Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 24
Filter
1.
Sexually Transmitted Infections ; 98:A24, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956901

ABSTRACT

Introduction Self-sampled specimens to test for blood borne viruses can involve either mini tube testing (MTT) or dried blood spot testing (DBST).[1] In the UK, remote testing for STIs has increased in recent years, a trend enhanced by the COVID-19 pandemic. Whilst information is already available on these different testing technologies, little is known about the patient experience of home blood-sampling. We present a pilot service evaluation to explore the patient experience of DBST and MTT. Methods DBST kits (including tests for HIV, syphilis, Hepatitis B and C) were sent to 30 patients. People were included in this service evaluation if they were MSM who had a) requested an online MTT kit from our clinic website within the preceding 6 months, b) subsequently returned a blood sample which was inadequate for analysis and c) not yet attended the department for a venous sample. Sample return rates and results were analysed, and patients were also invited to complete a short telephone survey. Discussion Our sample return rate was 67%. This is higher than the reported average from UKHSA for MTT (57%).[2] Nineteen patients completed the survey discussing their experience of both MTT and DBST. We identified significant issues faced by patients when carrying out remote MTT which included logistical difficulties when collecting blood samples, pain and distress. Comparatively, our evaluation demonstrated that DBST was less labour-intensive and therefore the preferred test for 100% of our respondents. Conclusion DBST proves to be a promising and acceptable candidate for future delivery of blood borne virus home sampling.

2.
Biochem Eng J ; 186: 108537, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936085

ABSTRACT

Serological tests detect antibodies generated by infection or vaccination, and are indispensable tools along different phases of a pandemic, from early monitoring of pathogen spread up to seroepidemiological studies supporting immunization policies. This work discusses the development of an accurate and affordable COVID-19 antibody test, from production of a recombinant protein antigen up to test validation and economic analysis. We first developed a cost-effective, scalable technology to produce SARS-COV-2 spike protein and then used this antigen to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis allowed optimizing the cut-off and confirmed the high accuracy of the test: 98.6% specificity and 95% sensitivity for 11+ days after symptoms onset. We further showed that dried blood spots collected by finger pricking on simple test strips could replace conventional plasma/serum samples. A cost estimate was performed and revealed a final retail price in the range of one US dollar, reflecting the low cost of the ELISA test platform and the elimination of the need for venous blood sampling and refrigerated sample handling in clinical laboratories. The presented workflow can be completed in 4 months from first antigen expression to final test validation. It can be applied to other pathogens and in future pandemics, facilitating reliable and affordable seroepidemiological surveillance also in remote areas and in low-income countries.

3.
Bioanalysis ; 14(1):1-5, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939236
4.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 32: 100897, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926984

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) must maintain a lifelong natural protein-restricted diet to prevent neuro-cognitive damage. Early diagnosis is established with newborn screening, with diet subsequently controlled by regular phenylalanine (Phe) monitoring. During the COVID-19 pandemic, significant lockdown measures were introduced that may have influenced the above. Aim of our study: To establish whether the diagnosis was delayed in neonates during the pandemic. In addition, metabolic control was further assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic era (CE) compared to the same period a year prior (non-COVID-19 era, NCE). The lockdown periods (LD) were also compared with unrestricted periods (URP). Patients methods: Six neonates born during the CE and eight neonates born during NCE were included in the newborn screening analysis. Seventy-two classical PKU patients aged 2-18 years and categorized as children (2-12 years; 51 patients) and adolescents (>13 years; 21 patients) were included in the metabolic control analysis. The frequency of dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and Phe levels were assessed according to the different periods. Results: There was no diagnostic or therapeutic delay in reaching the recommended Phe range in neonates born during CE compared to those born in NCE (median [interquartile range, IQR]: 23.5 [22.5-24] vs. 22 [18.0-27] days, p = NS). The cumulative DBS sampling frequency in children increased by 9.9% in the CE while no change was noted in the adolescent group. The median Phe level increased significantly in both age groups in the CE, but remained within the recommended target range. During CE, changes in Phe levels differed in the two age groups: children had the highest median Phe in the second lockdown period (LD2), while the adolescents had an increased Phe in URP.There were significant negative correlations between DBS sampling frequencies and Phe levels in both age groups in NCE (children: r - 0.43, p = 0.002; adolescents r = -0.37, p = 0.012), and in adolescents in CE (r = -0.62, p = 0.006). Conclusion: The pandemic did not impact newborn metabolic screening. The increased frequency of DBS sampling in CE and good target Phe levels suggest a better compliance in a very sensitive period. Since many factors may impact metabolic control in the different age groups, further studies are needed to analyse their respective role.

