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1.
Acta Paulista De Enfermagem ; 36, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20242995

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of using ozone to disinfect surfaces based on an integrative literature review.Methods: A search was carried out in the SciELO, MEDLINE, LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct databases. Eleven articles published January 2010 to August 2021 were analyzed. All employed the experimental laboratory research model and achieved different levels of disinfection by O3, however, with varied surfaces and products tested, in addition to different methodological procedures.Results: The majority had an inhibition rate by O3 equal to or greater than 90%, thus proving the effectiveness of this agent as a surface disinfectant, even with variations in parameter values such as concentration and exposure time, in all selected articles, even those that did not prove the effectiveness of O3.Conclusion: This review shows the inhibitory power that O3 has on different pathogens, even if there are variables in the factors used for this purpose, highlighting it in front of other disinfectants. Thus, it corroborates the composition of surface disinfection protocols and decision-making among managers and committees about sanitizing technologies.

2.
Pharmaceutical Technology Europe ; 33(6):34-35,40, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20242754

ABSTRACT

Among the observations noted were failure to maintain clean and sanitary conditions;lack of written procedures for cleaning and decontamination of the vessels used to transport and store materials at the site;and no formal requirements to clean and sanitize these vessels after each use. [...]documentation must include the names and signatures of staff performing the work, as well as the product batch number, cleaner expiry date, and disinfectants used. Single-use systems and equipment have eliminated some of those problems, but they persist for hybrid plants still using stainless steel equipment. More work is also being done to use analytical methods to reduce the subjectivity of visual inspection, but Forsyth hasn't seen any consistentlyin place from the time of marketing authorization application (MAA) filing.

3.
Zhongguo Jishui Paishui = China Water & Wastewater ; - (10):80, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20234104

ABSTRACT

Health service station is a place in which close contacts with the COVID-19 and other key populations are centralized quarantined for medical observation.A newly built health service station is equipped with 4 700 beds and a supporting sewage treatment station with a designed treatment scale of2 200 m~3/d.The treatment process consists of enhanced biological treatment system,sewage virus disinfection and sterilization system,aerosol disinfection and sterilization system and sludge disinfection and sterilization system.After treatment,the effluent and waste gas can meet the limit specified in Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Medical Organization (GB 18466-2005).The average COD,NH3-N and SS in effluent are 14.53 mg/L,1.26 mg/L and 9.11 mg/L,respectively,and the average concentrations of H2S,NH3 and odor at the outlet are 0.01 mg/L,0.8 mg/L and 6.3,respectively.The sludge is disinfected regularly and then transported outside for disposal.This project can provide reference for sewage treatment design of emergency medical temporary isolation and observation facility and cabin hospital.

4.
Infect Drug Resist ; 16: 3213-3224, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231329

ABSTRACT

Background: Surface disinfection of healthcare facilities with appropriate disinfectants is among the infection control strategies against the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As sodium hypochlorite solution (SHS) is a commonly used surface disinfectant, its preparation and proper use should be given a due attention. The current study aimed at assessing the practice of Addis Ababa public hospitals in the preparation and use of SHS. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was employed to assess the adequacy of disinfectant solution preparation and use. Checklists were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data analyses, and categorical variables were described by frequencies and percentages. Results: Out of the twelve public hospitals included in the study; only three hospitals checked the potency of the working SHS. Majority of the hospitals (8 hospitals) stored the concentrated SHS products in cool, dry, and direct sunlight protected places. It was only in one hospital where appropriate personal protective equipment was used during the preparation and quality control activities. Surfaces were not cleaned in all hospitals before disinfection; and the rooms were ventilated only in 2 hospitals during the application of the disinfectant solution. Conclusion: The study revealed that the preparations of SHS in the public hospitals did not comply with most of the requirements of good compounding practice. Moreover, standard practices were not maintained in majority hospitals during the use of SHS for surface disinfection. As a control strategy in the spread of COVID-19 and other infections, appropriate corrective actions shall be implemented in the studied hospitals to mitigate the limitations observed in the preparation and use of SHS.

5.
17th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, INDOOR AIR 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2322794

ABSTRACT

Increased usage of chemical disinfectants during the COVID-19 pandemic may impact the chemical composition of indoor air in residential and commercial buildings. This study characterized gas-phase concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during multi-surface disinfection activities in a tiny house research facility. This unique facility provided a controlled, yet realistic environment for simulating whole-building disinfection events. VOCs were measured in real-time (1 Hz) in the bulk air of the tiny house with a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS). In addition, particle number (PN) size distributions were measured with a high-resolution electrical low-pressure impactor (HR-ELPI+). PTR-TOF-MS measurements demonstrate that chemical disinfectant spray products applied to multiple surfaces can substantially increase indoor VOC concentrations. © 2022 17th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, INDOOR AIR 2022. All rights reserved.

