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1.
Chemosphere ; : 137632, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165148

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has raised concerns about the efficacy of the disinfection process followed in water treatment plants in preventing the spread of viruses. Ultraviolet (UV) and chlorine multi-barrier disinfection processes are commonly used in water treatment plants;however, their effects on virus inactivation are still unclear. In this study, the effects of different disinfection processes (i.e., UV, free chlorine, and their combination) on waterborne viruses were analyzed using bacteriophage surrogates (i.e., MS2 and PR772) as alternative indicators. The results showed that the inactivation rates of PR772 by either UV or free chlorine disinfection were higher than those of MS2. PR772 was approximately 1.5 times more sensitive to UV disinfection and 8.4 times more sensitive to chlorine disinfection than MS2. Sequential UV-chlorine disinfection had a synergistic effect on virus inactivation, which was enhanced by an increase in the UV dose. Compared with single free chlorine disinfection, UV irradiation at 40 mJ cm−2 enhanced MS2 and PR772 inactivation significantly with a 2.7-fold (MS2) and a 1.7-fold (PR772) increase in the inactivation rate constants on subsequent chlorination in phosphate buffered saline. The synergistic effect was also observed in real wastewater samples, in which the MS2 inactivation rate increased 1.4-fold on subsequent chlorination following UV irradiation at 40 mJ cm−2. The mechanism of the synergistic effect of sequential UV-chlorine disinfection was determined via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, using MS2 as an indicator. The results showed that the synergistic effect was due to damage to MS2 surface proteins caused by previous UV disinfection, which enhanced the sensitivity of MS2 to chlorination. This study provides a feasible approach for the efficient inactivation of viruses in water supply and drainage.

2.
Med Microecol ; 14: 100059, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159551

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly, causing millions of deaths across the globe. As a result, demand for medical supplies and personal protective equipment (PPE) surged and supplies dwindled. Separate entirely, hospital-acquired infections have become commonplace and challenging to treat. To explore the potential of novel sterilization techniques, this study evaluated the disinfection efficacy of Fathhome's ozone-based, dry-sanitizing device by dose and time response. Inactivation of human pathogens was tested on non-porous (plastic) surfaces. 95.42-100% inactivation was observed across all types of vegetative microorganisms and 27.36% inactivation of bacterial endospores tested, with no residual ozone detectable after completion. These results strongly support the hypothesis that Fathhome's commercial implementation of gas-based disinfection is suitable for rapid decontamination of a wide variety of pathogens on PPE and other industrially relevant materials.

3.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(20):372-380, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164851

ABSTRACT

WHO had advised certain guidelines globally during covid-19 pandemic for isolation and protection measures can be further increased for the relevant individuals with obvious risk factors for exposure affected persons. The epidemiological exposure history can be considered as the most essential reference for determining the potential source of illness. People who are exposed to case patients throughout their incubation may also be considered close contacts when determining who they are. The isolation and monitoring of close contacts can be consolidated under the presumption of the conveyance, such as masks, single-person transfers, and disinfection of transport vehicles, etc. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

4.
21st International Conference on Modeling and Applied Simulation, MAS 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2164750

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic caused by the COVID-19 virus, forced all educational institutions in the Mexican national territory to close their doors to face-to-face classes during the month of March 2020. It was many months later, when the Ministry of Public Education announced the return to hybrid classes for the 2021-2022 school year. This represented a challenge for schools in this national territory, particularly those from primary level since all institutions must have had biosafety and disinfection protocols in order to receive all their students and safeguard their safety. For this reason, a primary school was chosen for this study and a discrete event simulation was performed;the main objective of the simulation was to analyze the time invested in the different sanitizing stations, as well as the establishment of new stations to choose the best option that can lead to a timely disinfection process that accommodates the total number of students without affecting the planned day-to-day academic activities. © 2022 The Authors.

