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1.
Chaos Solitons Fractals ; 165: 112790, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083115

ABSTRACT

It is well established that COVID-19 incidence data follows some power law growth pattern. Therefore, it is natural to believe that the COVID-19 transmission process follows some power law. However, we found no existing model on COVID-19 with a power law effect only in the disease transmission process. Inevitably, it is not clear how this power law effect in disease transmission can influence multiple COVID-19 waves in a location. In this context, we developed a completely new COVID-19 model where a force of infection function in disease transmission follows some power law. Furthermore, different realistic epidemiological scenarios like imperfect social distancing among home-quarantined individuals, disease awareness, vaccination, treatment, and possible reinfection of the recovered population are also considered in the model. Applying some recent techniques, we showed that the proposed system converted to a COVID-19 model with fractional order disease transmission, where order of the fractional derivative ( α ) in the force of infection function represents the memory effect in disease transmission. We studied some mathematical properties of this newly formulated model and determined the basic reproduction number ( R 0 ). Furthermore, we estimated several epidemiological parameters of the newly developed fractional order model (including memory index α ) by fitting the model to the daily reported COVID-19 cases from Russia, South Africa, UK, and USA, respectively, for the time period March 01, 2020, till December 01, 2021. Variance-based Sobol's global sensitivity analysis technique is used to measure the effect of different important model parameters (including α ) on the number of COVID-19 waves in a location ( W C ). Our findings suggest that α along with the average transmission rate of the undetected (symptomatic and asymptomatic) cases in the community ( ß 1 ) are mainly influencing multiple COVID-19 waves in those four locations. Numerically, we identified the regions in the parameter space of α and ß 1 for which multiple COVID-19 waves are occurring in those four locations. Furthermore, our findings suggested that increasing memory effect in disease transmission ( α → 0) may decrease the possibility of multiple COVID-19 waves and as well as reduce the severity of disease transmission in those four locations. Based on all the results, we try to identify a few non-pharmaceutical control strategies that may reduce the risk of further SARS-CoV-2 waves in Russia, South Africa, UK, and USA, respectively.

2.
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology ; 12(10):1578-1582, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067051

ABSTRACT

[...]frequent blood glucose monitoring and change in anti-diabetic drugs may be necessary to achieve good glycemic control. [...]it is important for both diabetic and hypertensives to strictly adhere to their prescribed medications and follow general COVID preventive measures to avoid COVID-19 infections and related complications. Medications of few patients (18%) were changed due to various reasons such as variations in blood pressure and blood sugar, adverse effect older drugs and also due to non-availability of medications during lockdown. DISCUSSION The present study has shown that lockdown has significantly reduced medication adherence and compliance and there was lack of access for consultation, blood sugar, and blood pressure monitoring.

3.
Water ; 14(19):3009, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066634

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging contaminants leading to severe worldwide health problems. Chlorination, a widely used procedure, was extensively explored as one of the main methods to remove ARB and ARGs in recent years. In this study, to enrich the analyses of chlorination, several comprehensive effects of the chlorine disinfection system on ARB and their conjugative transfer ability were explored. The results presented that the low dose of chlorine (<3-log inactivation rate) had little influence on the survival of bacteria in terms of their capacity for conjugative transfer and antibiotic resistance. The high dose of chlorine (>3-log inactivation rate) triggered cell membrane changes, with little influence on the bacteria in terms of their antibiotic resistance. However, their capacity for conjugative transfer sharply decreased. Minor consumption of chloramphenicol was achieved with the chlorine dose applied in the disinfection system. Monochloroacetonitrile (MCAN) had limited effects on the frequency of conjugative transfer, indicating that the existence of MCAN would not aggravate the dissemination of ARGs by conjugative transfer. The overall impacts of the chlorine disinfection system with different containments on antibiotic resistance need further investigation.

4.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12949, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066486

ABSTRACT

Pujon Kidul Village, Pujon District, Malang Regency, is an area with tourism potential that has been developed since 2017 with the concept of agricultural tourism. Throughout the development of tourism villages, Pujon Kidul Village has succeeded in accelerating economic growth and providing jobs for the community. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, tourism villages have been severely affected, leading to the temporary closure of tourist attractions and community businesses. This research aimed to identify what indicators form social capital variables and the relationship between social capital variables and community adaptation patterns in dealing with pandemics in the study location. This was quantitative research with confirmatory factor analysis to determine the indicators of forming social capital and structural equation modeling analysis to determine the relationship between the variables. Based on the findings, it is known that trust in forming a social network is 0.468. Furthermore, the social network forms community actions of 0.046 and influences community resilience by 0.007. Therefore, good social capital will make it easier for the community to participate in collective action as a form of caring for each other during the pandemic. This action also influences the community to survive in a pandemic crisis, thus creating an adaptation pattern for the Pujon Kidul Tourism Village community in facing a pandemic.