6.
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2316448

ABSTRACT

Due to the twin-demic of COVID-19 and flu virus, disinfectants containing ClO- have been widely used nowadays. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a sensor capable of efficiently detecting toxic hypochlorite. We present the invention and assessment of a fast-responsive and multi-applicable chemodosimeter sensor ETA (2-(2-((1E,2E)-3-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)allylidene)hydrazineyl)-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-oxoethan-1-aminium chloride) for monitoring ClO‑. In pure water, adding ClO- to ETA caused a turn-off fluorescence within 2 sec. These changes made it possible to quickly detect ClO- with a high level of selectivity. ETA displayed a low detection limit (0.68 μM) to ClO-. Using UV-vis titrations, ESI-MS and DFT calculations, we were able to demonstrate the detection mechanism, in which ETA was cleaved by ClO-. In particular, we established the possibility for reliable ClO- detection in environmental systems such as actual water samples, disinfectants, living cells, zebrafish and celery, in addition to confirming the practicality of ETA utilizing test strips.

7.
The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ; 51(1):230, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2315588

ABSTRACT

BackgroundWith the global surge in COVID-19 pandemic, it has become inevitable for everyone, inclusive of nuclear medicine personnel, to play their role in combating and containing its transmission. During fall 2019, China encountered a novel coronavirus in Wuhan city which was later on termed as COVID-19. The pneumonia caused by COVID-19 is characterized by dry cough, fever, fatigue, and shortness of breathing (dyspnea). Until now, this virus has spread worldwide and continues to cause exponential causalities.Main bodyThis global catastrophic scenario calls for stringent measures to control COVID-19 infection. Thus herein, the respective authors have endeavored to review precautionary measures for nuclear medicine department, encompassing its personnel as well as the patients so that intradepartmental transmission can be prevented. This requires development and execution of a robust and dynamic plan elaborating the healthcare guidelines. Hence, our review paper covers the arena of nuclear medicine services in particular.ConclusionNuclear medicine can play its role in mitigating COVID-19 transmission to personnel and patients if provided with ample PPEs and guidelines are strictly followed. With implementing SOPs (standard operating procedures) based on these guidelines, nuclear medicine facilities will be better prepared for impromptu actions in case of any future outbreak while retaining the smooth flow of obligatory healthcare services.

8.
IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science ; 1176(1):012034, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2315278

ABSTRACT

During Covid-19, a facility management researcher/instructor team examined potential effects of various disinfectant treatments on the surface appearance of furniture currently located in their academic facility. Treatments (i.e., bleach wipes, alcohol wipes, disinfectant sprays and UltraViolet wands) are used by students, staff, faculty, visitors, facility managers and custodians in an effort to reduce spread of Corona. Further, EMist© with Vital Oxide treatments were regularly applied by University-contracted facility maintenance staff during study period. While procedures exist for measuring color change regarding light exposure and changes due to abrasion, no current published methods were found regarding surface color before and after Covid-19 intervention treatments. Researchers/instructors anticipate findings from study would inform facility management and other courses. They anticipate results would allow generalizability to hospitality and healthcare. Changes in surface color of upholstered furniture in facilities may be extremely negative regarding interior aesthetics, corporate image, and replacement costs. Therefore, it was determined there was a great need to study the effects of treatments and inform facility stakeholders. Researchers posited that Covid-19 intervention treatments may alter surface color of upholstered furniture over time. The purpose of the study was to develop methodology to examine color degradation that may be caused by agents used in common disinfecting practices. Three seating pieces (drafting chair, drafting stool, classroom chair) made of different materials were studied. Five treatments were applied to each furniture piece at regular intervals over an 8-week period. Researchers measured color before and after treatments. The procedures were photo-documented and videotaped to capture treatments in-process and to support future educational presentations. Preliminary findings revealed limited variability in color changes. Future research should consider other seating and room-finish materials, disinfectants and treatments, facility types, and timeframes.

