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1.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; : 130690, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165551

ABSTRACT

In this study, we report the implementation of a comprehensive wastewater surveillance testing program at a university campus in Singapore to identify SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and usage of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as well as other emerging contaminants (ECs). This unique co-monitoring program simultaneously measured SARS-CoV-2 with chemical markers/contaminants as the COVID-19 situation evolved from pandemic to endemic stages, following a nationwide mass vaccination drive. SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in wastewater from campus dormitories were measured using RT-qPCR and corroborated with number of symptomatic COVID-19 cases confirmed with the antigen rapid test (ART). Consistent results were observed where the concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in wastewater increased proportionately with the number of COVID-19 infected individuals residing on campus. Similarly, a wide range of ECs, including disinfectants and antibiotics, were detected through sensitive LC-MS/MS techniques to establish PPCPs consumption patterns during various stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore. Statistical correlation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was observed with few ECs belonging to disinfectants, PCPs and antibiotics. A high concentration of disinfectants and subsequent positive correlation with the number of reported cases on the university campus indicates that disinfectants could serve as a chemical marker during such unprecedented times.

2.
Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental ; 27(6):1113-1122, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2162709

ABSTRACT

The transmission of respiratory infections has an important role on human health, especially in the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this work, we present the assessment of an air purifier that uses ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation and a "High Efficiency Particulate Air” (HEPA) filter as mechanisms to decontaminate indoor environments with low air circulation. To assess the physicochemical and microbicidal characteristics of the equipment, the irradiance produced by the lamp, the flow rate at the entrance and exit of the device, possible changes in the ozone concentration and the equipment's decontamination potential for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The total dose of UVC radiation that the air receives when passing through the equipment was 801.4 μJ cm-2, which would represent an inactivation of up to 80% of SARS-CoV-2 in the air. Furthermore, the filtration efficiency dropped with smaller particle diameter, and reduced to around 60% for particles with less than 1 μm and remained above 90% for PM2.5 and PM10 . In microbiological tests, there was a reduction of 99.4%, 99.9% and 99.5% for S aureus, E. coli and C. albicans, respectively, in 11 minutes. © 2022 Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental Este é um artigo de acesso aberto distribuído nos termos de licença Creative Commons.

3.
Missouri Medicine ; 117(6):510-512, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2147533

ABSTRACT

On June 5, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported a steep increase in calls to poison centers regarding exposure to household disinfectants.2 A CDC survey of 502 adults in the United States found that 39% of responders engaged in dangerous practices including washing food products with bleach, applying household cleaners directly to skin, and intentionally inhaling or ingesting disinfectants with the goal of preventing COVID-19 infection.2 Another troubling issue secondary to heightened anxiety is the substantial decline in visits for chronic conditions, preventative care, and non-COVID associated medical emergencies which was especially prominent early on during this pandemic. [...]the principal investigator received multiple death treats necessitating police protection.5 Threats to the Medical Literature The hydroxychloroquine debate in the spring has also highlighted the issue of misinformation in medical literature. Effect of High vs Low Doses of Chloroquine Diphosphate as Adjunctive Therapy for Patients Hospitalized With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

4.
Payesh ; 21(1):81-90, 2022.
Article in Persian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146858

ABSTRACT

Objective(s): The outbreak of COVID-19 disease has led to a dramatic increase in hand hygiene and use of masks and gloves which cause skin problems, including eczema. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eczema and its associated risk factors among different members of society during the Covid 19 epidemic and also to provide appropriate strategies to prevent and treat eczema. Methods: In this systematic review, relevant studies were searched in scientific databases fusing keywords associated with eczema, Covid-19 and disinfectant from 2019 to 2021. Articles were evaluated with the STROBE checklist. Results: Finally, 10 articles including 6 articles on medical staff, 3 studies on children and 1 study on the general public were reviewed. These studies investigated the prevalence of eczema before and after the pandemic, the symptoms of eczema and its associated risk factors, as well as strategies to prevent and treat eczema. Conclusion: The findings indicate a nearly two-fold increase in the prevalence of eczema in society during this pandemic. Most important risk factors associated with this finding were the frequency of hand washing, the use of gloves, and exposure to chemicals. Proper hand hygiene education and the use of emollients are the most important ways to prevent eczema. © 2022, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research. All rights reserved.

