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1.
Annals of International Medical and Dental Research ; 8(2):192-199, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1935072

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) have a significant death rate due to comorbid diseases. As a result, identifying risk factors associated with poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients is important.

2.
China Tropical Medicine ; 22(5):467-470, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934651

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the differences between imported malaria before and during the COVID-19 epidemic in Nanning city, and to predict the imported malaria epidemic, so as to provide a basis for future prevention and control strategies. Methods Malaria case data in Nanning city from 2018 to 2021 were collected and divided into two groups. The data from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2019 were classified as the routine period before COVID-19, and the data from January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2021 were classified as the COVID-19 period. Statistical software was used to analyze the differences between the two groups in basic information, overseas activities, species of infected Plasmodium, diagnosis and treatment. Results The age difference between the two groups was statistically significant (t=2.222, P < 0.05);There was significant difference in the proportion of overseas residence types between the two groups (P < 0.05);There was significant difference in the proportion of parasite species between the two groups (P < 0.05). The proportion of Plasmodium ovale in the COVID-19 period group was higher than that in the routine period group, and the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum was lower than that in the routine period group;There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of gender proportion, current address category proportion, malaria proportion due to going out for gold, proportion of mild, moderate and severe disease degree, proportion of hospitalization, proportion of standardized treatment, proportion of whole course medication, proportion of cure and length of hospital stay. Conclusions The incidence of imported malaria in Nanning declined significantly during the period of COVID-19, and the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum infection decreased. It is necessary to be vigilant against the outbreak of imported malaria caused by the increase of inbound people with the progress of COVID-19 control.

3.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):3217-3223, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1934411

ABSTRACT

Context: Coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted the already marginalized healthcare provision in resource limited countries like India. Aims: This study compared onset to door time and temporal trends of admissions to seek medical care in new onset acute ischaemic stroke during the COVID-19 period with a representative pre-COVID-19 period in rural background. Settings and Design: Prospective Cross-sectional study in a tertiary level hospital in North India. Methods and Material: Study included new onset acute ischaemic stroke admitted within first 2 weeks of symptoms onset. Subjects were divided into: Group A - Pre-COVID-19 stroke, Group B - Non-COVID-19 Stroke, and Group C - Stroke, positive for COVID-19. Detailed epidemiological, clinical profile, onset to door time and temporal trends of admissions were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square/Fisher's exact test and Independent Samples T test or Mann-Whitney U test were used for categorical and continuous variables.

4.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2573-2580, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934395

ABSTRACT

Background: A significant surge of cases of mucormycosis is seen in individuals with COVID-19 with presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and usage of corticosteroids. We aim to conduct a systematic analysis of the cases involving presence of mucormycosis and to find out its association with COVID-19, diabetes mellitus, and corticosteroids. Method: The electronic records of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct were searched for the case reports and case series that reported mucormycosis in association of COVID-19. The particulars of each case report and case series were retrieved, stored and analyzed.

5.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2545-2551, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1934392

ABSTRACT

Background: Uttarakhand, a hilly state in north India, reported the first coronavirus disease (COVID) case on 15 March 2020. Since then, the case numbers rose multiple folds. As Uttarakhand has been on a 'war-footing' amidst the recent second wave and is gearing up to fight against the third wave, the present study aims to uncover baseline clinical profile and in-hospital outcomes of COVID patients in Dehradun district (Uttarakhand) during the first wave.

6.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2302-2310, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934388

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important factor affecting the outcome of hospitalized patients under any disease condition. While a lot has been said and studied about pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, this review focuses on its renal manifestations in children with and its complications. For the collection of data, the patient intervention control outcome model was applied to determine all eligible studies. The data was extracted using PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases using a combination of keywords (AKI, renal failure, kidney disease, children, pediatric, covid-19, SARS COv2). Studies were reviewed after the exclusion of duplicates. The incidence of renal involvement in COVID 19 is up to 10-15%, which is higher than SARS. Both direct and indirect pathogenic mechanisms operate in patients with COVID 19 leading to varied manifestations. While AKI remains the most common manifestation in children admitted to intensive care units, other manifestations like, proteinuria, hematuria, rhabdomyolysis, and thrombotic microangiopathy have also been described in the literature. The children already on immunosuppression due to transplant or immune-mediated renal disorders do not seem to have more severe illness than those without it. The principles of management of AKI in COVID have not been different than other patient groups.