5.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12923, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066481

ABSTRACT

To prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, countries around the world adopted varying degrees of lockdown. The lockdowns restricted the freedom of college students, which led to stress and mental health issues. This study constructed a mediating model to explore the relationship between COVID-19 lockdown stress and Chinese college students’ mental health;the mediating role of fear of missing out (FoMO) was also investigated. A 7-item COVID-19 student stress questionnaire (CSSQ), a 6-item mental health scale, and a 10-item FoMO scale were distributed among 695 college students who experienced lockdown in China. The results showed that COVID-19 lockdown stress was significantly and negatively correlated with mental health, significantly and positively correlated with FoMO, and FoMO was significantly and negatively correlated with mental health. COVID-19 lockdown stress significantly and negatively influenced Chinese college students’ mental health directly and indirectly via the complementary partial mediating effect of FoMO. The results intensify our comprehension of the influence of COVID-19 lockdown stress and mental health problems in Chinese college students and also provide practical suggestions for college educators to address such scenarios.

6.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12625, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066440

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 disease has brought many challenges in the field of personal protective equipment. The amount of disposable surgical masks (DSMs) consumed increased dramatically, and much of it was improperly disposed of, i.e., it entered the environment. For this reason, it is crucial to accurately analyze the waste and identify all the hazards it poses. Therefore, in the present work, a DSM was disassembled, and gravimetric analysis of representative DSM waste was performed, along with detailed infrared spectroscopy of the individual parts and in-depth analysis of the waste. Due to the potential water contamination by micro/nanoplastics and also by other harmful components of DSMs generated during the leaching and photodegradation process, the xenon test and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were used to analyze and evaluate the leaching of micro/nanoplastics. Micro/nanoplastic particles were leached from all five components of the mask in an aqueous medium. Exposed to natural conditions, a DSM loses up to 30% of its mass in just 1 month, while micro/nanoplastic particles are formed by the process of photodegradation. Improperly treated DSMs pose a potential hazardous risk to the environment due to the release of micro/nanoparticles and chloride ion content.

7.
Journal of Advanced Medical and Dental Sciences Research ; 8(5):71-74, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067484

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is matter of concern. Social stigma in the situation of health is the negative association between a person or group of people who share certain characteristics and a specific disease. The present article highlighted impact of social stigma on health and way to prevent it.

8.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):7320-7335, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067315

ABSTRACT

As the threat of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic subsides, governments throughout the world are dealing with epidemic concerns due to the occurrence of monkeypox cases in various areas. Previously limited to African countries, the majority of monkeypox cases associated with the 2022 epidemic have been recorded in countries throughout Europe and the Western Hemisphere. While multiple organisations are doing contact-tracing operations, it is still unclear how this outbreak began. Monkeypox virus is one of several zoonotic viruses in the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family. Following the universal abolition of smallpox in the 1970s, monkeypox outbreaks drew international attention.The smallpox immunisation provided immunity against the monkeypox virus. Monkeypox cases rose when smallpox vaccine was halted. It wasn't until the 2003 US pandemic that monkeypox became well known. The virus did not originate in monkeys, despite the name "monkeypox." Although other rodents and small animals have been recognised as the virus's origins, the precise origin of monkeypox is uncertain. The viral infection was originally observed in macaque monkeys, thus the term monkeypox. Although human-to-human transmission of monkeypox is exceedingly rare, it is usually associated with respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected people's mucocutaneous sores. There is presently no treatment available for infected people;however, supportive therapies can be utilised to relieve symptoms;drugs such as tecovirimat may be used in severe cases. Many therapy are subjective since there are no unambiguous guidelines for symptom relief.

