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1.
27th Brazilian Congress on Biomedical Engineering, CBEB 2020 ; 83:2391-2395, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826151

ABSTRACT

The global situation caused by a coronavirus in 2020 has become an unprecedented health crisis. Since 1918, during the Spanish flu, Brazilian society haven’t seen a pandemic disease. Among the many individuals exposed to the virus, health care professionals are essential workers who fight the disease. However, due to the lack of previous investments in the public health sector in Brazil, several obstacles are evident, such as the reduced number of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) available for healthcare professionals who have direct contact with those affected by the disease. Therefore, undergraduate students and professors from UFPA (Universidade Federal do Pará—Federal University of Pará) Biomedical Engineering program course mobilized to create solutions to this problem through the study and production of a low-cost face shield model, which proved to be essential in helping professionals, in addition to engaging several students in the social causes. Similar initiatives like this took place in states in southeastern Brazil, through the making of PPE in 3D printers from PLA (polylactic acid) or ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) filaments, which can take hours to be ready. Therefore, the present study presents a handmade model to promote higher cost–benefit and shorter manufacturing time. To measure how this PPE proposed here affected the daily work of these professionals, this study performed a feedback form focused on the professionals who used the handmade model. Also, a comparison between the 3D printed versus the handmade model was done. The study showed that 69.5% of the respondents, which were professionals working in the health field, felt more protected with the handmade face shield. Finally, for this research, it is possible to say that the handmade faceshields have proven to be effective, providing confidence when used by the research participants. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2.
AAPS Journal ; 24(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822235
4.
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals ; 13(1):4-17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1820630

ABSTRACT

Excipients are critically important in converting active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) into drug products that have optimal stability, bioavailability, manufacturability, duration of action, and therapeutic benefits. They will play even greater roles in the future to enable drug targeting, delivery of biotech products and vaccines, gene therapy, continuous manufacturing, 3D printing, and so forth. This commentary describes the author’s experience in teaching a graduate course on excipients at St. John’s University to train students on optimal selection and appropriate use of excipients in formulating dosage forms and development of drug delivery systems. The course is offered in 15 two-hour sessions over a semester, and the course materials are divided into 13 modules on chemistry of different classes of polymeric and non-polymeric excipients and their application in dosage form development, including the use as solubilizing agents, lyophilizing agents, cryoprotectants, buffers, biodegradable materials, and carriers for amorphous solid dispersions and 3D printing. The development of coprocessed excipients, the need for new excipients, and the regulatory aspects of excipients are also covered. The course includes presentations by guest speakers from the industry, and the students also watch virtual presentations from experts that are publicly available from the internet. It is a popular course at St. John’s University taken by all graduate students in the pharmaceutics program. It is recommended that such courses are introduced in other pharmacy schools and academic institutions. The course may be adapted to meet specific needs of different academic programs. Professional associations, such as AAPS and CRS, industry groups like IPEC, and the pharmaceutical industry may be able to help in introducing such courses by providing lecture materials and guest lecturers.

5.
Journal of Immunology ; 208(6):1396-1405, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1818327

ABSTRACT

To develop a safe and effective nanoparticle (NP) multiepitope DNA vaccine for controlling infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection, we inserted the multiepitope gene expression box SBNT into a eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+) to construct a recombinant plasmid pcDNA/SBNT. The NP multiepitope DNA vaccine pcDNA/SBNT-NPs were prepared using chitosan to encapsulate the recombinant plasmid pcDNA/SBNT, with a high encapsulation efficiency of 94.90 .. 1.35%. These spherical pcDNA/SBNT-NPs were 140.9 .. 73.2 nm in diameter, with a mean Y potential of +16.8 .. 4.3 mV. Our results showed that the chitosan NPs not only protected the plasmid DNA from DNase degradation but also mediated gene transfection in a slow-release manner. Immunization with pcDNA/SBNT-NPs induced a significant IBV-specific immune response and partially protected chickens against homologous IBV challenge. Therefore, the chitosan NPs could be a useful gene delivery system, and NP multiepitope DNA vaccines may be a potential alternative for use in the development of a novel, safe, and effective IBV vaccine.

