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Studies in Economics and Finance ; 40(2):302-312, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2261669


PurposeThis paper aims to examine the hedge, diversifier and safe haven properties of the global listed infrastructure sector and subsector indices against two traditional asset classes, stocks and bonds, and four alternative asset classes, including commodities, real estate, private equity and hedge funds during extreme negative stock market movements.Design/methodology/approachUsing dynamic conditional correlation and quantile regression, the authors analyze a data set of 12 indices comprising listed infrastructure and traditional asset classes from 2010 to 2019.FindingsOverall, the findings indicate that listed infrastructure acts as an effective diversifier but not as a strong safe haven or hedge when considered in a multiasset context. With minor exceptions, listed infrastructure cannot be concluded as a safe haven against other asset classes under investigation.Practical implicationsThe present study has implications for institutional investors looking to incorporate infrastructure in their multiasset portfolios for increased portfolio diversification benefits.Originality/valueDespite the increased influence of infrastructure as an asset class, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the hedge, safe haven and diversifying properties of infrastructure in a multi-asset context.

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191525


Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the hedge, safe-haven and diversifier properties of Islamic indexes, Bitcoin and gold for ten of the most affected countries by the coronavirus, which are the USA, Brazil, the UK, Italy, Spain, Germany, France, Russia, China and Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: This research uses the Ratner and Chiu (2013) methodology based on the dynamic conditional correlation models to improve Baur and McDermott (2010). The authors adopt a careful investigation of the features of a diversifier, hedge and safe haven using the dynamic conditional correlation–GARCH and quantile regression models. Findings: Empirical results indicate that Islamic indexes are not considered as hedge assets for the conventional market for all studied countries during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis period. However, gold works as a strong hedge in all countries, except for Brazil and Malaysia. Bitcoin is a strong hedge in the USA and a strong hedge and safe haven in China. Practical implications: International investors in China and the US stock markets should replace Islamic ‎indexes with Bitcoin in their conventional portfolio of securities during the pandemic. Originality/value: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first paper that re-evaluates the hedge, safe-haven and diversifier properties of Islamic indexes, Bitcoin and gold for ten of the most affected countries by the coronavirus. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

Entropy (Basel) ; 24(11)2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090038


This study employs the ADCC-GARCH approach to investigate the dynamic correlation between bitcoin and 14 major financial assets in different time-frequency dimensions over the period 2013-2021, for which the risk diversification, hedging and safe-haven properties of bitcoin for those traditional assets are further examined. The results show that, first, bitcoin is positively linked to risk assets, including stock, bond and commodity, and negatively linked to the U.S. dollar, which is a safe-haven asset, so bitcoin is closer in nature to a risk asset than a safe-haven asset. Second, the high short-term volatility and speculative nature of the bitcoin market makes its long-term correlation with other assets stronger than the short-term. Third, the positive linkage between the prices of bitcoin and risk assets increases sharply under extreme shocks (e.g., the outbreak of COVID-19 in early 2020). Fourth, bitcoin can hedge against the U.S. dollar, and in the long term, bitcoin can hedge against the Chinese stock market and act as a safe haven for the U.S. stock market and crude oil. However, for most other traditional assets, bitcoin is only an effective diversifier.

Finance Research Letters ; : 102655, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1626323


A large literature tests whether Bitcoin can hedge portfolio risk, i.e. reduce the risk if added to a portfolio. Intuitively, given the extreme volatility and thus risk of Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the idea that Bitcoin is a hedge may be puzzling. Indeed, we show that for extreme levels of volatility, Bitcoin does not reduce the risk if added to a benchmark equity portfolio. This is not only true on average but also holds for sub-samples, including the COVID-19 crisis period. We conclude that a focus on correlations is not sufficient for extreme levels of volatility.