5.
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation ; 46(10), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2136974

ABSTRACT

Fresh fruits and vegetables carry a heavy load of microorganisms which may cause the risks of food-borne illness to the consumer. Even after washing with water, there is a need for sanitization and disinfection to drop down a load of harmful microbes under the safe limit. Sanitizers and disinfectants are not only cost-effective but also nonhazardous and eco-friendly. Moreover, they should not hamper the organoleptic and nutritional properties of fresh produce. With rising demand for safe, nutritious, and fresh fruits and vegetables, many new disinfectants and treatments are commercially available. During this COVID-19 outbreak, knowledge of sanitizers and disinfectants for fresh fruits and vegetables is very important. This review focuses on working principles, applications, and related legislation of physical and chemical disinfection technologies (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, organic acids, electrolyzed water, irradiation, ultrasound etc.) and their effectiveness for shelf-life extension of fresh produce.

6.
1st International Conference on Advanced Research in Pure and Applied Science, ICARPAS 2021 ; 2398, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2133854

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of some detergents and disinfectants against Staphyloccocus aureus, As (60) swabs were collected for a period of one month, and from various school environmental sources, which included the hands of students during their academic performance of their duties and age groups (13-19) years and after they underwent a corona virus examination and from health units for the school environment and student desks in the city of Kirkuk, The efficiency of the detergents and detergents used for hand washing and health institutions available in the local market was evaluated, which included: liquid soap (Fax), Bleach 6%, Flash, Dettol (EIFFEL), Hand santizer gel, Hand sanitizer spray.The results of the study showed that the detergents and disinfectants under study have inhibitory efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus according to the prepared concentrations (50,25,12.5)%,Flash and Hand sanitizer spray are among the most effective disinfectants and detergents, followed by Bleach, then Dettol and liquid soap, and Hand santizer gel was less effective against bacteria. © 2022 American Institute of Physics Inc.. All rights reserved.

7.
Bokin Bobai Journal of Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents ; 50(3):97-103, 2022.
Article in Japanese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2125657

ABSTRACT

Iodine-based disinfectants have recently been reported to inactivate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Iodine exists in various forms and, the relative inactivation abilities of different iodine compounds remain unclear. In this study, we examined the inactivating effects of different forms of iodine used in iodine-based disinfectants (free iodine, iodide ions, and polyiodide ions such as triiodide ion and povidone-iodine). Although iodide ions were unable to inactivate SARS-CoV-2, free iodine, iodine complex, and polyiodide significantly inactivated the virus. Iodine complex and polyiodide were the main components responsible for disinfection activity.

8.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; : 130393, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2120240

ABSTRACT

Amplified hygiene and precautionary measures are of utmost importance to control the spread of COVID-19 and future infection;however, these changes in practice are projected to trigger a rise in purchase, utilisation and hence, discharge of many disinfectants into the environment. While alcohol-based, hydrogen peroxide-based, chlorine-based compounds have been used widely, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) based disinfectants are of significant concern due to their overuse during this pandemic. This review presents the classification of disinfectants and their mechanism of action, focusing on QACs. Most importantly, the occurrence, fate, toxicity and antimicrobial resistance due to QACs are covered in this paper. Here we collated evidence from multiple studies and found rising trends of concern, including an increase in mass load of QACs at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by 331% compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as an increases in the concentration of 62% in residential dust, resulting in high concentrations of QACs in human blood and breast milk and suggesting that these could be potential sources of persistent QACs in infants. In addition to increased toxicity to human and aquatic life, increased use of QACs and accelerated use of antibiotics and antimicrobials during the COVID-19 pandemic could multiply the threat to antimicrobial resistance.

9.
Journal of Environmental Sciences ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2120142

ABSTRACT

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are commonly used in a variety of consumer and commercial products, typically as a component of disinfectants. During the COVID-19 pandemic, QACs became one of the primary agents utilized to inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus on surfaces. However, the ecotoxicological effects of QACs upon aquatic organisms have not been fully assessed. In this study, we examined the effects of a widely used QAC (benzalkonium chloride-C14, BAC-14) on two toxigenic Microcystis strains and one non-toxigenic freshwater Microcystis strain and carried out an analysis focused on primary, adaptive and compensatory stress responses at apical (growth and photosynthesis) and metabolic levels. This analysis revealed that the two toxic Microcystis strains were more tolerant than the non-toxic strain, with 96 hr-EC50 values of 0.70, 0.76, and 0.38 mg/L BAC-14 for toxigenic M. aeruginosa FACHB-905, toxigenic M. aeruginosa FACHB-469, and non-toxigenic M. wesenbergii FACHB-908, respectively. The photosynthetic activities of the Microcystis, assessed via Fv/Fm values, were significantly suppressed under 0.4 mg/L BAC-14. Furthermore, this analysis revealed that BAC-14 altered 14, 12, and 8 metabolic pathways in M. aeruginosa FACHB-905, M. aeruginosa FACHB-469, and M. wesenbergii FACHB-908, respectively. It is noteworthy that BAC-14 enhanced the level of extracellular microcystin production in the toxigenic Microcystis strains, although cell growth was not significantly affected. Collectively, these data show that BAC-14 disrupted the physiological and metabolic status of Microcystis cells and stimulated the production and release of microcystin, which could result in damage to aquatic systems.