6.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818149

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 has rendered medical technology an important factor to maintain social stability and economic increase, where biomedicine has experienced rapid development and played a crucial part in fighting off the pandemic. Conductive hydrogels (CHs) are three-dimensional (3D) structured gels with excellent electrical conductivity and biocompatibility, which are very suitable for biomedical applications. CHs can mimic innate tissue’s physical, chemical, and biological properties, which allows them to provide environmental conditions and structural stability for cell growth and serve as efficient delivery substrates for bioactive molecules. The customizability of CHs also allows additional functionality to be designed for different requirements in biomedical applications. This review introduces the basic functional characteristics and materials for preparing CHs and elaborates on their synthetic techniques. The development and applications of CHs in the field of biomedicine are highlighted, including regenerative medicine, artificial organs, biosensors, drug delivery systems, and some other application scenarios. Finally, this review discusses the future applications of CHs in the field of biomedicine. In summary, the current design and development of CHs extend their prospects for functioning as an intelligent and complex system in diverse biomedical applications.

7.
Biophysica ; 2(1):79, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1818049

ABSTRACT

In this work, we studied the effect of as on the interaction of membrane DPPC with the key antifibrotic drug pirfenidone. Liposomal forms of pirfenidone were obtained using passive loading. The addition of cholesterol reduces the loading efficiency of pirfenidone by 10%. The main binding site of pirfenidone in DPPC liposomes is the carbonyl group: the interaction with PF significantly increases the proportion of low-hydrated carbonyl groups as revealed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The phosphate group acts as an additional binding site;however, due to shielding by the choline group, this interaction is weak. The hydrophobic part of the bilayer is not involved in PF binding at room temperature. Cholesterol changes the way of interaction between carbonyl groups and pirfenidone probably because of the formation of two subpopulations of DPPC and causes a dramatic redistribution of carbonyl groups onto the degrees of hydration. The proportion of moderately hydrated carbonyl groups increases, apparently due to the deepening of pirfenidone into the circumpolar region of the bilayer. For the first time, a change in the microenvironment of pirfenidone upon binding to liposomes was shown: aromatic moiety interacts with the bilayer.

8.
Current Cardiology Reviews ; 18(1):1, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817769
9.
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery ; 35(2):A20, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1815950

ABSTRACT

The effect of the various COVID-19 clinical interventions on aerosol delivery is not well known. This study investigated the use of a vibrating mesh nebuliser to deliver aerosolised drugs during mouthpiece-mediated aerosol drug delivery, high flow nasal therapy and invasive mechanical ventilation employing a low tidal volume ventilation strategy. Simulated adult healthy and mild adult COVID-19 breathing patterns were used for spontaneous breathing assessments. A mechanical ventilator delivered standard and low tidal volume ventilation parameters. The results presented represent the percentage drug delivered to a simulated healthy adult and mild adult COVID-19 patient during concurrent aerosol therapy during these interventions. The highest delivered drug dose was measured during mouthpiece-mediated aerosol therapy with a result of 57.93 %- 1.05 % for mild COVID-19, 56.64 %- 2.94 % for healthy, as a comparator. Use of HFNT resulted in the lowest percentage drug delivered (2.33 %- 0.99 % for 30 LPM;1.80 %- 0.61 % for 60 LPM), with no significant difference between the flow rates (p=0.6220). For mechanical ventilation, there was a significant difference in adopting a LTV ventilation strategy (13.66 %- 0.75 %) in comparison to a standard ventilation (30.34 %- 0.27 %) (p < 0.0001). It can be concluded that the choice of clinical intervention in the oxygenation and ventilatory support of the COVID-19 patient influences aerosol delivery to the lung. This variability may be significant and therefore should be noted in the design of dosing strategies, and de-risking of clinical trial programs. Key Message: The choice of clinical intervention in the oxygenation and ventilatory support of the COVID-19 patient influences aerosol delivery to the lung. This variability may be significant and therefore should be noted in the design of dosing strategies, and derisking of clinical trial programs.

10.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics ; : 121790, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814550

ABSTRACT

Biomimetic nanotechnology could serve as an advancement in the domain of drug delivery and diagnosis with the application of natural cell membrane or synthetically-derived membrane nanoparticles (NPs). These biomimetic NPs endow significant therapeutic and diagnostic efficacy by their unique properties, such as immune invasion and better targeting ability. Additionally, these NPs have a unique ability to retain the inherent properties of cell membrane and membrane’s intrinsic functionalities, which helps them to exhibit superior therapeutic effects. In this review, we describe how these membrane-clocked NPs endow superior therapeutic effects by immune invasion;along with this, the development of membrane-coated NPs and their method of preparation and characterization has been clearly described in the manuscript. Moreover, we further summarize various developed membrane-coated NPs such as Red Blood cell membrane-coated NPs, white blood cells membrane-coated NPs, platelet membrane coated, cancer cell membrane coated, bacterial membrane vesicles and, Mesenchymal Stem cells membrane-coated NPs have been established in this manuscript. At last, the discussion on the role of membrane-coated NPs as theranostics, and notably, the literature that demonstrates the shreds of evidences of these NPs in targeting and neutralizing the SARS-CoV-2 virus have also been incorporated.