5.
Annals of Translational Medicine ; 10(22) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164451

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks have occurred in many countries around the world. The numbers of confirmed cases and deaths continue to increase. It is increasingly likely that COVID-19 patients will require emergency surgeries in the operating room (OR). As COVID-19 can easily be transmitted to healthcare workers and other patients during surgery, it is important to establish a set of infection prevent and control management strategy to prevent COVID-19 from spreading in the OR. Based on our experience in COVID-19 prevention and control in the OR, we introduce this COVID-19 prevention and control management strategy for preventing COVID-19 from spreading in the OR. This management strategy includes a number of COVID-19 prevention and control procedures including (I) conduct COVID-19 knowledge training at the early stage of outbreak, (II) formulate the surgery arrangement procedures and suspend the elective surgery if the patient confirmed to COVID-19, (III) divide an isolated OR area for COVID-19 surgery, (IV) preoperative preparation procedures, (V) procedures for wearing and removing personal protective equipment, (VI) anesthesia management, intraoperative management, (VII) post-operative disposable waste management and disinfection. This management strategy has worked very effectively since the outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan at the end of 2019. We have performed emergency surgeries on several COVID-19 confirmed patient and dozens of COVID-19 suspected patients under this COVID-19 prevention and control management strategy, and have achieved an excellent result of zero COVID-19 infection in the OR. Copyright © Annals of Translational Medicine.

6.
Asian Journal of Chemistry ; 34(12):3151-3156, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2164287

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly increased the amount of infectious medical wastes produced, with medical mask wastes being one of the largest contributors. Present research focuses on trying to turn medical mask waste into a functioning air filter by modifying it with CuO/TiO2 to reduce the amount of infectious medical wastes laying around. Synthesis of CuO/TiO2 was confirmed with FESEM-EDX, UV-Vis DRS and XRD techniques. The optimum amount of Cu added (1%wt of TiO2) was determined by assessing the degradation performance of the modified medical mask wastes against an organic pollutant (methylene blue) and a biological pollutant (S. aureus). The filter was then integrated into a simple air purifying unit and complemented with a UV-C germicidal lamp and a plasma ion generator. The prototype of the simple air purifying unit was able to degrade 100% tobacco smoke in less than 15 min and 30.8% CO gas in 30 min. © 2022 Chemical Publishing Co.. All rights reserved.

7.
Applied Biosafety ; 27(4):225-230, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2160876

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic ushered in a new way of life in a short time, with many lasting impacts that have yet to be fully realized. This pandemic threat landscape resulted in massive efforts to increase safety, minimize person-to-person transmission, and rethink how society approaches personal and collective health issues. The buildings and environments in which we live, work, and learn now became environments that pose new risks. As a result, many institutions began asking what improvements could be made to those environments to reduce the spread of infection of SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious diseases.Methods: The authors conducted a review of past projects and emerging technologies to evaluate which applications in containment laboratories could represent an example of how engineering controls can improve safety by protecting the workers inside the laboratories as well as the public interfacing the laboratories.Discussion: Engineering controls, technology, and safety systems are hallmarks of modern containment laboratories that may provide some context into extrapolating these elements into non-laboratory environments, providing there is coordination with a risk assessment methodology. In this study, the authors explore new technologies proposed for controlling SARS-CoV-2 in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, and potential impacts to the operations and maintenance of those systems.

8.
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology ; 44(5):1279-1286, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2156789

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization recommended disinfectant use as a way of tackling the global spread of corona virus pandemic (COVID-19). A total of 246,245,186 infection cases, 246,134,984 recoveries and 4,995,890 deaths have been reported across the world with 3,767,744 confirmed cases in over 160 countries. The spread of the virus was addressed by restricting human and vehicular movements, compelled use of sanitizers, social distancing, and wearing of masks. Chlorine, alcohol and bleach disinfectants, which contain different active compounds, were also used to combat the spread of the virus by applying them on surfaces. The indiscriminate use of disinfectants was reported to have disastrous effects on water quality, and on skin and organs of fish in the long run. The virus affected generally almost all spheres of life. To this end, disinfectants must be used at recommended rate of application, and the proper disposal of wastewater is also important, so as to limit transmission of diseases. Strict adherence to human activities based on the approved guidelines by the government and stakeholders in the health sector is essential for a healthy life. This paper therefore reviews the types of disinfectants, and their effects on water quality, fish species and sustainability of the environment. © 2022, Prince of Songkla University. All rights reserved.