10.
Annals of Biology ; 38(2):322-327, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2112182

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represented a health threat to the world and since then, folks were forced to use disinfectants while not taking note of the negative effects it had on humans and animals. To estimate it, a survey study was undertaken (using a questionnaire) on the adverse effects of disinfectants utilized by citizens in home (within the town of Mosul) on the fauna and birds in the COVID-19 pandemic. The study showed that housewives used highest (37%) disinfectants and the least was used by staff in health departments (16%). It was distributed over 12 residential neighbourhoods (districts) in Mosul. Most of the survey participants observed signs of itching, eyes inflammation and breathing problems. The study showed that the foremost ordinarily used disinfectants were 70% alcohol and 3% chlorine. Therefore, wrong use of such disinfectants showed highest symptom of abdominal pain (95%) in animals and birds and the lowest sign of death (20%). The keepers of animals and birds additionally suffered from itching and eyes inflammation and difficulty in breathing. Only 33% of such animals and birds were taken to veterinary health care where the best-prescribed drug was 42% amoxicillin and 32% normal saline as eyewash. Thus, lack of information among animal keepers about the dangers of disinfectants and the fear of disease led to the exposure of domestic animals to their negative adverse effects. © 2022, Agri Bio Research Publishers. All rights reserved.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 322-325, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113675

ABSTRACT

Microbe exposure to pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical agents plays a role in the development of antibiotic resistance. The risks and consequences associated with extensive disinfectant use during the COVID-19 pandemic remain unclear. Some disinfectants, like sanitizers, contain genotoxic chemicals that damage microbial DNA, like phenol and hydrogen peroxide. This damage activates error-prone DNA repair enzymes, which can lead to mutations that induce antimicrobial resistance. Public health priority programs that have faced drug-resistance challenges associated with diseases, such as tuberculosis, HIV, and malaria, have given less attention to risks attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. Pathogen-specific programs, like the directly observed treatment strategy designed to fight resistance against anti-tuberculosis drugs, have become impractical because COVID-19 restrictions have limited in-person visits to health institutions. Here, we summarized the key findings of studies on the current state of antimicrobial resistance development from the perspective of current disinfectant use. Additionally, we provide a brief overview of the consequences of restricted access to health services due to COVID-19 precautions and their implications on drug resistance development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Building and Environment ; : 109787, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104463

ABSTRACT

Chlorine-containing disinfectants are widely used in hospitals to prevent hospital-acquired severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Meanwhile, ventilation is a simple but effective means to maintain clean air. It is essential to explore the exposure level and health effects of coronavirus disease 2019 patients’ inhalation exposure to by-products of chloride-containing disinfectants under frequent surface disinfection and understand the role of ventilation in mitigating subsequent airway damage. We determined ventilation dilution performance and indoor air quality of two intensive care unit wards of the largest temporary hospital constructed in China, Leishenshan Hospital. The chloride inhalation exposure levels, and health risks indicated by interleukin-6 and D-dimer test results of 32 patients were analysed. The mean ± standard deviation values of the outdoor air change rate in the two intensive care unit wards were 8.8 ± 1.5 h−1 (Intensive care unit 1) and 4.1 ± 1.4 h−1 (Intensive care unit 2). The median carbon dioxide and fine particulate matter concentrations were 480 ppm and 19 μg/m3 for intensive care unit 1, and 567 ppm and 21 μg/m3 for intensive care unit 2, all of which were around the average levels of those in permanent hospitals (579 ppm and 21 μg/m3). Of these patients, the median (lower quartile, upper quartile) chloride exposure time and calculated dose were 26.66 (2.89, 57.21) h and 0.357 (0.008, 1.317) mg, respectively. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between interleukin-6 and D-dimer concentrations. To conclude, ventilation helped maintain ward air cleanliness and health risks were not observed.