5.
BJGP Open ; 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Worldwide there are an estimated 463 million people with diabetes. In the UK people with diabetes are offered annual review which includes monitoring of Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). This can identify people with diabetes who are not meeting their glycaemic targets, enabling early intervention. Those who do not attend these reviews often have poorer health outcomes. During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there was a 77% reduction in monitoring of HbA1c in the UK. AIM: We hypothesise that people with diabetes could take finger-prick samples at home for measurement of HbA1c. We will examine the agreement and correlation of capillary HbA1c values compared to a venous reference standard. We will explore reliability and repeatability of capillary HbA1c testing methods. We will explore the direction of effect of storage variables. We will also explore patient acceptability and safety. We will look at capillary blood methods which would be suitable for posting. METHOD: Using core terms of 'Diabetes', 'HbA1c' and 'Capillary sampling' we will search MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science Core Collection, Google Scholar, Open Grey, and other grey literature from database inception until 2021. Risk of bias will be assessed using the 'COSMIN risk of bias tool to assess the quality of studies on reliability and measurement error'. CONCLUSION: We will produce a narrative synthesis to explore whether there are viable postal alternatives to venous sampling as well as exploring acceptability and safety of patient self-collection. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021225606.

6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0247121, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865144

ABSTRACT

Serological surveillance studies of infectious diseases provide population-level estimates of infection and antibody prevalence, generating crucial insight into population-level immunity, risk factors leading to infection, and effectiveness of public health measures. These studies traditionally rely on detection of pathogen-specific antibodies in samples derived from venipuncture, an expensive and logistically challenging aspect of serological surveillance. During the COVID-19 pandemic, guidelines implemented to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection made collection of venous blood logistically difficult at a time when SARS-CoV-2 serosurveillance was urgently needed. Dried blood spots (DBS) have generated interest as an alternative to venous blood for SARS-CoV-2 serological applications due to their stability, low cost, and ease of collection; DBS samples can be self-generated via fingerprick by community members and mailed at ambient temperatures. Here, we detail the development of four DBS-based SARS-CoV-2 serological methods and demonstrate their implementation in a large serological survey of community members from 12 cities in the East Bay region of the San Francisco metropolitan area using at-home DBS collection. We find that DBS perform similarly to plasma/serum in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and commercial SARS-CoV-2 serological assays. In addition, we show that DBS samples can reliably detect antibody responses months postinfection and track antibody kinetics after vaccination. Implementation of DBS enabled collection of valuable serological data from our study population to investigate changes in seroprevalence over an 8-month period. Our work makes a strong argument for the implementation of DBS in serological studies, not just for SARS-CoV-2, but any situation where phlebotomy is inaccessible. IMPORTANCE Estimation of community-level antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 from infection or vaccination is critical to inform public health responses. Traditional studies of antibodies rely on collection of blood via venipuncture, an invasive procedure not amenable to pandemic-related social-distancing measures. Dried blood spots (DBS) are an alternative to venipuncture, since they can be self-collected by study participants at home and do not require refrigeration for shipment or storage. However, DBS-based assays to measure antibody levels to SARS-CoV-2 have not been widely utilized. Here, we show that DBS are comparable to blood as a sampling method for antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination over time measured using four distinct serological assays. The DBS format enabled antibody surveillance in a longitudinal cohort where study participants self-collected samples, ensuring the participants' safety during an ongoing pandemic. Our work demonstrates that DBS are an excellent sampling method for measuring antibody responses whenever venipuncture is impractical.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 730369, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775858