9.
Clinical Medicine ; 22(5):496-497, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067214

ABSTRACT

Letters should be limited to 350 words, and sent by email to: clinicalmedicine@rcp.ac.uk End-tidal carbon dioxide as a screening tool in excluding pulmonary embolism Editor - In our 2014 article, we demonstrated that end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2;the level of carbon dioxide that is released at the end of an exhaled breath) is a reliable screening test to rule out pulmonary embolism.1 There were a small number of patients (n=100), with only 38 patients with pulmonary emboli (PEs). The fact that NiV is in the World Health Organization (WHO) Research and Development (R&D) Blueprint list of epidemic threats requiring urgent R&D action highlights the global concern regarding NiV.2 Despite the high mortality from NiV infection ranging from 40% to 91%, Dr Alam also emphasises that there are no licensed treatments, with care being only supportive.1 Lessons must be learnt from our experiences with the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the ongoing multi-country monkeypox outbreak.3 Greater efforts must be made to optimise our preparedness for future potential threats (such as NiV) and take advantage of any opportunities that may facilitate this preparedness;for example, regarding antiviral therapy for NiV infection, a study was conducted in which African green monkeys were challenged with a lethal dose of NiV (Bangladesh genotype): all animals who received remdesivir survived whereas all the control animals died.4 Remdesivir has been used widely during the COVID-19 pandemic and continues to feature in current national COVID-19 treatment guidelines.5 We should, therefore, utilise our vast experience with the use of this antiviral to study its potential role in the treatment of human NiV infection. In macaques, remdesivir penetrates poorly into the central nervous system (CNS) with a brain:plasma ratio of <0.05.6 However, its CNS penetration in humans is largely unknown but is of interest not only because NiV frequently causes an encephalitis but also in view of the fact that there have been numerous reports of COVID-19-associated encephalitis.7 Many patients with COVID-19-associated neurological disease receive remdesivir that potentially provides an opportunity to study its blood brain barrier penetration and/ or characterise the effects of remdesivir on brain tissue through post-mortem studies, indirectly providing valuable information regarding its possible utility in the treatment of CNS disease caused by NiV.8,9 * TEMI LAMPEJO Consultant in infectious diseases and virology, King's College Hospital, London, UK References 1 Alam AM.

10.
Energies ; 15(19):7289, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065781

ABSTRACT

E-grocery is fast growing worldwide and represents a relevant issue for city logistics. Although in almost all countries the percentage of food e-buyers was lower than those purchasing other commodity categories, due to the pandemic, they have increased significantly in the last two years, with consequences that are difficult to fathom and estimate. This phenomenon therefore deserves more attention, especially with respect to its environmental impact, mostly at the urban scale. This paper presents a systematic literature review (SLR) on how e-grocery impacts the environment through the CO2 emissions generated and the equivalent energy consumption. The methodology used for the review follows a standard approach, with different combinations of keywords used for the search performed in SCOPUS and the Web of Science databases. Emissions and energy consumption assessments were performed for all of the papers considered. The results point to two different findings: some studies consider online grocery as an environmentally friendly channel, while others note that the energy consumption of this emerging channel is higher than alternative ones. This paper contributes by suggesting future research directions to be explored on the relationship between e-grocery and energy use and provides some reflections that are useful not only to e-grocers and logistics operators, but also to policy makers with an interest in developing sustainable urban plans and promoting less environmentally impacting distributions/configurations of grocery delivery systems within city logistics.

11.
Electronics ; 11(19):3081, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065772

ABSTRACT

With the development of telecare medical information system (TMIS), doctors and patients are able to access useful medical services via 5G wireless communications without visiting the hospital in person. Unfortunately, TMIS should have the essential security properties, such as anonymity, mutual authentication, and privacy, since the patient’s data is transmitted via a public channel. Moreover, the sensing devices deployed in TMIS are resource-limited in terms of communication and computational costs. Thus, we design a physically secure privacy-preserving scheme using physical unclonable functions (PUF) in TMIS, called PUF-PSS to resolve the security requirements and efficiency of the existing related schemes. PUF-PSS prevents the security threats and also guarantees anonymity, key freshness, and authentication. We evaluate the security of PUF-PSS by performing formal and informal security analyses, including AVISPA implementation and ROR oracle model. We perform the test bed experiments utilizing well-known MIRACL based on a Raspberry PI 4 and compare the communication and computational costs of PUF-PSS with the previous schemes for TMIS. Consequently, PUF-PSS guarantees better efficiency and security than previous schemes and can be applied to TMIS environments.

12.
Nonlinear Engineering ; - (1):549-557, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065197

ABSTRACT

There are many factors that can lead to the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), one of which is the lack of knowledge on the virus and its prevention, notably in Indonesia. This study was focused to design and build an interactive learning app for COVID-19 education. The design of this study was research and development, and in terms of the app development, it utilized the analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation model. The project was carried out from July to December 2021, and it involved 25 study participants. The findings of this study confirmed that the educational app consisted of education, a symptom checker, a list of vaccine information links, the latest news, and COVID-19 statistics. The validity assessment showed that the educational app in this study was very appropriate to be utilized as a digital medium for patient education. In addition, it was also confirmed that all the functions of the app worked well, and participants strongly agreed that the educational materials and features of the app were interesting and helped them to learn COVID-19 prevention easily. It could be concluded that the app could be used as a learning medium for patient education. Further studies, however, were needed to prove its effectiveness in the real clinical world.