9.
13th Symposium on Lift and Escalator Technologies, 2022 ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2156741

ABSTRACT

The global Coronavirus pandemic is of urgent concern with its high transmission rate and rapid spread throughout the world from 2019. This paper introduces an Ultraviolet-C (UVC) device to be fitted on escalators which was designed to inactivate bacteria and viruses on the surfaces of handrails during escalator operation. Through a combination method of measurement and finite element analysis (FEA) simulation, the authors accurately calculated the UVC intensity, dosage, and distribution of the UVC device on a surface. The authors also describe how the UVC device works and detail the disinfection efficacy of the device to inactivate bacteria and viruses. In this work, efficacy of the device against two bacteria (E. Coli and S. Aureus) and two corona viruses (HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43) were tested. All tests were conducted in two modes of the UVC device: continuous mode and pulsed cyclic mode. Based on the test results and combining UVC parameters, the disinfection efficacy of the UVC device was analysed. The investigation found, i) the relationship between the disinfection efficacy and the UVC parameters of the device, ii) the relationship between the disinfection efficacies of continuous and pulsed test mode and iii) the dosage for killing 99% pathogens (D99) of the UVC device for the two bacteria and viruses based on escalator operation. © 2022, Lift and Escalator Symposium Educational Trust. All rights reserved.

10.
Journal of Complementary Medicine Research ; 13(4):95-97, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2155663

ABSTRACT

Increasing the number of human infected by viruses around the world make some problems to the health care systems. Dealing with patients thinks is an important manner. The present work idea is to use cold atmospheric plasma in study the effect on the coronavirus. Samples of nasal had been used to the test. The samples were of people accident by the virus for certain time of examinations. Cold atmospheric plasma system used with argon as discharge gas in the experiments. PCR test made to all samples before and after exposure to plasma. Results show that the PCR test was negative after 6 minutes of exposure to the cold atmospheric plasma. Results leads to find a new fast novel method to sterilization or hygiene of patient things in simple way.

11.
Workplace Health Saf ; : 21650799221135583, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2153479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, healthcare workers (HCW) have relied on reusable personal protective equipment (PPE), including respirators and face shields (FSs). The effectiveness of decontamination procedures outside experimental settings is unclear. We examined the prevalence of surface contamination on reusable PPE used by HCWs at a hospital incorporating daily centralized decontamination and post-use wiping by sampling for common pathogens. METHOD: Samples were collected from HCWs' CleanSpace Halo respirator face masks (FMs) and FSs at the start of shift, immediately after use, and after cleaning with disinfecting wipes. Samples were analyzed for pathogens using the Applied Biosystems™ TaqPath™ COVID-19 Combo Kit and ThermoFisher TaqMan Array Card. Patient charts were reviewed for clinical correlation. FINDINGS: Of the 89 samples, 51 from FMs and 38 from FSs, none tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, despite 58 being obtained from PPE used in the care of patients with COVID-19, many with recent aerosol-generating procedures. Four samples tested positive (4.5%) for Staphylococcus aureus, two each from FMs and FSs. FMs that tested positive were not worn concurrently with FSs that tested positive. The FM and FS samples testing positive were worn in the care of patients without diagnosed S. aureus infection. No FMs tested positive following wipe-based disinfection, but both positive FS samples were found after disinfection wiping. CONCLUSION/APPLICATION TO PRACTICE: Contamination of reusable PPE appears uncommon, especially with SARS-CoV-2, when regular decontamination programs are in place. The rare presence of S. aureus highlights the importance of doffing procedures and hand hygiene by HCW to prevent surface contamination.

12.
Robotics and Autonomous Systems ; : 104332, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2150523

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has completely changed our lives and how we interact with the world. The pandemic has brought about a pressing need to have effective disinfection practices that can be incorporated into daily life. They are needed to limit the spread of infections through surfaces and air, particularly in public settings. Most of the current methods utilize chemical disinfectants, which can be laborious and time-consuming. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is a proven and powerful means of disinfection. There has been a rising interest in the implementation of UV disinfection robots by various public institutions, such as hospitals, long-term care homes, airports, and shopping malls. The use of UV-based disinfection robots could make the disinfection process faster and more efficient. The objective of this review is to equip readers with the necessary background on UV disinfection and provide relevant discussion on various aspects of UV robots.