7.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2723-2728, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934386

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID 19 resurgence in multiple waves and the highly infectious variant of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.617) has wreaked havoc across healthcare systems in India. We conducted a study to delineate the clinico-epidemiological profile of COVID-19 patients in this second wave of the pandemic.

8.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2274-2276, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934374

ABSTRACT

The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 infection patients extends from being asymptomatic to mild, moderate and severe disease. This classification is largely based on oxygen saturation and respiratory rate. Asymptomatic/mild disease patients are managed in home isolation or COVID care centers. A subgroup of these patients will deteriorate and develop moderate to severe disease. Six-minute walk test is useful in identifying this group of patients by inducing hypoxia in normoxemia patients. This stage of the disease is labelled as 'pre-hypoxemia' phase in asymptomatic/mild disease. Identifying this stage in the course of illness of patients will help in intercepting further deterioration at the earliest by timely intervention.

9.
Nepal Journal of Epidemiology ; 12(2):1215-1219, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1933522

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has affected every continent worldwide. The novelty of this virus, its mutations and the rapid speed and unprecedented rate at which it has torn through the global community has in turn lead to an innate lack of knowledge and information about the actual disease caused and the severity of the complications associated with COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been infecting individuals since 2019 and now as of 2022 has been circulating for just over 2 years within the global populous. As the number of cases have risen globally over this period (some of which having contracted the virus twice) further endeavours have been undertaken to better understand the pathogenesis and natural progression of the disease. A condition reported in some cases with extended bouts of sickness or symptoms following the initial infection with COVID was labelled "long COVID" towards the earlier phases of the pandemic (in the spring of 2020), but has only recently gained the global media and medical attention due to its affliction of more individuals on a global basis and has thus warranted further investigation. Long COVID is described as a persistent, long-term state of poor health following an infection with COVID-19. The effect of Long COVID is multisystemic in nature with a wide array of signs and symptoms. The most commonly reported clinical features of long COVID are: headaches, myalgia, chest pain, rashes, abdominal pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, anosmia, persistent cough, brain fogs, forgetfulness, depression, insomnia, fatigue and anxiety. This research aims to explore the symptomatology, pathophysiology as well as the treatment and prevention of Long COVID.

10.
Science & Healthcare ; 24(2):93-102, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1924995

ABSTRACT

Relevance. The outbreak of COVID-19 began in late 2019 in Hubei Province, China. Already in the first quarter of 2020, the disease spread around the world. On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared a COVID-19 pandemic. The first cases of the disease in Kazakhstan were registered in March 2020. The aim of the study: a systematic search for scientific information about the socially significant disease COVID-19 and its immunopathogenetic basis for the severity of the course. Search strategy: Research publications were searched in PubMed, ResearchGate, GoogleScholar databases. A total of 325 references were found, of which 89 were selected for analysis.

11.
Medical Imaging 2022: Computer-Aided Diagnosis ; 12033, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1923078

ABSTRACT

A relevant percentage of COVID-19 patients present bilateral pneumonia. Disease progression and healing is characterized by the presence of different parenchymal lesion patterns. Artificial intelligence algorithms have been developed to identify and assess the related lesions and properly segment affected lungs, however very little attention has been paid to automatic lesion subtyping. In this work we present artificial intelligence algorithms based on CNN to automatically identify and quantify COVID-19 pneumonia patterns. A Dense-efficient CNN architecture is presented to automatically segment the different lesion subtypes. The proposed technique has been independently tested in a multicentric cohort of 100 patients, showing Dice coefficients of 0.988±0.01 for ground glass opacities, 0.948±0.05 for consolidations, and 0.999±0.0003 for healthy tissue with respect to radiologist's reference segmentations, and high correlations with respect to radiologist severity visual scores. © 2022 SPIE.

