reach this terminal region (without violating the infection cap) starting in the admissible set. The findings are substantiated based on a numerical case study. © 2022 EUCA.

12.
Osteopathic Family Physician ; 14(4):10-15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067635

ABSTRACT

Each year, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) releases the adult vaccine schedule. The 2022 adult vaccine schedule has several changes which will be discussed in the following manuscript. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices reviews the preliminary schedules usually at their October or November meetings. The following professional societies also approve the adult schedules prior to the 2022 publications: American College of Physicians (ACP), American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM), American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA) and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). Once the final draft is approved by the CDC, it is published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) and released to healthcare providers and the general public with a cover page, tables, notes and—new for the 2022 schedule—an appendix with contraindications and precautions for the different approved vaccines.

13.
IIUM Medical Journal Malaysia ; 21(4):125-131, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2067606

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Medicine and communicable disease control are embedded in many Islamic teachings as conveyed by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) through the Al-Quran, Al-sunnah, and Al-hadith more than 1400 years ago. Therefore, when the COVID-19 outbreak hit Malaysia, with the majority of the population being Muslims, the society should have been equipped with knowledge in dealing with this pandemic. This study investigates the knowledge towards dealing with COVID-19 based on the guidance of Al-Quran and Al- Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) among undergraduate students in Malaysia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study using self-constructed questionnaires was performed. The questionnaires were pre-validated and distributed to pharmacy and health sciences students via an online survey platform. One of the selection criteria was that the respondent must be a Muslim. RESULTS: The students scored a median of 26 (IQR 4) in the knowledge test. Students' percentage knowledge levels were divided into three categories: poor (n = 42, 15%);moderate (n = 207, 73%) and good (n = 33, 12%). The lowest scored knowledge item was observed on the Islamic terminology, Maqasid Shariah (4.3%), and differences between hadith and sunnah (20.9%). No significant differences in knowledge scores were observed in the pre-determined independent variables such as age, year of study, accommodation, and previous religious school admission. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest that the students have a good understanding of scientific aspects of COVID-19 but lack knowledge in handling the pandemic as recommended by Al-Quran and Al-Sunnah. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of IIUM Medical Journal Malaysia is the property of International Islamic University Malaysia, Faculty of Medicine and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

14.
Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering ; 19(12):13861-13877, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2066722

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has created major public health and socio-economic challenges across the United States. Among them are challenges to the educational system where college administrators are struggling with the questions of how to mitigate the risk and spread of diseases on their college campus. To help address this challenge, we developed a flexible computational framework to model the spread and control of COVID-19 on a residential college campus. The modeling framework accounts for heterogeneity in social interactions, activities, environmental and behavioral risk factors, disease progression, and control interventions. The contribution of mitigation strategies to disease transmission was explored without and with interventions such as vaccination, quarantine of symptomatic cases, and testing. We show that even with high vaccination coverage (90%) college campuses may still experience sizable outbreaks. The size of the outbreaks varies with the underlying environmental and socio-behavioral risk factors. Complementing vaccination with quarantine and mass testing was shown to be paramount for preventing or mitigating outbreaks. Though our quantitative results are likely provisional on our model assumptions, sensitivity analysis confirms the robustness of their qualitative nature. ©2022 the Author(s)

15.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12923, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066481

ABSTRACT

To prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, countries around the world adopted varying degrees of lockdown. The lockdowns restricted the freedom of college students, which led to stress and mental health issues. This study constructed a mediating model to explore the relationship between COVID-19 lockdown stress and Chinese college students’ mental health;the mediating role of fear of missing out (FoMO) was also investigated. A 7-item COVID-19 student stress questionnaire (CSSQ), a 6-item mental health scale, and a 10-item FoMO scale were distributed among 695 college students who experienced lockdown in China. The results showed that COVID-19 lockdown stress was significantly and negatively correlated with mental health, significantly and positively correlated with FoMO, and FoMO was significantly and negatively correlated with mental health. COVID-19 lockdown stress significantly and negatively influenced Chinese college students’ mental health directly and indirectly via the complementary partial mediating effect of FoMO. The results intensify our comprehension of the influence of COVID-19 lockdown stress and mental health problems in Chinese college students and also provide practical suggestions for college educators to address such scenarios.

16.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12866, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066472

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused widespread psychological suffering. Anxiety is one of the several psychological disorders that are escalating globally, yet social distance constraints restrict in-person mental health therapy. Anxiety and other psychological disorders whose treatments are limited due to social distancing continue to grow, so there is an increasing need to use mental healthcare that can be offered remotely, especially in the pandemic era. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of online-based interventions for anxiety during COVID-19. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA). We collected data from three databases, namely PubMed, CINAHL, and Oxford Library Press, published in 2020–2022. Additionally, we collected data using the snowball technique. This meta-analysis analyzed the pooled mean difference (MD) and its p-value using random-effects models. Critical appraisal and risk of bias were assessed using Cochrane Risk of Bias (Rob) 2. We retrieved 34 RCTs for systematic review and 14 RCTs for meta-analysis, yielding 9159 participants for general anxiety disorder (GAD-7) measurement and 1303 participants for depression anxiety stress scale (DASS-21) measurement. This study shows that online-based interventions significantly reduce GAD-7 score (a pooled MD of 1.30;95% CI: 2.83–4.65;p = 0.00001) and insignificantly reduce DASS-21 (0.05;95% CI: −2.63–2.72;p = 0.97) according to pre- and post-test in intervention group. Additionally, there is a significant difference between the intervention and control groups, where the intervention group performed statistically progressively better than the controls (−7.26;95% CI: −11.58–−2.95;p = 0.001) (−2.08;95% CI: −6.71–2.55;p = 0.001). Online-based interventions have proved effective for reducing general anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Consequently, this meta-analysis can be adapted as a model for mental health services in the new normal.