13.
45th Mexican Conference on Biomedical Engineering, CNIB 2022 ; 86:437-447, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2148587

ABSTRACT

Since the SARS-CoV-2 transmission can occur by contact with surfaces contaminated with respiratory secretions and other fluids like faeces or saliva, the superficial disinfection has been one of the main problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cross-contagion has been observed between health personnel and cleaning staff from hospitals attending COVID-19 patients. The problem was solved through the implementation of a contact-less disinfection system that reduces the COVID-19 exposition of sanitation workers from healthcare facilities. This work presents the results observed from the implementation of an Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) disinfection method controlled and monitored using an Internet of Things (IoT) scheme. Also, implementation experiences obtained from the application of the proposed solution at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ) are discussed in this article. The main contribution of this work relies in the fulfillment of a disinfection proceeding that helps reducing the cross-contagion between the cleaning staff of hospitals attending the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

14.
Missouri Medicine ; 117(6):510-512, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2147533

ABSTRACT

On June 5, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported a steep increase in calls to poison centers regarding exposure to household disinfectants.2 A CDC survey of 502 adults in the United States found that 39% of responders engaged in dangerous practices including washing food products with bleach, applying household cleaners directly to skin, and intentionally inhaling or ingesting disinfectants with the goal of preventing COVID-19 infection.2 Another troubling issue secondary to heightened anxiety is the substantial decline in visits for chronic conditions, preventative care, and non-COVID associated medical emergencies which was especially prominent early on during this pandemic. [...]the principal investigator received multiple death treats necessitating police protection.5 Threats to the Medical Literature The hydroxychloroquine debate in the spring has also highlighted the issue of misinformation in medical literature. Effect of High vs Low Doses of Chloroquine Diphosphate as Adjunctive Therapy for Patients Hospitalized With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

15.
27th Summer School Francesco Turco, 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2147518

ABSTRACT

Thanks to the principles and technologies made available by Industry 4.0, the authors conceptualized and modeled a new strategy, capable of making an effective contribution to the problem of limiting contagion from Covid19 today, and tomorrow from any possible other type virus, bacteria or pathogen agent introduced by subjects who, although unaware of being vectors, develop the infection only after their access to the places of stay (Hotel, office, Infrastructure, etc.) where they go to reside. The key point of the strategy is a 4.0 thermoscanner, created by the authors, which is positioned in appropriately chosen locations of the settlement and an innovative method of disinfection of the same implemented by means of UV-C rays and Ozone in the gaseous state, produced by a machine, also conceptualized and developed by the authors, capable of reproducing the Chapman Cycle with the associated advantages. Therefore, it is operated an absolute disinfection based on a reversible cycle Oxygen-Ozone-Oxygen, with a prompt re-habitability of the treated rooms, with minimal treatment costs and without the use of expensive and unhealthy chemicals or wet water vapor (incompatible with paper and electronics). This technology was described in the paper “Sanitizing of Confined Spaces Using Gaseous Ozone Produced by 4.0 Machines” presented by the authors to the WCE 2021 IAENG Congress and awarded with the “Best Paper Award of the 2021 International Conference of Systems Biology and Bioengineering”. In the presence of a Person with a fever, the thermoscanner automatically launches an alert to the site Safety officers, who confine him to an isolated place and make the Health Institutions intervene and take it over. © 2022, AIDI - Italian Association of Industrial Operations Professors. All rights reserved.

16.
Canadian Journal of Dental Hygiene ; 56(3):140-146, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2147370

ABSTRACT

Objective: This narrative review aims to compile and analyse infection prevention and control (IPAC) practices followed by dental clinics during 3 coronavirus outbreaks: SARS (2002-2004), MERS (2012-2014), and COVID-19 (2019-);and to draw parallels from them for future epidemics.