11.
Advanced Nanobiomed Research ; 2(2):17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1813459

ABSTRACT

Lipid nanoparticles have attracted significant interests in the last two decades, and have achieved tremendous clinical success since the first clinical approval of Doxil in 1995. At the same time, lipid nanoparticles have also demonstrated enormous potential in delivering nucleic acid drugs as evidenced by the approval of two RNA therapies and mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. In this review, an overview on different classes of lipid nanoparticles, including liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and nanostructured lipid carriers, is first provided, followed by the introduction of their preparation methods. Then the characterizations of lipid nanoparticles are briefly reviewed and their applications in encapsulating and delivering hydrophobic drugs, hydrophilic drugs, and RNAs are highlighted. Finally, various applications of lipid nanoparticles for overcoming different delivery challenges, including crossing the blood-brain barrier, targeted delivery, and various routes of administration, are summarized. Lipid nanoparticles as drug delivery systems offer many attractive benefits such as great biocompatibility, ease of preparation, feasibility of scale-up, nontoxicity, and targeted delivery, while current challenges in drug delivery warrant future studies about structure-function correlations, large-scale production, and targeted delivery to realize the full potential of lipid nanoparticles for wider clinical and pharmaceutical applications in future.

12.
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals ; 13(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1812893
13.
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery ; 35(2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1812570

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 58 papers. The topics discussed include: assessment of aerosol drug delivery during the escalation of treatment for a simulated COVID-19 adult patient;development of a prototype of an aerosolization device for dry powders to improve in vitro cell-based assays in the context of lung delivery;surface acoustic wave nebulization for targeted inhalation drug delivery to central and peripheral airways;nasal-pampa: a novel in vitro tool for prediction of intranasal drug permeability;in vitro and in vivo evaluations of the tolerance of a new and innovative anti-tuberculosis drug combination by inhalation;transport of local anesthetic lidocaine across a pharyngeal air-liquid interface cell model;and the quantitative assessment of vape devices as novel pulmonary drug delivery systems using fluorine-18 radiolabeled drug molecules.

14.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(4):767, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810080

ABSTRACT

In the present work, the methods of dynamic light scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy were applied to study the optical properties of aqueous dilutions of the humic substances complex (HC) as a potential drug delivery system. The supramolecular structures in the humate solution were characterized as monodisperse systems of the submicron range with a tendency to decrease in particle size with a decrease in the dry matter concentration. The slightly alkaline medium (8.3) of the studied aqueous dilutions of HC causes the absence of a pronounced fluorescence maximum in the region from 400 to 500 nm. However, the presence of an analytically significant, inversely proportional to the concentration second-order scattering (SOS) signal at 2λex = λem was shown. In the examples of the antiviral substances mangiferin and favipiravir, it was shown that the use of the humic complex as a drug carrier makes it possible to increase the solubility by several times and simultaneously obtain a system with a smaller particle size of the dispersed phase. It has been shown that HC can interact with mangiferin and favipiravir to form stable structures, which lead to a significant decrease in SOS intensities on HC SOS spectra. The scattering wavelengths, λex/λem, were registered at 350 nm/750 nm for mangiferin and 365 nm/730 nm for favipiravir, respectively. The increments of the scattering intensities (I0/I) turned out to be proportional to the concentration of antiviral components in a certain range of concentrations.

15.
Molecules ; 27(8):2560, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810042

ABSTRACT

Herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes a significant life-long disease. Long-term side effects of antiviral drugs can lead to the emergence of drug resistance. Thus, propolis, a natural product derived from beehives, has been proposed to prevent or treat HSV-2 infections. Unfortunately, therapeutic applications of propolis are still limited due its poor solubility. To overcome this, a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system was employed. An ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) was encapsulated in nanoparticles composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and chitosan using a modified oil-in-water single emulsion by using the solvent evaporation method. The produced nanoparticles (EEP-NPs) had a spherical shape with a size of ~450 nm and presented satisfactory physicochemical properties, including positively charged surface (38.05 ± 7.65 mV), high entrapment efficiency (79.89 ± 13.92%), and sustained release profile. Moreover, EEP-NPs were less cytotoxic on Vero cells and exhibited anti-HSV-2 activity. EEP-NPs had a direct effect on the inactivation of viral particles, and also disrupted the virion entry and release from the host cells. A significant decrease in the expression levels of the HSV-2 replication-related genes (ICP4, ICP27, and gB) was also observed. Our study suggests that EEP-NPs provide a strong anti-HSV-2 activity and serve as a promising platform for the treatment of HSV-2 infections.