17.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; 167(1 Supplement):P234, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064417

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Reports of facial paralysis following COVID- 19 vaccine administration are recorded in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Using VAERS, this study investigated possible trends in facial paralysis by applying the World Health Organization's (WHO's) adverse events following immunization (AEFI) criteria to improve public health education about the COVID-19 vaccine. Method(s): This retrospective database review examined de-identified recipients of all US COVID-19 vaccine brands who reported symptoms of facial paralysis postadministration from December 15, 2020, to December 28, 2021. Reports specific to symptoms of facial paralysis, facial paresis, facial palsy, and Bell palsy were extracted and analyzed based on patient demographics and vaccination features. Result(s): A total of 5241 self-reported cases of facial paralysis following COVID-19 vaccination were collected. The highest proportion of reports was from patients aged 41 to 50 years (18.7%) and females (56.9%). After adjusting the selfreports based on WHO's AEFI criteria, the median onset of facial paralysis was 2 days postvaccination with a mode of 0 days. Half of the reported cases occurred during the peak of February 21, 2021, to May 21, 2021. Of cases, 14.9% reported hospitalization due to adverse effects and 66.2% indicated no recovery as of report time (median 12 days from onset to report). Conclusion(s): Given the spread of vaccine misinformation, it is essential to assess the significance of reported adverse effects. As VAERS records are self-reported, they are particularly subject to reporting bias, and adjusting the reports using WHO's AEFI criteria allows for interpretation of more accurate data. Further controlled clinical studies are needed to thoroughly establish a potential relationship between facial paralysis and COVID-19 vaccination.

18.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064342

ABSTRACT

With the normalization of epidemic prevention and control, the expression of the public’s demand for health information on online platforms continues to increase, while knowledge hiding behavior has seriously hindered the communication and dissemination of epidemic prevention knowledge and has a negative impact on public communication and access to health information in the socialized Q&A communities. Therefore, further stimulating diving users' activity and reducing their knowledge hiding behavior have become the key to the sustainable development of epidemic prevention and control and communities. Based on the social cognition theory, from the perspective of individual cognition and external environment, this study constructs a theoretical model of the influencing factors of users’ knowledge hiding behavior in the socialized Q&A communities in the post-epidemic era and puts forward relevant assumptions. 151 effective questionnaires are collected and an empirical analysis is carried out by using the structural equation model. The results show that outcome expectation, community atmosphere, and requesting negatively affect knowledge hiding behavior;self-efficacy, outcome expectation, and community atmosphere negatively affect the three different types of knowledge hiding behavior, which are evasive hiding, playing dumb, and rationalized hiding;community atmosphere positively affects outcome expectation, which plays a significant intermediary effect between community atmosphere and knowledge hiding behavior. The research content and relevant conclusions of this study deepen and expand the connotation and extension of knowledge hiding behavior in the negative performance of Q&A communities. From the perspective of practical application, it can also effectively reduce knowledge hiding behavior, grasp the development direction of public health needs, and strengthen the dissemination of epidemic prevention and control knowledge.

19.
Journal of Advanced Transportation ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064340

ABSTRACT

Bike-sharing holds promise for available and healthy mobility services during COVID-19 where bike sharing users can make trips with lower health concerns due to social distancing compared to the restricted transportation modes such as public transit and ridesharing services. Leveraging the trip data of the Divvy bike-sharing system in Chicago, this study exploresspatially heterogeneous effects of built environment on bike-sharing usage under the pandemic. Results show that the average weekly ridership declined by 52.04%. To account for the spatially heterogeneous relationship between the built environment and the ridership, the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model and the semiparametric GWR (S-GWR) model are constructed. We find that the S-GWR model outperforms the GWR and the multiple linear regression models. The results of the S-GWR model indicate that education employment density, distance to subway, COVID-19 cases, and ridership before COVID-19 are global variables. The effects between ridership and the built environment factros (i.e., household density, office employment density, and the ridership) vary across space. The results of this study could provide a useful reference to transportation planners and bike-sharing operators to determine the high bike-sharing demand area under the pandemic,thus adjusting station locations, capacity, and rebalancing schemes accordingly.

20.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064333

ABSTRACT

We propose a theoretical study to investigate the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, reported in Wuhan, China. We develop a mathematical model based on the characteristic of the disease and then use fractional calculus to fractionalize it. We use the Caputo-Fabrizio operator for this purpose. We prove that the considered model has positive and bounded solutions. We calculate the threshold quantity of the proposed model and discuss its sensitivity analysis to find the role of every epidemic parameter and the relative impact on disease transmission. The threshold quantity (reproductive number) is used to discuss the steady states of the proposed model and to find that the proposed epidemic model is stable asymptotically under some constraints. Both the global and local properties of the proposed model will be performed with the help of the mean value theorem, Barbalat’s lemma, and linearization. To support our analytical findings, we draw some numerical simulations to verify with graphical representations.

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