9.
ISME Communications ; 2(1):84, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2313591

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, large amounts of anti-coronavirus chemicals, such as antiviral drugs and disinfectants were discharged into the surrounding aquatic ecosystem, causing potential ecological damage. Here, we investigated plankton in the Wuhan reaches of the Yangtze River, before, during, and after COVID-19, with the river reaches of three adjacent cities sampled for comparison. During the COVID-19, planktonic microbial density declined significantly. Correspondingly, the eukaryotic and prokaryotic community compositions and functions shifted markedly, with increasing abundance of chlorine-resistant organisms. Abundance of antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factor genes, and bacteria containing both genes increased by 2.3-, 2.7-, and 7.9-fold, respectively, compared to other periods. After COVID-19, all measured plankton community compositional and functional traits recovered in the Yangtze River.

10.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1161339, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319926

ABSTRACT

Background: A sharp rise in household consumption of disinfectants triggered by COVID-19 pandemic has generated tremendous environmental burden and risks of disinfectant emissions in the post-pandemic period. To address this emerging challenge, replacing highly hazardous disinfectants with more environmental friendly alternatives has been accepted as an inherently effective solution to environment issues posed by disinfectant emerging contaminants. However, no study has yet been done to explore the potential customers' attitudes and the market prospect of environmental friendly disinfectants until now. Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted from January to March, 2022, among resident volunteers in China, to explore the practices, knowledge and attitudes of the public regarding environmental friendly disinfectants for household use. Results: Among a total of 1,861 Chinese residents finally included in the analyses, 18% agreed or strongly agreed that they paid special attention to the environmental certification label on the product, and only bought the environmental certified disinfectant products; 16% and 10% were using environmental friendly disinfectants for hand sanitization and environmental disinfection, respectively. The mean self-assessed and actual knowledge scores were 2.42 ± 1.74 and 2.12 ± 1.97, respectively, out of a total of 5. Participants having good practices of consuming environmental friendly disinfectants achieved higher knowledge scores. Residents' overall attitudes toward the development, consumption and application of environmental friendly disinfectants were very positive. "Possible conflict between disinfection effectiveness and environmental factor of disinfectants in a context of severe COVID-19 pandemic" was considered as the most important barrier jeopardizing the participants' usage intention for environmental friendly disinfectants. Conclusions: These data suggested most residents of China had a positive attitude, poor knowledge and practices toward environmental friendly disinfectants. More should be done to enhance the residents' environmental knowledge levels about disinfectants, and to further develop and promote disinfectant products with both excellent disinfection activity and environmentally friendly attributes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , China
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(28): 72368-72388, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315236

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has affected all aspects of human life so far. From the outset of the pandemic, preventing the spread of COVID-19 through the observance of health protocols, especially the use of sanitizers and disinfectants was given more attention. Despite the effectiveness of disinfection chemicals in controlling and preventing COVID-19, there are critical concerns about their adverse effects on human health. This study aims to assess the health effects of sanitizers and disinfectants on a global scale. A total of 91,056 participants from 154 countries participated in this cross-sectional study. Information on the use of sanitizers and disinfectants and health was collected using an electronic questionnaire, which was translated into 26 languages via web-based platforms. The findings of this study suggest that detergents, alcohol-based substances, and chlorinated compounds emerged as the most prevalent chemical agents compared to other sanitizers and disinfectants examined. Most frequently reported health issues include skin effects and respiratory effects. The Chi-square test showed a significant association between chlorinated compounds (sodium hypochlorite and per-chlorine) with all possible health effects under investigation (p-value <0.001). Examination of risk factors based on multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that alcohols and alcohols-based materials were associated with skin effects (OR, 1.98; 95%CI, 1.87-2.09), per-chlorine was associated with eye effects (OR, 1.83; 95%CI, 1.74-1.93), and highly likely with itching and throat irritation (OR, 2.00; 95%CI, 1.90-2.11). Furthermore, formaldehyde was associated with a higher prevalence of neurological effects (OR, 2.17; 95%CI, 1.92-2.44). Furthermore, formaldehyde was associated with a higher prevalence of neurological effects (OR, 2.17; 95%CI, 1.92-2.44). The use of sodium hypochlorite and per-chlorine also had a high chance of having respiratory effects. The findings of the current study suggest that health authorities need to implement more awareness programs about the side effects of using sanitizers and disinfectants during viral epidemics especially when they are used or overused.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Disinfectants/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Pandemics/prevention & control , Chlorine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chlorides/chemistry , Formaldehyde , Alcohols , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Pharm Chem J ; 57(2): 314-317, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313120

ABSTRACT

The problem of the strategy for choosing disinfectants in practical medicine is considered. The pandemic of the new coronavirus infection posed new problems for disinfectology. The expanded spectrum of disinfectants and antiseptics offered by the chemical industry in recent years requires justification for the choice in favor of any product. The goals and types of disinfection considered from current positions and the main groups of disinfectants used in Russia and their properties and spectra of activity are presented.