ABSTRACT

Background: Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, biomarkers associated with air pollution exposure are widely lacking and often transient. In addition, ascertaining biospecimens during pregnacy to assess the prenatal environment remains largely infeasible. Objectives: To address these challenges, we investigated relationships between air pollution exposure during pregnancy and human serum albumin Cys34 (HSA-Cys34) adducts in newborn dried blood spots (DBS) samples, which captures an integration of perinatal exposures to small reactive molecules in circulating blood. Methods: Newborn DBS were obtained from a state archive for a cohort of 120 children born at one Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) hospitals in 2007. These children were selected to maximize the range of residential air pollution exposure during the entire pregnancy to PM2.5, PM10, NO2, O3, based on monthly estimates interpolated from regulatory monitoring sites. HSA-Cys34 adducts were selected based on previously reported relationships with air pollution exposure and oxidative stress. Results: Six adducts measured in newborn DBS samples were associated with air pollution exposures during pregnancy; these included direct oxidation products, adducts formed with small thiol compounds, and adducts formed with reactive aldehydes. Two general trends were identified: Exposure to air pollution late in pregnancy (i.e., in the last 30 days) was associated with increased oxidative stress, and exposure to air pollution earlier in pregnancy (i.e., not in the last 30 days) was associated with decreased oxidative stress around the time of birth. Discussion: Air pollution exposure occurring during pregnancy can alter biology and leave measurable impacts on the developing infant captured in the newborn DBS adductome, which represents a promising tool for investigating adverse birth outcomes in population-based studies.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Child , Cohort Studies , DNA Adducts/blood , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Serum Albumin, Human
8.
Glob Health Med ; 3(6): 356-357, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636100

ABSTRACT

In Japan, HIV testing has been offered anonymously and free-of-charge at local public health centers, together with pre- and post-test counseling since 1993. Since then, the number of HIV tests increased steadily to reach a peak in 2008 but has since decreased by 30% during the last decade. The number of tests further decreased in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic and steeply by 50% this year compared with the previous year, mostly due to a shift in the workload at these centers to COVID-19-related services. To deal with this decline and thinking beyond the current pandemic, more options for HIV testing are needed, such as self-testing/postal delivery of dried blood spot specimen, a method that is yet to be approved in Japan, in addition to the conventional plasma/serum-based HIV testing.

10.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0129821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476403

ABSTRACT

Wide-scale assessment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibodies is critical to understanding population seroprevalence, correlates of protection, and the longevity of vaccine-elicited responses. Most SARS-CoV-2 studies characterize antibody responses in plasma/sera. While reliable and broadly used, these samples pose several logistical restrictions, such as requiring venipuncture for collection and a cold chain for transportation and storage. Dried blood spots (DBS) overcome these barriers as they can be self-collected by fingerstick and mailed and stored at ambient temperature. Here, we evaluate the suitability of DBS for SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays by comparing several antibody responses between paired plasma and DBS from SARS-CoV-2 convalescent and vaccinated individuals. We found that DBS not only reflected plasma antibody binding by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and epitope profiles using phage display, but also yielded SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers that highly correlated with paired plasma. Neutralization measurement was further streamlined by adapting assays to a high-throughput 384-well format. This study supports the adoption of DBS for numerous SARS-CoV-2 binding and neutralization assays. IMPORTANCE Plasma and sera isolated from venous blood represent conventional sample types used for the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses after infection or vaccination. However, collection of these samples is invasive and requires trained personnel and equipment for immediate processing. Once collected, plasma and sera must be stored and shipped at cold temperatures. To define the risk of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and the longevity of immune responses to natural infection and vaccination, it will be necessary to measure various antibody features in populations around the world, including in resource-limited areas. A sampling method that is compatible with these settings and is suitable for a variety of SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays is therefore needed to continue to understand and curb the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epitope Mapping/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
11.
EBioMedicine ; 70: 103502, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since 2020 SARS-CoV-2 spreads pandemically, infecting more than 119 million people, causing >2·6 million fatalities. Symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection vary greatly, ranging from asymptomatic to fatal. Different populations react differently to the disease, making it very hard to track the spread of the infection in a population. Measuring specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is an important tool to assess the spread of the infection or successful vaccinations. To achieve sufficient sample numbers, alternatives to venous blood sampling are needed not requiring medical personnel or cold-chains. Dried-blood-spots (DBS) on filter-cards have been used for different studies, but not routinely for serology. METHODS: We developed a semi-automated protocol using self-sampled DBS for SARS-CoV-2 serology. It was validated in a cohort of matched DBS and venous-blood samples (n = 1710). Feasibility is demonstrated with two large serosurveys with 10247 company employees and a population cohort of 4465 participants. FINDINGS: Sensitivity and specificity reached 99·20% and 98·65%, respectively. Providing written instructions and video tutorials, 99·87% (4465/4471) of the unsupervised home sampling DBS cards could be analysed. INTERPRETATION: DBS-sampling is a valid and highly reliable tool for large scale serosurveys. We demonstrate feasibility and accuracy with a large validation cohort including unsupervised home sampling. This protocol might be of big importance for surveillance in resource-limited settings, providing low-cost highly accurate serology data. FUNDING: Provided by Bavarian State Ministry of Science and the Arts, LMU University-Hospital; Helmholtz-Centre-Munich, German Ministry for Education and Research (project01KI20271); University of Bonn; University of Bielefeld; the Medical Biodefense Research Program of Bundeswehr-Medical-Service; Euroimmun, RocheDiagnostics provided discounted kits and machines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , Cohort Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Vaccination/methods
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0013421, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329041