13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099543

ABSTRACT

Pollution caused by the use of disinfectants in public spaces is a relatively new form of environmental contamination. During the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020-2021, early research showed a sevenfold increase in the use of disinfectants to clean outdoor spaces and a corresponding increase in environmental pollution. Typically, after entering stormwater systems, disinfectants are carried to surface waters (e.g., rivers, seas and lakes) where they react with various elements to form harmful compounds. In the absence of data, it is not possible to determine accurate levels of pollution according to the latest scientific information. Our enquiry demonstrates that stormwater pollution indicators (pH, conductivity, turbidity and color intensity) change depending on the amounts of disinfectants present. Laboratory tests were conducted using hemp fiber and ceramzite, in which filtered stormwater samples contaminated with different amounts of disinfectants showed decreases in the amounts of active chlorine from 2.93 ppm to 1.0 ppm. Changes in pH levels, conductivity, turbidity and color intensity were monitored before and after filtration; pH indicators changed slightly (from 7.81 to 7.85), turbidity changes varied in the range of 0.070-0.145 NTU and the highest value of color intensity (1.932 AV) was obtained when 50 mL of disinfectant was added to the investigated sample water. This article presents the results of our research into the impact of disinfectants on stormwater. Further investigation is needed in order to determine the impacts of chemical substances on our water ecosystem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Disinfectants , Humans , Ecosystem , Pandemics , Water
14.
Water ; 14(19):3009, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066634

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging contaminants leading to severe worldwide health problems. Chlorination, a widely used procedure, was extensively explored as one of the main methods to remove ARB and ARGs in recent years. In this study, to enrich the analyses of chlorination, several comprehensive effects of the chlorine disinfection system on ARB and their conjugative transfer ability were explored. The results presented that the low dose of chlorine (<3-log inactivation rate) had little influence on the survival of bacteria in terms of their capacity for conjugative transfer and antibiotic resistance. The high dose of chlorine (>3-log inactivation rate) triggered cell membrane changes, with little influence on the bacteria in terms of their antibiotic resistance. However, their capacity for conjugative transfer sharply decreased. Minor consumption of chloramphenicol was achieved with the chlorine dose applied in the disinfection system. Monochloroacetonitrile (MCAN) had limited effects on the frequency of conjugative transfer, indicating that the existence of MCAN would not aggravate the dissemination of ARGs by conjugative transfer. The overall impacts of the chlorine disinfection system with different containments on antibiotic resistance need further investigation.

15.
Side Effects of Drugs Annual ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2060267

ABSTRACT

This review covers publications during the period January 2021 to December 2021 on adverse reactions to antiseptic drugs and disinfectants. Specific agents discussed are alcohols (ethanol, isopropanol), aldehydes (formaldehyde), ethylene oxide, guanidines (chlorhexidine, polyhexamethylene guanidine, and polyhexamethylene biguanidine), benzalkonium compounds, triclosan, povidone-iodine, and sodium hypochlorite. No new data were identified for glutaraldehyde, cetrimide, tosylchloramide, triclocarban, and phenolic compounds. The use of antiseptic drugs and disinfectants has increased considerably since 2020 in various medical and occupational settings, in commerce and gastronomy, as well as in the home, due to their antiviral properties against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the still ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Irritant effects on the respiratory system, the skin and eyes were the most common adverse reaction, while the widespread and occasionally excessive use led to increased reports of poisonings as well as of oral misuse of disinfectants, sometimes associated with serious outcomes such as death from methanol intoxication. Eye exposures in children caused by inadvertent exposures due to unsupervised dispensers in public spaces were pointed out as being specifically problematic. Side effects in the eye may also occur in the general population by improper and unprotected use of UV lamps. The need to improve the safe use of disinfectant devices was pointed out in general.

16.
Journal of Chongqing Medical University ; 45(7):1031-1033, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2056460

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the effect of sterilization and disinfection procedures at two different levels before entering the residence of medical rescue teams fighting against coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in infection prevention and control. A total of 160 medical team members who came from our hospital to aid Wuhan were taken as study objects. During that period implementing two different procedures, their temperature, health condition, nucleic acid testing results and adverse reports were analyzed. The number of adverse reports was 0 during 10 days when high-intensity disinfection procedures were implemented. Before the simplified procedure put into use, there were 8 cases about psychological acceptance in the first seven days;the simplified procedure was carried out when there was no adverse reports 7 days later. During the isolation period, the body temperature was monitored twice a day, without any abnormality;two nucleic acid testing results were both negative. The simplified process is a more scientific and reasonable disinfection process. Confronted with the prevention and control of the COVID-19, we must maintain a scientific and rational attitude and adopt right and reasonable measures, which is more conducive to security.