13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(20): 7645-7665, 2023 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312651

ABSTRACT

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), a large class of chemicals that includes high production volume substances, have been used for decades as antimicrobials, preservatives, and antistatic agents and for other functions in cleaning, disinfecting, personal care products, and durable consumer goods. QAC use has accelerated in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the banning of 19 antimicrobials from several personal care products by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2016. Studies conducted before and after the onset of the pandemic indicate increased human exposure to QACs. Environmental releases of these chemicals have also increased. Emerging information on adverse environmental and human health impacts of QACs is motivating a reconsideration of the risks and benefits across the life cycle of their production, use, and disposal. This work presents a critical review of the literature and scientific perspective developed by a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional team of authors from academia, governmental, and nonprofit organizations. The review evaluates currently available information on the ecological and human health profile of QACs and identifies multiple areas of potential concern. Adverse ecological effects include acute and chronic toxicity to susceptible aquatic organisms, with concentrations of some QACs approaching levels of concern. Suspected or known adverse health outcomes include dermal and respiratory effects, developmental and reproductive toxicity, disruption of metabolic function such as lipid homeostasis, and impairment of mitochondrial function. QACs' role in antimicrobial resistance has also been demonstrated. In the US regulatory system, how a QAC is managed depends on how it is used, for example in pesticides or personal care products. This can result in the same QACs receiving different degrees of scrutiny depending on the use and the agency regulating it. Further, the US Environmental Protection Agency's current method of grouping QACs based on structure, first proposed in 1988, is insufficient to address the wide range of QAC chemistries, potential toxicities, and exposure scenarios. Consequently, exposures to common mixtures of QACs and from multiple sources remain largely unassessed. Some restrictions on the use of QACs have been implemented in the US and elsewhere, primarily focused on personal care products. Assessing the risks posed by QACs is hampered by their vast structural diversity and a lack of quantitative data on exposure and toxicity for the majority of these compounds. This review identifies important data gaps and provides research and policy recommendations for preserving the utility of QAC chemistries while also seeking to limit adverse environmental and human health effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Pandemics , Anti-Bacterial Agents
14.
Kemija U Industriji-Journal of Chemists and Chemical Engineers ; 71(11-12):743-750, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2309058

ABSTRACT

Living and working environments are most often closed spaces where it is necessary to provide health protection for family members and employees. Some activities require special protection, especially during a pandemic. The living and working environments can be kept clean and tidy in three ways: by cleaning, disinfecting, and sanitising. This paper presents a review of the literature linking disinfectants, their use, and resistance of microorganisms to disinfectants. In addition, it gives an overview of critical points that have arisen in various testing laboratories in the Republic of Croatia, related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and as a consequence of the lack of guidelines in norms. The literature search was conducted based on the keyword 'disinfection' in PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar databases, and on the CDC and HZJZ websites due to the latest recommendations regarding COVID-19 infections. Results have shown that a norm is a basic document that needs a specific upgrade depending on the type of laboratory and its activities, and it should not be an independent decision of each individual laboratory. Based on the identified needs and problems, state institutions should provide detailed instructions depending on the laboratory activity. Therefore, this situation and the experience gained should be used as a starting point for document development that could be applicable in crisis states generally. In addition, it could be used as a basis for education and training in crisis states.

15.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 470: 116546, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310299

ABSTRACT

Despite their importance in combating the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, adverse effects of disinfectants on human health, especially the respiratory system, have been of continuing concern to researchers. Considering that bronchi are the main target of sprayed disinfectants, we here treated the seven major active ingredients in disinfectant products accepted by the US EPA to human bronchial epithelial cells and determined the subtoxic levels. Then, we performed microarray analysis using total RNA obtained at the subtoxic level and designed a network representing disinfectant-induced cellular response using the KEGG pathway analysis technique. Polyhexamethylguanidine phosphate, a lung fibrosis inducer, was used as a reference material to verify the relationship between cell death and pathology. The derived results reveal potential adverse effects along with the need for an effective application strategy for each chemical.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Disinfectants/toxicity , Transcriptome , Pandemics , Guanidines/toxicity
16.
Applied System Innovation ; 6(2):40, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2292696