ABSTRACT

Early in the pandemic when diagnostic testing was not widely available, serosurveys played an important role in estimating the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in different populations. Dried blood spots (DBS), which can be collected in nonclinical settings, provide a minimally invasive alternative to serum for serosurveys. We developed a Luminex-based SARS-CoV-2 microsphere immunoassay (MIA) for DBS that detects IgG antibodies to nucleocapsid (N) and spike subunit 1 (S1) antigens. The assay uses a 384-well plate format and automated liquid handlers for high-throughput capacity. Specificity was assessed using a large collection of prepandemic DBS and well-characterized sera. Sensitivity was analyzed using serology data from New York State SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey testing and matched diagnostic test results. For DBS, the specificity was 99.5% for the individual N and S1 antigens. Median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for DBS and paired sera showed a strong positive correlation for N (R2 = 0.91) and S1 (R2 = 0.93). Sensitivity, assessed from 1,134 DBS with prior laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, ranged from 83% at 0 to 20 days to 95% at 61 to 90 days after a positive test. When stratified using coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptom data, sensitivity ranged from 90 to 96% for symptomatic and 77 to 91% for asymptomatic individuals. For 8,367 health care workers reporting detailed symptom data, MFI values were significantly higher for all symptom categories. Our results indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 IgG DBS MIA is sensitive, specific, and well-suited for large population-based serosurveys. The ability to readily modify and multiplex antigens is important for ongoing assessment of SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses to emerging variants and vaccines. IMPORTANCE Testing for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 has been used to estimate the prevalence of COVID-19 in different populations. Seroprevalence studies, or serosurveys, were especially useful during the early phase of the pandemic when diagnostic testing was not widely available, and the resulting seroprevalence estimates played an important role in public health decision making. To achieve meaningful results, antibody tests used for serosurveys should be accurate and accessible to diverse populations. We developed a test that detects antibodies to two different SARS-CoV-2 proteins in dried blood spots (DBS). DBS require only a simple fingerstick and can be collected in nonclinical settings. We conducted a robust validation study and have demonstrated that our test is both sensitive and specific. Furthermore, we demonstrated that our test is suitable for large-scale serosurveys by testing over 56,000 DBS collected in a variety of community-based venues in New York State during the spring of 2020.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Microspheres , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Male , New York , Pandemics , Patient Care Team , Public Health , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Specimen Handling
13.
Metabolites ; 11(7)2021 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323303

ABSTRACT

Laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) are a subset of in vitro diagnostic devices, which the US Food and Drug Administration defines as "tests that are manufactured by and used within a single laboratory". The review describes the emergence and history of LDTs. The current state and development prospects of LDTs based on metabolomics are analyzed. By comparing LDTs with the scientific metabolomics study of human bio samples, the characteristic features of metabolomic LDT are shown, revealing its essence, strengths, and limitations. The possibilities for further developments and scaling of metabolomic LDTs and their potential significance for healthcare are discussed. The legal aspects of LDT regulation in the United States, European Union, and Singapore, demonstrating different approaches to this issue, are also provided. Based on the data presented in the review, recommendations were made on the feasibility and ways of further introducing metabolomic LDTs into practice.