17.
Environmental Health Engineering and Management ; 9(3):255-260, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2057085

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 has increased environmental disinfectant usage to reduce the transmission of this virus. Ethanol 70%-90% and 5% sodium hypochlorite have the highest consumption for disinfection of various environmental surfaces during the COVID-19 pandemic. Dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) are more susceptible to microbial contamination due to their particular structure. This study aimed to investigate the effect of increasing the use of disinfectants during the COVID-19 pandemic on the bacterial contamination of DUWLs. Methods: During November (before the COVID-19 pandemic) and December (during the COVID-19 pandemic), a questionnaire was used to assess the frequency of disinfection of unit surfaces and other environmental surfaces and the type of disinfectants used. The water samples were collected from different parts of DUWLs. The gram staining method followed by the biochemical method was used to identify the desired bacteria. Results: The results showed that the frequency of disinfection of dental units increased 8 times in December compared to November. There is a significant inverse relationship between the frequency of disinfection of dental units surfaces and the bacterial contamination of DUWLs. Conclusion: The microbial load in different parts of the DUWLs was less than 200 CFU/mL. The American Dental Association (ADA) recommended and indicated the allowable microbial concentration and the appropriate quality and water used in these units. © 2022 The Author(s).

18.
Serbian Journal of Experimental & Clinical Research ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2054857

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine and determine hygiene habits in the adolescent population depending on whether the Covid 19 pandemic affected the improvement of hygiene habits in the same population. The research is designed as a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire created using the Google Docs platform was used as an instrument. The sample consisted of 89 respondents of both sexes, aged 18 to 23 years. The analysis shows that there is a difference in maintaining hygienic habits before and after the introduction of the state of emergency. In 20.22% of cases, hygienic habits were better during the state of emergency, and after the mitigation of measures, compared to the period before the introduction of the state of emergency, and in 5.62% of respondents hygienic habits were worse, while in 74.16% of respondents there were no change in hygienic habits. The analysis of the use of disinfectants and masks shows that 60.68% of respondents used disinfectants and masks more often after mitigation of emergency measures compared to the period before the introduction of the state of emergency, 5.62% of respondents used less, while in 33.70 % of respondents there were no changes in the use of disinfectants and masks.The results of this study show a positive relationship between hygiene habits before and during the Covid 19 pandemic, and after mitigation, as well as between the use of disinfectants and masks before and during the Covid 19 pandemic, and after mitigation, which justifies further research in this area. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Serbian Journal of Experimental & Clinical Research is the property of Sciendo and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

19.
Paediatr Child Health ; 27(6): 324-326, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051519

ABSTRACT

Surface disinfection is part of school protocols designed to decrease the risk of students and staff contracting COVID-19. However, exposure to disinfectants can have short- and long-term health consequences. Given that the risks are well-described and safer products are readily available, it is critical that schools consciously employ safer disinfection strategies.

20.
J Hosp Infect ; 131: 12-22, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disinfection is one of the most effective ways to block the rapid transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to the prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, disinfectants have become crucial to prevent person-to-person transmission and decontaminate hands, clothes, facilities and equipment. However, there is a lack of accurate information on the virucidal activity of commercial disinfectants. AIM: To evaluate the virucidal efficacy of 72 commercially available disinfectants constituting 16 types of ingredients against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 was tested with various concentrations of disinfectants at indicated exposure time points as recommended by the manufacturers. The 50% tissue culture infectious dose assay was used to calculate virus titre, and trypan blue staining and CCK-8 were used to assess cell viability after 3-5 days of SARS-CoV-2 infection. FINDINGS: This study found that disinfectants based on 83% ethanol, 60% propanol/ethanol, 0.00108-0.0011% sodium dichloroisocyanurate and 0.497% potassium peroxymonosulfate inactivated SARS-CoV-2 effectively and safely. Although disinfectants based on 0.05-0.4% benzalkonium chloride (BAC), 0.02-0.07% quaternary ammonium compound (QAC; 1:1), 0.4% BAC/didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), 0.28% benzethonium chloride concentrate/2-propanol, 0.0205-0.14% DDAC/polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) and 0.5% hydrogen peroxide inactivated SARS-CoV-2 effectively, they exhibited cytotoxicity. Conversely, disinfectants based on 0.04-4% QAC (2:3), 0.00625% BAC/DDAC/PHMB, and 0.0205-0.14% and 0.0173% peracetic acid showed approximately 50% virucidal efficacy with no cytotoxicity. Citric acid (0.4%) did not inactivate SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that most commercially available disinfectants exert a disinfectant effect against SARS-CoV-2. However, re-evaluation of the effective concentration and exposure time of certain disinfectants is needed, especially citric acid and peracetic acid.

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