ABSTRACT

High hygiene standards were established during the COVID-19 epidemic, and their adherence was closely monitored. They included the need to regularly wash one's hands and the requirement to cover person's upper airways or keep at least a two-meter space between individuals. The ITS (Information Technology Systems) community made a big contribution to this by developing methods and applications for the ongoing observation of people and the environment. Our major objective was to create a low-cost, straightforward system for tracking and assessing the danger of spreading COVID-19 in a space.The proposed system collects data from various low-cost environmental sensors such as temperature, humidity, CO2, the number of people, the dynamics of speech, and the cleanliness of the environment with a significant connection to elements of wearable electronics and then evaluate the level of contamination and possible risks and, in the event of a high level of risk, alerts the person to take actions that can reduce or eliminate favourable conditions for the spread of the virus. The system was created at the Laboratory of industrial control systems of the University of Žilina, Slovakia. The experiment demonstrates the ability and feasibility to control the number of people in a space depending on particular symptoms like fever, coughing, and hand hygiene. On the other hand, the laboratory's temperature, humidity, and air quality should be controlled to reduce the spread of illness.

17.
Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 16(1):82-95, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2291926

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of antimicrobials has been expanded during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to assess the knowledge and practices of disinfectants and sanitizers use among Jordanian people during the (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire was distributed across Jordan between August and September 2020. The questionnaire consisted of three sections inquiring about demographics and general characteristics of the surveyed sample, evaluating the respondents' knowledge about disinfectants, as well as respondents' practices. The questionnaire was completed by 403 literate adult respondents. Results: Our results indicate that Jordanian adults have used disinfectants increasingly during the COVID-19 outbreak. Knowledge of our study sample was considerably affected by gender (p=0.044), income (p=0.001), and profession (p<0.001). 80.8% of those participants reported skin-related side effects due to disinfectant use during the pandemic. The most used disinfectants were ethanol, followed by soap and water. Generally, study respondents showed positive practices toward the use of disinfectants during the time of the pandemic with few high-risk practices reported. Interestingly, the positive practices applied by Jordanian adults were minimally and not significantly affected by the knowledge about antimicrobials' safe and effective use. Conclusions: There is an urgent need for a structured effort to increase public awareness regarding the safe and effective use of disinfectants against SARS-CoV-2 transmission. © 2023 DSR Publishers/The University of Jordan.

18.
Journal of International Dental and Medical Research ; 16(1):8-12, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2300966
19.
SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology ; : 51-59, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2300258

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and movement control order that started in 2020 has changed the shopping behavior to online shopping. This also increases in-home delivery services by the shipping providers. However, since the virus can be transmitted through surface transmission, the buyer is advised to avoid touching surfaces and clean or sanitize surfaces regularly with standard disinfectants to prevent the spread. In addition, with an increase in the parcel delivery process, missing parcels also will be one of the main problems that the buyer will be facing. This study has developed a smart parcel box with sanitizer to overcome the issues stated above. Smart in this context refers to the notification that the buyer will get once the parcel is placed inside the parcel box, the box itself will be locked once the parcel is in and only can be opened by the authorized user. This study utilizes the Arduino IDE software to control the operation of the locks and notifications. The notifications are linked to the Blynk Application that needs to be installed on the buyer's smartphone. The software is also coded to run the motor that controls the standard disinfectants that will be sprayed on the parcel for a few seconds. The results indicate one solution for the online shopping addicts to shop while avoiding the spread of COVID-19 viruses. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

20.
Sustainability ; 15(8):6867, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2299051

ABSTRACT

In order to keep the home and occupational environment clean and non-infectious, the consumption of cleaners and disinfectants, including cosmetics, is increasing. Excessive use of these products results in their accumulation in the aquatic environment. Conventional wastewater treatment plants are unable to effectively remove the emergent pollutants, including personal care products. This article is focused on the monitoring of the presence of personal care products in surface waters in two river basins in the Slovak Republic, in terms of the surfactant content. Ecotoxicological evaluation of the selected samples from the monitored river basins was performed by an acute toxicity test using the test organism Daphnia magna. The monitoring results indicate the presence of personal care products in the aquatic environment which poses an ecological and environmental risk. Monitoring in the Hron and Nitra river basins confirmed contamination with the surfactants, to which the measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic contributed. The content of the surfactants in personal care products is significant, and their impact on the aquatic environment is not sufficiently monitored.

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