12.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 3545-3555, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914283

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused severe threats to lives and damage to property worldwide. The immunopathology of the disease is of particular concern. Currently, researchers have used gene co-expression networks (GCNs) to deepen the study of molecular mechanisms of immune responses to COVID-19. However, most efforts have not fully explored dynamic changes of cell-type-specific molecular networks in the disease process. This study proposes a GCN construction pipeline named single-cell Disease Progression cellular module analysis (scDisProcema), which can trace dynamic changes of immune system response during disease progression using single-cell data. Here, scDisProcema considers changes in cell fate and expression patterns during disease development, identifying gene modules responsible for different immune cells. The hub genes are screened for each module by the specific expression level and the intercellular connectivity of modules. Based on functional items enriched by each gene module, we elucidate the biological processes of different cells involved in disease development and explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of cell depletion or proliferation caused by disease. Compared with traditional WGCNA methods, scDisProcema can make more convenient use of the heterogeneity information provided by scRNA-seq data and has great potential in exploring molecular changes during disease progression and organ development.

13.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal ; 24(5), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1912676

ABSTRACT

Background: Although it was initially believed that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) only attacked the respiratory system, reports over time demonstrated that this disease could attack the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) as well. The predominant presenting symptoms in patients infected with COVID-19 were gastrointestinal, resulting in gastrointestinal (GI) pathological changes. While clinicians' concerns are mostly related to respiratory system manifestations, GI symptoms should be monitored and managed appropriately. Objectives: This review summarizes the essential information about COVID-19 GIT infection in terms of pathogenesis, major pathological changes, microbiological bases of infection and the possibility of feco-oral transmission, the severity of associated symptoms, the major radiological findings, the impact on GI surgery, the role of therapeutic agents in induction or magnification of GI symptoms, and a pitfall on the nutritional supplementation in COVID-19 patients.

14.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; 44(12):1190-1194, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1911765

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical value of eosinophil count in predicting the progression and prognosis of COVID-19. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, 115 patients confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in Taizhou Public Health Medical Center, Taizhou Hospital, Zhejiang Province, China, from January 22, 2020 to February 12, 2020. The subjects were divided into non-severe (n=90) and severe (n=25) groups, of which medium age was 46 years old, including 65 male and 50 female subjects. The value of eosinophil count in reflecting the severity of COVID-19 was tested with a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis;Correlation analysis of eosinophil count at the admission with length of stay (LOS) were studied. GraphPad Prism6 and SPSS 19.0 statistical software were applied to data analysis. Differences among groups were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. Results admission, Eosinophil counts of severe patients were significantly lower than those of non-severe (P<0.001). The eosinophil count remained below normal for 1-7 days after admission and rose to normal by 21 to 28 days;The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of eosinophil to COVID-19 severity was 0.781(95%CI:0.693-0.869);The Eosinophil count at admission was negatively correlated with the patient's length of stay. Conclusions The decrease of Eosinophil count can serve as a risk factor for auxiliary diagnosis in severe COVID-19 patients. The dynamic monitoring of eosinophils is useful for prognostic purposes. © 2021 Chinese Medical Journals Publishing House Co.Ltd. All rights reserved.

15.
TANAFFOS Journal of Respiratory Disease, Thoracic Surgery, Intensive Care and Tuberculosis ; 20(2):82-85, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1904770

ABSTRACT

This prospective study evaluated the efficacy of prone positioning in combination with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) therapy in COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) at Massih Daneshvari Hospital from 26 February to 25 April 2020. This study aimed to determine whether the use of PP could improve the measures of SpO2 and PaO2/FiO2 in ICUadmitted COVID-19 patients and/ or could decrease the need for intubation. During the study period, a total of 254 ARDS patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were admitted to our ICU wards. Out of these, 116 patients were early intubated, 63 patients treated by high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and 75 patients received NIV. Among the latter, 45 patients received NIV in combination with PP. Two groups were matched according to the demographic characteristics, underlying diseases and disease severity scores (SOFA and APACHE II scores). There was not a significant difference between SpO2 and PaO2/FiO2 measures of two groups at the time of admission. The application of NIV resulted in a significant increase of PaO2/FiO2 in mild (p=0.038) and moderate (p=0.048) subgroups of patients treated with NIV alone, but not in patients with severe ARDS (p=0.192). However, PaO2/FiO2 significantly increased in all three subgroups of patients who received NIV in combination with PP. Although the mean of the SpO2 and PaO2/FiO2 does not show significant difference among patients with severe ARDS in NIV and NIV+PP groups at admission, this measure showed a significant difference 24 hours after ICU admission (p=0.003). In addition, the application of NIV combined with PP resulted in a significantly shorter length of ICU admission (8.6 vs. 14.4, p=0.046). The need for intubation (22% vs. 40%, p=0.082) and the rate of mortality (20% vs. 33%, p=0.152) were though lower in the NIV+PP group, and failed to reach the statistical significance. This is the first study evaluating the role of PP in combination with NIV in COVID-19. The presented results are strongly in favor of the use of PP in combination with NIV in critically ill patients with COVID-19, especially those with severe ARDS.