14.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323145

ABSTRACT

The simplification of current hepatitis C diagnostic algorithms and the emergence of digital diagnostic devices will be very crucial to achieving the WHO's set goals of hepatitis C diagnosis (i.e., 90%) by 2030. From the last decade, hepatitis C diagnosis has been revolutionized by the advent and approval of state-of-the-art HCV diagnostic platforms which have been efficiently implemented in high-risk HCV populations in developed nations as well as in some low-to-middle income countries (LMICs) to identify millions of undiagnosed hepatitis C-infected individuals. Point-of-care (POC) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs; POC-RDTs), RNA reflex testing, hepatitis C self-test assays, and dried blood spot (DBS) sample analysis have been proven their diagnostic worth in real-world clinical experiences both at centralized and decentralized diagnostic settings, in mass hepatitis C screening campaigns, and hard-to-reach aboriginal hepatitis C populations in remote areas. The present review article overviews the significance of current and emerging hepatitis C diagnostic packages to subvert the public health care burden of this 'silent epidemic' worldwide. We also highlight the challenges that remain to be met about the affordability, accessibility, and health system-related barriers to overcome while modulating the hepatitis C care cascade to adopt a 'test and treat' strategy for every hepatitis C-affected individual. We also elaborate some key measures and strategies in terms of policy and progress to be part of hepatitis C care plans to effectively link diagnosis to care cascade for rapid treatment uptake and, consequently, hepatitis C cure.

15.
Bioanalysis ; 13(15): 1183-1193, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266825

ABSTRACT

Aim: Serological assays for the detection of anti-SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies are essential to the response to the global pandemic. A ligand binding-based serological assay was validated for the semiquantitative detection of IgG, IgM, IgA and neutralizing antibodies (nAb) against SARS-CoV-2 in serum. Results: The assay demonstrated high levels of diagnostic specificity and sensitivity (85-99% for all analytes). Serum IgG, IgM, IgA and nAb correlated positively (R2 = 0.937, R2 = 0.839, R2 = 0.939 and R2 = 0.501, p < 0.001, respectively) with those measured in dried blood spot samples collected using the hemaPEN® microsampling device (Trajan Scientific and Medical, Victoria, Australia). In vitro SARS-CoV-2 pseudotype neutralization correlated positively with the solid phase nAb signals in convalescent donors (R2 = 0.458, p < 0.05). Conclusion: The assay is applicable in efficacy studies, infection monitoring and postmarketing surveillance following vaccine rollout.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Biological Assay , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Reproducibility of Results
16.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(6)2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255519

ABSTRACT

Serological testing of large representative populations for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is needed to estimate seroprevalence, transmission dynamics, and the duration of antibody responses from natural infection and vaccination. In this study, a high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 multiplex microsphere immunoassay (MMIA) was developed for the receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N) that was more sensitive than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (98% versus 87%). The MMIA was then applied and validated in 264 first responders in Colorado using serum and dried blood spot (DBS) eluates, compared to ELISA, and evaluated for neutralizing antibodies. Four percent (11/264) of first responders were seropositive in July to August 2020. Serum and DBS were highly correlated for anti-RBD and anti-N antibodies (R = 0.83, P < 0.0001 and R = 0.87, P < 0.0001, respectively) by MMIA. The MMIA accurately predicted SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies using DBS (R = 0.76, P = 0.037). On repeat antibody testing 3 months later, anti-RBD IgG decreased less rapidly than anti-N IgG measured by MMIA, with a median change in geometric median fluorescence intensity of 62% versus 79% (P < 0.01) for anti-RBD and anti-N IgG, respectively. This novel MMIA using DBS could be scalable for rapid and affordable SARS-CoV-2 serosurveillance in the United States and globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Responders , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Colorado , Humans , Immunoassay , Microspheres , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
17.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244144