13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065917

ABSTRACT

Cultural practices and development level can influence a population's household structures and mixing patterns. Within some populations, households can be organized across multiple dwellings. This likely affects the spread of infectious disease through these communities; however, current demographic data collection tools do not record these data. METHODS: Between June and October 2018, the Contact And Mobility Patterns in remote Aboriginal Australian communities (CAMP-remote) pilot study recruited Aboriginal mothers with infants in a remote northern Australian community to complete a monthly iPad-based contact survey. RESULTS: Thirteen mother-infant pairs (participants) completed 69 study visits between recruitment and the end of May 2019. Participants reported they and their other children slept in 28 dwellings during the study. The median dwelling occupancy, defined as people sleeping in the same dwelling on the previous night, was ten (range: 3.5-25). Participants who completed at least three responses (n = 8) slept in a median of three dwellings (range: 2-9). Each month, a median of 28% (range: 0-63%) of the participants travelled out of the community. Including these data in disease transmission models amplified estimates of infectious disease spread in the study community, compared to models parameterized using census data. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of data on mixing patterns in populations where households can be organized across dwellings may impact the accuracy of infectious disease models for these communities and the efficacy of public health actions they inform.


Subject(s)
Family Characteristics , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Indigenous Peoples , Infant , Pilot Projects
14.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 307(7951), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064982
15.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 306(7949), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064963
16.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064342

ABSTRACT

With the normalization of epidemic prevention and control, the expression of the public’s demand for health information on online platforms continues to increase, while knowledge hiding behavior has seriously hindered the communication and dissemination of epidemic prevention knowledge and has a negative impact on public communication and access to health information in the socialized Q&A communities. Therefore, further stimulating diving users' activity and reducing their knowledge hiding behavior have become the key to the sustainable development of epidemic prevention and control and communities. Based on the social cognition theory, from the perspective of individual cognition and external environment, this study constructs a theoretical model of the influencing factors of users’ knowledge hiding behavior in the socialized Q&A communities in the post-epidemic era and puts forward relevant assumptions. 151 effective questionnaires are collected and an empirical analysis is carried out by using the structural equation model. The results show that outcome expectation, community atmosphere, and requesting negatively affect knowledge hiding behavior;self-efficacy, outcome expectation, and community atmosphere negatively affect the three different types of knowledge hiding behavior, which are evasive hiding, playing dumb, and rationalized hiding;community atmosphere positively affects outcome expectation, which plays a significant intermediary effect between community atmosphere and knowledge hiding behavior. The research content and relevant conclusions of this study deepen and expand the connotation and extension of knowledge hiding behavior in the negative performance of Q&A communities. From the perspective of practical application, it can also effectively reduce knowledge hiding behavior, grasp the development direction of public health needs, and strengthen the dissemination of epidemic prevention and control knowledge.

17.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064333

ABSTRACT

We propose a theoretical study to investigate the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, reported in Wuhan, China. We develop a mathematical model based on the characteristic of the disease and then use fractional calculus to fractionalize it. We use the Caputo-Fabrizio operator for this purpose. We prove that the considered model has positive and bounded solutions. We calculate the threshold quantity of the proposed model and discuss its sensitivity analysis to find the role of every epidemic parameter and the relative impact on disease transmission. The threshold quantity (reproductive number) is used to discuss the steady states of the proposed model and to find that the proposed epidemic model is stable asymptotically under some constraints. Both the global and local properties of the proposed model will be performed with the help of the mean value theorem, Barbalat’s lemma, and linearization. To support our analytical findings, we draw some numerical simulations to verify with graphical representations.

18.
Journal of Mathematics ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064324

ABSTRACT

The major goal of this study is to create an optimal technique for managing COVID-19 spread by transforming the SEIQR model into a dynamic (multistage) programming problem with continuous and discrete time-varying transmission rates as optimizing variables. We have developed an optimal control problem for a discrete-time, deterministic susceptible class (S), exposed class (E), infected class (I), quarantined class (Q), and recovered class (R) epidemic with a finite time horizon. The problem involves finding the minimum objective function of a controlled process subject to the constraints of limited resources. For our model, we present a new technique based on dynamic programming problem solutions that can be used to minimize infection rate and maximize recovery rate. We developed suitable conditions for obtaining monotonic solutions and proposed a dynamic programming model to obtain optimal transmission rate sequences. We explored the positivity and unique solvability nature of these implicit and explicit time-discrete models. According to our findings, isolating the affected humans can limit the danger of COVID-19 spreading in the future.

19.
Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ ; 39(10):723, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064196

ABSTRACT

Byrne et al have explored this in more depth, completing a systematic review into the willingness and preparation of medical students in relation to disaster medicine. Tolhurst-Cleaver et al have reviewed UK guidelines on the management of this condition and found a significant degree of variability, often with variation between written and verbal accounts of practice. [...]we have another paper from Vassallo et al on a comparative analysis of major incident tools in children, an area that I’ve been interested in for many years.

20.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 378, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064099

ABSTRACT

Adding oropharyngeal to nasal sampling is not the answer to underperforming tests

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