16.
Membranes ; 12(4):398, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810021

ABSTRACT

Herb medicines are popular for safe application due to being a source of natural herbs. However, how to deliver them in an efficacious and convenient manner poses a big challenge to researchers. In this study, a new concept is demonstrated that the electrospun polymer-based hybrid films can be a platform for promoting the delivery of a mixture of active herb extract, i.e., Lianhua Qingwen Keli (LQK), also a commercial traditional Chinese patent medicine. The LQK can be co-dissolved with the filament-forming polymeric polyvinylpyrrolidone K60 and a sweeter sucralose to prepare an electrospinnable solution. A handheld electrospinning apparatus was explored to transfer the solution into solid nanofibers, i.e., the LQK-loaded medicated films. These films were demonstrated to be composed of linear nanofibers. A puncher was utilized to transfer the mat into circular membrane a diameter of 15 mm. Two self-created methods were developed for disclosing the dissolution performances of the electrospun mats. Both the water droplet experiments and the wet paper (mimic tongue) experiments verified that the hybrid films can rapidly disintegrate when they encounter water and release the loaded LQK in an immediate manner. Based on the reasonable selections of polymeric excipients, the present protocols pave a way for delivering many types of active herb extracts in an effective and convenient manner.

18.
Indian Journal of Transplantation ; 16(1):107-112, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798825

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Telemedicine represents an innovative but untested approach to maintain patient care and reduce the risk of COVID-19 exposure to patients, health-care workers, and the public. In this study, we evaluated the applicability and efficacy of telemedicine in a kidney transplant recipient (KTR) cohort in COVID 19 era. Materials and Methods: An observational cohort study was conducted at a tertiary-care public-sector kidney disease institute in western India between March and September 2020. We evaluated the reasons, modes, and outcomes of patient contacts by telemedicine in the KTR cohort. We also evaluated the utility of telemedicine across three age groups. Results: Of 840 participants, whose mean age was 38.78 ± 12.39 years, male to female ratio was 4:1. The most common mode of communication was WhatsApp (653, 77.7%) followed by in-person surrogates (126, 15%). Acceptability of telemedicine was significantly better in younger and middle-age groups (P < 0.00001) compared to the elderly. Request for drug delivery (n = 756) was the most common reason for contact overall and managed through postal parcels. KTRs (n = 200) and donors (n = 75) were evaluated for medical illnesses. The most common medical reasons for contact were for febrile illness (n = 120) and graft dysfunction (n = 60). COVID-19-related disease was diagnosed and managed in 80 KTRs and 2 donors. COVID-19 updates were given to all contacts. Conclusion: Telemedicine is underutilized in the care of the KTR cohort. Telemedicine can be used across all ages although it's best suited for young and middle age groups. The impact of telemedicine on short- and long-term patient outcomes is unclear and warrants further study.

19.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research ; 73(1):37-52, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798546

ABSTRACT

Polymeric micelles are a promising method for drug delivery and drug targeting research. Polymeric micelles are nano-sized colloid particles that self-assemble from amphiphilic block co-polymers and they are more stable than surfactant micelles, and their inner core can solubilize large amounts of hydrophobic substances. In this article we have reviewed several aspects related to polymeric micelles like fundamental of polymeric micelles such as general feature, main properties, size, shape, structure analysis and chemistry of polymeric micelles, mechanism of micelles formation. The types of polymeric micelles also highlighted. Here, we have especially emphasized recent advancement of polymeric micelles application like treatment of cancer, treatment of Covid-19 and oral drug delivery, cutaneous drug delivery, polynucleotide delivery and delivery to brain by using polymeric micelles as a nanocarrier.

20.
International Conference on Mechanical Design, ICMD 2021 ; 111:1187-1202, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1797682

ABSTRACT

Because of the outbreak of COVID-19, “contactless distribution” will become the main direction of future medical logistics and transportation. In order to realize the distribution mode, the hospital drug delivery AGV is designed, including structure design and control system design. The structure design adopts induction line pilotage, wheel structure of three row-six wheel and double-wheel differential driving structure, and uses 3D software for structure modeling. The design of the control system adopts fuzzy control to adjust AGV wheel speed to realize the automatic deviation correction function when AGV is running, and the simulation of the automatic deviation correction control system is carried out. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

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