17.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 14(11):722-735, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2147026

ABSTRACT

In the 1930's the corona virus was first identified as a highly contagious chicken respiratory virus. Two human coronaviruses were later identified, the human coronavirus 229E causing the flu and secondly the human coronavirus OC43. Others are also important as SARS-CoV. In late 2019 the outbreak of Pneumonia occurred in the Chinese city of Wuhan which was investigated as a result of the corona virus, renamed as 2019-nCoV by the World Health Organization (WHO) and. now called as SARS-CoV-2. The WHO has identified the global health problem as an epidemic. Respiratory droplets produced during coughing and sneezing are the main means of transmission of COVID-19. Infection with COVID-19 in an infected person may remain undetected. Common symptoms of fever and dry cough are less common in the production of sputum, fatigue and in some cases may be dyspnoea or shortness of breath. The COVID-19 virus is a type of RNA virus, the outer envelope containing a lipid bilayer in which various proteins are synthesized such as membrane (M), envelope (E) and spike (S). Hand washing, coughing, social isolation, wearing a face mask in public, disinfection areas, and isolation are various ways to prevent the disease. The diagnosis of COVID-19 can be made on the basis of symptoms and confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests. There are currently no antiretroviral drugs approved for COVID-19, only symptomatic and supportive treatment is used to treat people with this viral infection. Drugs that have been approved for the purpose of treating other viral infections are under investigation. Vaccination is an ultimate prevention and protection;few vaccines are given emergency approval and some are in progressive development phase in various countries to prevent this deadly pandemic. Copyright © 2022, Dr Yashwant Research Labs Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

18.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 18:111-115, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2124878

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has forced us to improve hygiene. Sterilizers have been widely used in public and private homes. Ultraviolet (UV) robots with different designs, biological interactions, and features have been widely used as sterilizers. The dose issued is only based on theoretical calculations under optimal conditions without considering other environmental factors. This ideal condition is unsuitable to apply in real conditions. Factors such as room temperature and room airflow could affect the effectiveness of UV sterilizers. This review aims to propose an ideal design for UV sterilizer robot by adding a feedback system to minimize external disturbances. The development of UV robots is necessary for future design improvements to be effective and efficient. © 2022 UPM Press. All rights reserved.

19.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 15(1):820-824, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2124515

ABSTRACT

Our current research includes the possibility of controlling the ecosystem and using the disinfection method to protect from the impact of infection with the coronavirus, by relying on the evaporation mechanism by placing an amount of the Indian product (Easibreathe compounds) that consists of a mixture of disinfection materials used for the purposes of breathing and disinfection (Camphore, Chlorothymole, Eucalyptol, Menthol, Terpineol inhalation capsule). The process of controlling the ecosystem and the respiratory environment in public and private places is done by placing this product compound consisting of the aforementioned compounds in an evaporator(fumigator), that contains a normal amount of water and has an integrated system to raise the water temperature and a control mechanism for the stability of this temperature. There is also a mechanism to evaporate the water and push the volatile steam to the outside environment. This method works to completely eliminate the presence of the virus in the areas where this mechanism is carried out, in addition to it is the ideal method that is used to revitalize the respiratory system and prevent the continued presence of the virus in the airways that make up the respiratory system, starting from the nose and mouth down to the pulmonary alveoli, and alveoli sacs. In fact, this type of treatment leads to disruption of the virus when it enters the pulmonary alveoli, as it cleanses the internal environment of those alveoli, in addition to preventing viruses from attaching to the epithelial layer of the pulmonary alveoli. Consequently, the virus cannot complete its life cycle inside the respiratory system and eliminate it and completely remove it.

20.
Life (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143343

ABSTRACT

The germicidal efficacy of LED UV-A lighting has scarcely been compared in continuous and pulsed modes for contaminated surfaces. Herein, we compare the disinfection properties of pulsed versus continuous lighting at equal irradiances using a 365 nm LED device that replicates the doses of occupied-space continuous disinfection UV-A products. Representative organisms evaluated in this study included human-infectious enveloped and non-enveloped viruses (lentivirus and adeno-associated virus, respectively), a bacterial endospore (Bacillus atrophaeus), and a resilient gram-positive bacterium (Enterococcus faecalis). Nominal UV-A irradiances were tested at or below the UL standard limit for continuous human exposure (maximum irradiance of 10 W/m2). We observed photoinactivation properties that varied by organism type, with bacteria and enveloped virus being more susceptible to UV-A than non-enveloped virus and spores. Overall, we conclude that continuous-mode UV-A lighting is better suited for occupied-space disinfection than pulsing UV-A at equivalent low irradiances, and we draw comparisons to other studies in the literature.

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