16.
Translational Research ; 241:1-108, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1904352

ABSTRACT

This special issue consists of the following papers: (1) Long-term immunologic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection: leveraging translational research methodology to address emerging questions;(2) From ARDS to pulmonary fibrosis: the next phase of the COVID-19 pandemic?;(3) COVID-lateral damage: cardiovascular manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection;(4) Central nervous system outcomes of COVID-19;(5) Impaired glucose regulation, SARS-CoV-2 infections and adverse COVID-19 outcomes;(6) COVID-19 Survival and its impact on chronic kidney disease;(7) Immune mechanisms in cancer patients that lead to poor outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection;and (8) Immune mechanisms in cancer patients that lead to poor outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 886044, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903018

ABSTRACT

The immunologic mechanisms that contribute to the response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection still represent a challenge in the clinical management and scientific understanding of tuberculosis disease. In this scenario, the role of the different cells involved in the host response, either in terms of innate or adaptive immunity, remains key for defeating this disease. Among this coordinated cell response, mast cells remain key for defeating tuberculosis infection and disease. Together with its effector's molecules, membrane receptors as well as its anatomical locations, mast cells play a crucial role in the establishment and perpetuation of the inflammatory response that leads to the generation of the granuloma during tuberculosis. This review highlights the current evidences that support the notion of mast cells as key link to reinforce the advancements in tuberculosis diagnosis, disease progression, and novel therapeutic strategies. Special focus on mast cells capacity for the modulation of the inflammatory response among patients suffering multidrug resistant tuberculosis or in co-infections such as current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Mast Cells , Pandemics
18.
Salud Publica de Mexico ; 64(3):328-332, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904077

ABSTRACT

Objective. To estimate Covid-19 and pre-pandemic low respiratory infection (LRI) mortality in children and adolescents in Mexico. Materials and methods. We estimated the percentage of total mortality attributable to Covid-19 (95% confidence intervals;95%CI) and made the corresponding estimates for pre-pandemic LRI mortality. Results. In 2019, LRIs represented 8.6% (95%CI 8.3, 8.9) of deaths in children aged 0-9 years, and 2.0% (95%CI 1.8, 2.3) in those aged 10-19 years. In 2020, the corresponding estimates for Covid-19 were 4.4% (95%CI 4.1, 4.6) and 3.7% (95%CI 3.4, 4.1). Conclusions. Relative to LRI, Covid-19 may be exerting a considerable mortality burden, particularly in older children and adolescents.

19.
Salud Publica de Mexico ; 64(3):243-248, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904075

ABSTRACT

Objective. To describe the humoral response in a cohort with mild and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection previously identified in a community-based serological survey. Materials and methods. This study was an observational follow up of 193 subjects previously identified with positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies invited for a second test 112 daysafter the first sampling. All completed a standardized electronic questionnaire. IgM/IgG antibodies were determined using aqualitative IgM/IgG chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results. Among the 193 eligible subjects, a total of 174 (90%) attended the follow-up visit, and their serum samples were tested. Of the samples, 171 (98.3%) were still positive, and 3 (1.7%) were negative. Also, the cut-off index (COI) value of the immunoassay significantly increased from the first to the second test (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our findings support a sustained humoral response in individuals with mild and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infectionup to 112 days after a positive serologic baseline test, accompanied by increasing antibody titers.

20.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 43(5):751-754, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1903998

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the progression of depressive and anxiety symptoms of children, especially whose parents were frontline workers in the combat of the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), and to provide evidence for children's mental health promotion.

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