ABSTRACT

Dried blood spots (DBS) are commonly used for serologic testing for viruses and provide an alternative collection method when phlebotomy and/or conventional laboratory testing are not readily available. DBS collection could be used to facilitate widespread testing for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to document past infection, vaccination, and potentially immunity. We investigated the characteristics of Roche's Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (S) assay, a quantitative commercial assay for antibodies against the spike glycoprotein. Antibody levels were reduced relative to plasma following elution from DBS. Quantitative results from DBS samples were highly correlated with values from plasma (r2 = 0.98), allowing for extrapolation using DBS results to accurately estimate plasma antibody levels. High concordance between plasma and fingerpick DBS was observed in PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients tested 90 days or more after the diagnosis (45/46 matched; 1/46 mismatched plasma vs. DBS). The assessment of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 using DBS may be feasible using a quantitative anti-S assay, although false negatives may rarely occur in those with very low antibody levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dried Blood Spot Testing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 101(1): 115425, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230427

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to development of numerous serologic tests. To obviate the need for phlebotomy services, we validated dried blood spots (DBS) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 serologic testing. Immunoglobulins were extracted from 3 mm DBS punches and the extracts were analyzed using the Euroimmun anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA. Various pre-analytical factors were studied. Results were favorable for DBS stored for at least 67 days at or below 37°C. Comparison between paired serum and DBS specimens tested by the Euroimmun ELISA showed 96.8% and 81.3% positive and negative agreement, respectively, indicating that confirmatory testing of positive Euroimmun results on DBS extracts is necessary to achieve clinical accuracy. Our findings suggest that any SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay that requires pre-dilution of serum is amenable to DBS as an alternate specimen type that is relatively low cost, self-collectable, stable, can be shipped by standard mail and could be used to establish the seroprevalence of large populations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dried Blood Spot Testing , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , Dried Blood Spot Testing/instrumentation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
19.
Pract Lab Med ; 25: e00234, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213468

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay to capillary dried blood samples for high throughput analyses on Roche COBAS 6000 systems. DESIGN AND METHODS: The performance of the of the Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay was assessed using three sets of dried blood spot samples. Method correlation was performed using spiked blood samples. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using paired donor samples. An additional cohort of 50 individuals, including COVID-19 convalescent cases, was used for the evaluation of at-home collection for mail transport, and stability studies. RESULTS: The Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay using dried blood spot samples showed an excellent agreement of 98.9% with results obtained using their paired serum samples, and 86.7% accuracy with dried blood spots collected after 9 days from diagnostic (PCR) tests. CONCLUSIONS: Capillary dried blood spot samples can be confidently used on Roche COBAS automated analyzers to monitor the epidemiology of COVID-19, and are suitable for use in large-scale screening programs.

20.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 27: 100759, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID19 pandemic urged the need to take severe measures for reducing the epidemic spread. Lockdowns were imposed throughout countries and even Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) affected patients had to face it and adapt, with management strategies changes coming along. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism causing, when not treated, blood Phe increases and consequent central nervous system (CNS) damage. Dietary intervention is the main recognized treatment and must be maintained long-life, however adherence is often suboptimal in adulthood. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether and how the pandemic had impacted PKUs metabolic control and what factors may have played a role as potential modifiers. METHODS: Patients ≥4 yo and in follow-up at our Metabolic Clinic were enrolled in this study, divided into subgroups according to age (GROUP A < 12 yo; GROUP B ≥ 12 yo). Videoconsults were conducted on a minimum monthly basis and collected DBS were studied and compared to previous year same time-period in order to evaluate possible changes. RESULTS: 39% of patients (n = 121) increased the number of performed DBS. "Non-compliant" patients were reduced (11-3%) with a - 14% of patients with mean Phe levels >600 umol/l and a - 8% of patients with 100% DBS above same level. GROUP A maintained substantially unchanged metabolic control among two analyzed time-periods. On the contrary, GROUP B demonstrated significant reductions in mean blood Phe concentrations (p < 0.0001) during the pandemic (mean 454 umol/l, SD ± 252, vs. 556.4 umol/l, SD ± 301). DISCUSSION: COVID19 pandemic strongly impacted people's life with lifestyle habits changing consistently. PKU patients had to adapt their dietary restrictions to the new environment they were exposed to and, if younger patients could have been less exposed (meals strictly according to diet plan independently from setting), adolescent and adults strongly reflected the obligation to stay home by showing better metabolic control. Multiple factors could have played a role in that and the availability of teleconsultancy may have contributed allowing easier connections, but our data demonstrate how the pandemic and the environment can strongly impact PKUs adherence to treatment and how removing distance barriers can ameliorate and optimize metabolic compliance.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL