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1.
Architecture Civil Engineering Environment ; 15(2):177-186, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071036

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemia increased the attention of the world community to air biocontamination. Sewage treatment plants (STPs) generate a bioaerosol during different technological operations. Research aimed to estimate the range of bioaerosol emission from different technological objects of 5 small STPs. Such knowledge is very important for risk assessment, monitoring programs and pollution limitation. The sedimentation method was used for the detection of mesophiles, psychrophiles, Escherichia con, pigmented bacteria, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and mold fungi. The highest level of psychrophiles and mold fungi (> 1000 cfu/m(3)) was detected in points located near activated sludge chambers, sludge thickening tanks, and secondary clarifiers. The mesophiles (>500 cfu/m(3)) and E. coli aren't a normal component of air microflora, but were detected in all measurement points, especially near a pomp station (inflow), grit, activated sludge, sludge thickening chambers. At the points located at the leeward, the number of microorganisms was higher than in the windward. The research results indicate the necessity of constant monitoring of the STP impact on the air quality.

2.
Water ; 14(19):3009, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066634

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging contaminants leading to severe worldwide health problems. Chlorination, a widely used procedure, was extensively explored as one of the main methods to remove ARB and ARGs in recent years. In this study, to enrich the analyses of chlorination, several comprehensive effects of the chlorine disinfection system on ARB and their conjugative transfer ability were explored. The results presented that the low dose of chlorine (<3-log inactivation rate) had little influence on the survival of bacteria in terms of their capacity for conjugative transfer and antibiotic resistance. The high dose of chlorine (>3-log inactivation rate) triggered cell membrane changes, with little influence on the bacteria in terms of their antibiotic resistance. However, their capacity for conjugative transfer sharply decreased. Minor consumption of chloramphenicol was achieved with the chlorine dose applied in the disinfection system. Monochloroacetonitrile (MCAN) had limited effects on the frequency of conjugative transfer, indicating that the existence of MCAN would not aggravate the dissemination of ARGs by conjugative transfer. The overall impacts of the chlorine disinfection system with different containments on antibiotic resistance need further investigation.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066128

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients often develop coagulopathies including microclotting, thrombotic strokes or thrombocytopenia. Autoantibodies are present against blood-related proteins including cardiolipin (CL), serum albumin (SA), platelet factor 4 (PF4), beta 2 glycoprotein 1 (ß2GPI), phosphodiesterases (PDE), and coagulation factors such as Factor II, IX, X and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Different combinations of autoantibodies associate with different coagulopathies. Previous research revealed similarities between proteins with blood clotting functions and SARS-CoV-2 proteins, adenovirus, and bacterial proteins associated with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 infections. This study investigated whether polyclonal antibodies (mainly goat and rabbit) against these viruses and bacteria recognize human blood-related proteins. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and adenovirus recognized vWF, PDE and PF4 and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies also recognized additional antigens. Most bacterial antibodies tested (group A streptococci [GAS], staphylococci, Escherichia coli [E. coli], Klebsiella pneumoniae, Clostridia, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) cross-reacted with CL and PF4. while GAS antibodies also bound to F2, Factor VIII, Factor IX, and vWF, and E. coli antibodies to PDE. All cross-reactive interactions involved antibody-antigen binding constants smaller than 100 nM. Since most COVID-19 coagulopathy patients display autoantibodies against vWF, PDE and PF4 along with CL, combinations of viral and bacterial infections appear to be necessary to initiate their autoimmune coagulopathies.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae , Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial , Antigens, Bacterial , Autoantibodies , Bacterial Proteins , Blood Coagulation Factors , Capsid Proteins , Cardiolipins , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Factor IX , Factor VIII , Humans , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases , Platelet Factor 4/metabolism , Prothrombin , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin , beta 2-Glycoprotein I , von Willebrand Factor
4.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae ; 14(3):11358, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057246

ABSTRACT

Notulae Scientia Biologicae (http://www.notulaebiologicae.ro), Issue 3, Volume 14, 2022: The papers published in this issue represent interesting novelties in different topics of life science. Among the exciting research or reviews, we invite readers to find news about: Micropropagation and potential of bioactive compounds of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) for nutrition and health;Anatomical, physiological, biochemical and molecular responses of Eucalyptus spp. under water deficit conditions and characteristics of Tunisian arid species;Escherichia coli infection, a negative prognostic factor on the evolution of patients with surgical diseases;Biological characteristics and mortality in patients with diabetes and COVID-19;The influence of Staphylococcus infections on the evolution of hospitalized patients: The experience of the surgical department of IRGH Cluj-Napoca;Parquetina nigrescens leaf infusion: a food-based approach for the management of diet-induced iron deficiency in weanling rats;Evaluation of the effects of calabash chalk on the haematological profile of Wistar rats;Inhibitory potential of rutin on lipopolysaccharide-induced toxicity and inflammatory response of raw U937 cells and macrophages;Hypoglycemic and in vitro antioxidant activities of Stereospermum kunthianum stem bark hydromethanol extract;Polyploidization and speciation: patterns of natural hybridization and gene flow in basil (Ocimum spp.);Increasing liana biomass and carbon stocks in tropical dry evergreen forests of southern India.

5.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(1):10-19, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056573

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to establish an indirect ELISA technique for detecting the SIgA antibody against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) to evaluate its mucosal immunity. Firstly, the S1D gene (534-789 aa) of PEDV was cloned into the pET-28a(+) vector, and induced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) by IPTG, the product of which was in the form of inclusion bodies. According to Western-blot, the target protein S1D with antigenic activity was 32 ku in molecular weight and could be well detected. Then, the S1D protein was denatured by 8 mol/L urea, purified and gradient as the coating antigen to establish an indirect ELISA for detecting the PEDV specific SIgA antibody in nasal or oral mucus by optimizing conditions. And the optimal antigen coating concentration of ELISA was 2 micro g mL, the working concentrations of nasal mucus was 1:1 and the optimal blocking solution was 50 g/L skimmed milk, while the working concentrations and optimal blocking solution were 1:2 and 30 g/L BSA in oral mucus, the working concentrations of the enzyme-labeled antibody was 1:2 000 in nasal and oral mucus. Finally, 84 samples of oral and nasal mucus from immunized pigs were detected by S1D of ELISA, and the coincidence rate could reach 95.2% compared with purified PEDV of ELISA. In conclusion, the indirect ELISA established in this study provided a quick, simple, sensitive, and specific method to detect PEDV specific SigA for evaluating the level of PEDV mucosal immunity.

6.
HPS Weekly Report ; 55(40):1-42, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2044481

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection (ARHAI) Scotland provided a commentary on quarterly epidemiological data in Scotland for April to June (Q2) 2021 on the following: Clostridioides difficile infection, Escherichia coli bacteraemia, Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and surgical site Infection. Data are provided for the 14 NHS boards and one NHS Special Health board. Results showed that there were 277 CDI cases, of which 73.3% (203) were healthcare infections. In theprevious quarter there were 262 cases. There were 1103 ECB cases, of which 48.2% (532) were healthcare infections. In the previous quarter there were 961 cases. There were 408 SAB cases, of which 63.7% (260) were healthcare infections. In the previous quarter there were 388 SAB cases. Epidemiological data for SSI were not included for this quarter due to the pausing of surveillance to support the COVID-19 response. The data used for this report is part of the mandatory surveillance in Scotland. ARHAI Scotland supports NHS boards to analyse their data. Local monitoring in hospital and community settings isrequired to reduce these infections.

7.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(8)2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043551

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to develop a logistic modeling concept to improve understanding of the relationship between antibiotic use thresholds and the incidence of resistant pathogens. A combined approach of nonlinear modeling and logistic regression, named threshold logistic, was used to identify thresholds and risk scores in hospital-level antibiotic use associated with hospital-level incidence rates of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli). Threshold logistic models identified thresholds for fluoroquinolones (61.1 DDD/1000 occupied bed days (OBD)) and third-generation cephalosporins (9.2 DDD/1000 OBD) to control hospital ESBL-producing E. coli incidence. The 60th percentile of ESBL-producing E. coli was determined as the cutoff for defining high incidence rates. Threshold logistic analysis showed that for every one-unit increase in fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins above 61.1 and 9.2 DDD/1000 OBD levels, the average odds of the ESBL-producing E. coli incidence rate being ≥60th percentile of historical levels increased by 4.5% and 12%, respectively. Threshold logistic models estimated the risk scores of exceeding the 60th percentile of a historical ESBL-producing E. coli incidence rate. Threshold logistic models can help hospitals in defining critical levels of antibiotic use and resistant pathogen incidence and provide targets for antibiotic consumption and a near real-time performance monitoring feedback system.

8.
Magnetic Resonance ; 3(2):169-182, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2030255

ABSTRACT

The paramagnetism of a lanthanoid tag site-specifically installed on a protein provides a rich source of structural information accessible by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Here we report a lanthanoid tag for selective reaction with cysteine or selenocysteine with formation of a (seleno)thioether bond and a short tether between the lanthanoid ion and the protein backbone. The tag is assembled on the protein in three steps, comprising (i) reaction with 4-fluoro-2,6-dicyanopyridine (FDCP);(ii) reaction of the cyano groups withα-cysteine, penicillamine or β-cysteine to complete the lanthanoid chelating moiety;and (iii) titration with a lanthanoid ion. FDCP reacts much faster with selenocysteine than cysteine, opening a route for selective tagging in the presence of solvent-exposed cysteine residues. Loaded with Tb3+ and Tm3+ ions, pseudocontact shifts were observed in protein NMR spectra, confirming that the tag delivers good immobilisation of the lanthanoid ion relative to the protein, which was also manifested in residual dipolar couplings. Completion of the tag with different 1,2-aminothiol compounds resulted in different magnetic susceptibility tensors. In addition, the tag proved suitable for measuring distance distributions in double electron–electron resonance experiments after titration with Gd3+ ions.

9.
BioResources ; 17(4):5655-5666, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025778

ABSTRACT

Several protective coatings enhanced by antimicrobial agents and/or pigments were considered for the wooden toy market: water-based matte varnish, an ultra-hygiene water-based matte varnish (WBV-UH), a polyurethane matte varnish (PUV), and an ultra-hygiene antiviral polyurethane matte varnish (PUV-UH), as well as a water-based dye (WBV 5%K), an ultra-hygiene water-based dye (WBV-UH 5%K), a polyurethane dye (PUV 5%K), and an ultra-hygiene polyurethane dye (PUV-UH 5%K), which contain 5% red nano-pigment (K). By utilizing 7 kinds of bacteria and 2 types of yeast that are commonly detected in routine, daily settings, the efficacy of the different protective coatings on wooden toy surface was investigated. The antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the tested dye samples were based on the agar-well diffusion method. Ultimately, the study found that the addition of antimicrobial agents to several different protective coatings and dyes resulted in the presence of antimicrobial activity vs. the lack thereof with protective coatings and dyes alone. Additionally, some of the dyes with added antimicrobial agents were found to be effective against biofilm formation. Overall, the addition of pigment into the coating, alongside the addition of antimicrobial agents, proved to be highly effective in inhibiting growth and spread of microorganisms on wooden toy surface.

10.
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift ; 109(Artikel 11), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025202

ABSTRACT

We have evaluated the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic point-of-care tests (POCT) for the detection of rotavirus, coronavirus, Escherichia (E.) coli F5, Cryptosporidium (C.) parvum, Clostridium (Cl.) perfringens and Giardia (G.) intestinalis in fresh and thawed faecal samples from calves aged up to six months with diarrhoea. We performed POCTs to detect rotavirus, coronavirus, E. coli F5, C. parvum, Cl. perfringens and G. intestinalis on fresh samples in a field study and re-evaluated the performance for C. parvum, Cl. perfringens and G. intestinalis using thawed samples. We calculated the performance based on the results of the reference methods, which were RT-qPCR for the detection of rota- and coronavirus and bacteriological culturing and PCR to detect E. coli F5 and Cl. perfringens a and ss2 toxins. C. parvum was detected by phase-contrast microscopy and G. intestinalis by immunofluorescence microscopy. We collected 177 faecal samples from diarrhoeic calves. We found good performance for the POCT targeting rotavirus (sensitivity (SE)=92.9%;specificity (SP)=95.6%) and C. parvum (SE=63.3%;SP=96.2%). For E. coli F5, the number of true positive samples (n=1) was too low to evaluate the performance. The POCT to detect coronavirus gave a poor performance (SE=3.3%;SP=96.6%) and the POCT to detect Cl. perfringens a moderate performance (SE=52.8%;SP=78.2%). G. intestinalis POCT showed a higher sensitivity to immunofluorescence microscopy in thawed than in fresh faecal samples (SE=43.9% versus SE=29.2%). There are substantial differences in diagnostic performance between the commercially available immunochromatographic POCTs. Still, POCT can make a valuable contribution to the diagnosis and prevention of calf diarrhoea.

11.
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift ; 109(Artikel 9), 2022.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025201

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Neonatal calf diarrhoea is a multifactorial disease that sometimes leads to high economic losses. It can be fatal due to dehydration and acidosis and has been one of the main causes of calf mortality. Material and methods: This retrospective study considered calves of a maximum of 35 days of age and with a diagnosed infection with rotavirus and/or bovine coronavirus. We examined the clinical records of 156 calves that were referred to the University Clinic for Ruminants in Vienna. Results Calves that had been treated with antibiotics before admission to the Clinic had a higher risk of staying longer, suggesting either that these calves had a more serious illness or that antibiotic treatment was not indicated and so therapeutic success was not achieved. Twenty-three calves died or were euthanized at the Clinic. At the time of admission, they were younger than the surviving calves and they had a lower inner body temperature and a lower base excess at the first examination. The four most common pathogens in faecal samples were rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and Escherichia coli, which were detected in 67.1%, 53.9%, 48.1% and 94.1% of the faecal samples examined. The most common co-infection was rotavirus with Cryptosporidium parvum (17 faecal samples). We inspected the four most common pathogens in more detail. There were significant correlations between bovine coronavirus and season, with the risk of suffering from bovine coronavirus 1.6 times higher in winter than in other seasons. There was also a correlation between Cryptosporidium parvum and general behaviour: the risk of being infected with Cryptosporidium parvum was 2.6 times higher in calves that were moderately to severely depressed at the first examination. There was a correlation between co-infections and mortality, with calves with a co-infection at three times higher risk of dying than calves with a mono-infection.

12.
Chemosensors ; 10(8):299, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023203

ABSTRACT

The rapid and selective detection of bacterial contaminations and bacterial infections in a non-laboratory setting using advanced sensing materials holds the promise to enable robust point-of-care tests and rapid diagnostics for applications in the medical field as well as food safety. Among the various possible analytes, bacterial enzymes have been targeted successfully in various sensing formats. In this current work, we focus on the systematic investigation of the role of surface area on the sensitivity in micro- and nanostructured autonomously reporting sensing hydrogel materials for the detection of bacterial enzymes. The colorimetric sensing materials for the detection of β-glucuronidase (ß-GUS) from Escherichia coli (E. coli) were fabricated by template replication of crosslinked pullulan acetoacetate (PUAA) and by electrospinning chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibers (CS/PEO NFs), both equipped with the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucuronide. The investigation of the dependence of the initial reaction rates on surface area unveiled a linear relationship of rate and thereby time to observe a signal for a given concentration of bacterial enzyme. This knowledge was exploited in nanoscale sensing materials made of CS/PEO NFs with diameters of 295 ± 100 nm. Compared to bulk hydrogel slabs, the rate of hydrolysis was significantly enhanced in NFs when exposed to bacteria suspension cultures and thus ensuring a rapid detection of living E. coli that produces the enzyme β-GUS. The findings afford generalized design principles for the improvement of known and novel sensing materials towards rapid detection of bacteria by nanostructuring in medical and food related settings.

13.
Catalysts ; 12(8):856, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023199

ABSTRACT

Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever, collectively known as legionellosis. L. pneumophila infection occurs through inhalation of contaminated aerosols from water systems in workplaces and institutions. The development of disinfectants that can eliminate L. pneumophila in such water systems without evacuating people is needed to prevent the spread of L. pneumophila. Photocatalysts are attractive disinfectants that do not harm human health. In particular, the TiO2 photocatalyst kills L. pneumophila under various conditions, but its mode of action is unknown. Here, we confirmed the high performance of TiO2 photocatalyst containing PtO2 via the degradation of methylene blue (half-value period: 19.2 min) and bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (half-value period: 15.1 min) in water. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that the disinfection of L. pneumophila (half-value period: 6.7 min) by TiO2 photocatalyst in water is accompanied by remarkable cellular membrane and internal damage to L. pneumophila. Assays with limulus amebocyte lysate and silver staining showed the release of endotoxin from L. pneumophila due to membrane damage and photocatalytic degradation of this endotoxin. This is the first study to demonstrate the disinfection mechanisms of TiO2 photocatalyst, namely, via morphological changes and membrane damage of L. pneumophila. Our results suggest that TiO2 photocatalyst might be effective in controlling the spread of L. pneumophila.

14.
Catalysts ; 12(8):829, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023197

ABSTRACT

The transmission of pathogens via surfaces poses a major health problem, particularly in hospital environments. Antimicrobial surfaces can interrupt the path of spread, while photocatalytically active titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have emerged as an additive for creating antimicrobial materials. Irradiation of such particles with ultraviolet (UV) light leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species that can inactivate bacteria. The aim of this research was to incorporate TiO2 nanoparticles into a cellulose-reinforced melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) to obtain a photocatalytic antimicrobial thermoset, to be used, for example, for device enclosures or tableware. To this end, composites of MF with 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% TiO2 were produced by ultrasonication and hot pressing. The incorporation of TiO2 resulted in a small decrease in tensile strength and little to no decrease in Shore D hardness, but a statistically significant decrease in the water contact angle. After 48 h of UV irradiation, a statistically significant decrease in tensile strength for samples with 0 and 10 wt% TiO2 was measured but with no statistically significant differences in Shore D hardness, although a statistically significant increase in surface hydrophilicity was measured. Accelerated methylene blue (MB) degradation was measured during a further 2.5 h of UV irradiation and MB concentrations of 12% or less could be achieved. Samples containing 0, 10, and 20 wt% TiO2 were investigated for long-term UV stability and antimicrobial activity. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed no changes in the chemical structure of the polymer, due to the incorporation of TiO2, but changes were detected after 500 h of irradiation, indicating material degradation. Specimens pre-irradiated with UV for 48 h showed a total reduction in Escherichia coli when exposed to UV irradiation.

15.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Suppl 2):A107-A108, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2019844

ABSTRACT

636 Figure 1 636 Figure 2Conclusion• The incidence of significant bacteraemia per year was relatively steady and did not appear to be influenced by the activity of the hospital.• Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus remain the top significant illness-causing bacteria for general paediatric cases.• In 2020, the proportion of significant blood culture results was highest (figure 2). This may be due to less minor illness presenting to hospital or possibly better aseptic technique and more frequent handwashing.

16.
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy ; 11(3):1-1, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012258

ABSTRACT

This study provides a simple, widely available deterrence medication to minimize COVID-19 infection using by tea and coffee infusions. By mixing white with an equal amount of water, add a small amount of tea/coffee infusion. Dull brownish albumen-tannin complex, a soft precipitate is formed and sinks to the bottom. The infusion should reach the furthest points in the respiratory tract so that a maximum number of viral particles are trapped. It is necessary to hold the infusion rolling about for a little while, 20 seconds in the mouth before swallowing. Gargling with the infusion is better. Tannins in tea or coffee infusions will form complexes with the 4-5 types of viral surface proteins [spikes], rendering them ineffective. Protein-tannin astringent complexation is a fundamental chemical reaction and is bound to act, unlike specific antimetabolites or enzyme-mediated actions of antibiotics. In fact, tannins react to some extent with the cell lining of the mucous membranes of the mouth and stomach. Tannins also chelate iron [Fe] and other metal ions required for many of the metabolic reactions of micro-organisms [viruses?], depriving them of these nutrients and further retarding their propagation. Two gargles per day, 12 hours apart, are recommended to disable the virus and eventually kill it. The procedure disables free viruses before tissue invasion. Therefore, the earlier the gargle commences, the better. Suspected contacts should preferably have three daily eight-hourly gargles. Astringent activity is an added activity of tea and coffee, demonstrated in this study [using E. coli and Salmonella] to that of immune boosting action generally spoken about.

17.
Sarhad Journal of Agriculture ; 38(2):480-488, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002723

ABSTRACT

Broiler population is one of the most important segments of livestock due to its significant contribution in white meat production. Infectious disease outbreaks adversely influence the production potential and consequently cause economic losses. Epidemiological data regarding magnitude of these disease outbreaks is of fundamental importance for planning of a comprehensive control strategy. With retrospective design, this study was conducted from January 2013 through December 2017 in order to assess the disease burden on broilers reared in different open type poultry houses. Out of total 658 commercial farms with capacity of 4221800 broilers, across Chakwal, a representative sample of 70 farms with capacity of 448000 broilers was randomly selected for collection and analysis of disease data. Five years' data of these randomly selected farms revealed highest (44.64%) crude morbidity during monsoon season followed by 23.92%, 22.12% and 17.49% for winter, spring and post-monsoon seasons respectively. The highest (14.90%) prevalence was recorded for new castle disease followed by infectious bursal disease (11.79%), pullorum disease (11.17%), colibacillosis (8.71%), infectious bronchitis (7.87%), inclusion body hepatitis (7.79%), chronic respiratory disease (7.67%), necrotic enteritis (6.48%), coccidiosis (6.09%), mycotoxicosis (5.43%), fowl cholera (4.74%), infectious coryza (4.41%), fowl typhoid (4.22%), omphalitis (3.71%) and hydropericardium syndrome (0.05%). Maximum share in crude morbidity was contributed by bacterial diseases with highest proportional morbidity of 48.68% followed by viral (40.32%), parasitic (5.80%) and fungal (5.20%) diseases. This epidemiological data represents true picture of study population and is a valuable tool for planning of prevention strategy and research priorities.

18.
Journal of Chemistry ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2001948

ABSTRACT

Two novel metal complexes, that is, Ni (StmAn)2(4) and Cu (StmAn)2(5), were synthesized from unsymmetrical Schiff base ligand StmAn (3). The ligand was prepared by refluxing streptomycin (2) and aniline (1). They were characterized by elemental microanalysis, conductivity measurements, and spectroscopic techniques such as 1H NMR, FT-IR, ESI-mass, and electronic absorption spectral study. Interestingly, the study revealed metal coordination through azomethine nitrogen and N-atom of NH-CH3 of N-methyl-L-glucosamine unit of streptomycin. The electronic absorption spectral study supported an octahedral geometry for complex 4 and a tetrahedral geometry for complex 5. Particle size calculation by Scherrer’s formula indicated their nanocrystalline nature. The geometry optimization of the complexes was achieved by running an MM2 job in Gaussian supported Cs-ChemOffice ultra-12.0.1 and ArgusLab 4.0.1 version software. Based on SwissADME predictions, a theoretical drug profile was generated by analyzing absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) scores of the compounds. They were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity study against four clinical pathogens such as E. coli, S. pneumoniae, P. vulgaris, and S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) study demonstrated greater inhibitory potency of complex (4) (0.024 g/L) for S. aureus relative to ligand (3) and complex (5). Studies show that metal complexes are more toxic to bacteria.

19.
Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences ; 32(210):26-36, 2022.
Article in Persian | GIM | ID: covidwho-1999496

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this study, an indirect ELISA method was designed to measure the human IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Materials and methods: Protein sequence of nucleocapsid antigen from SARS-CoV-2 was expressed in E. coli BL21 and then was purified by chromatography. The purified protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. An indirect ELISA method was designed to measure the specific IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 using recombinant N protein. The optimized ELISA method was then applied to measure the IgG and IgM antibodies in 61 infected or recovered COVID-19 patients and in 31 healthy controls. Finally, data obtained from the designed ELISA method were compared with those of a commercially approved ELISA kit.

20.
SciDev.net ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1998394

ABSTRACT

Speed read Antibiotic-resistant infections led to more than 1.2 million deaths in 2019 – Lancet study True picture could be much worse, with added impact of COVID-19, experts warn Urgent policy measures needed in developing countries, say researchers [NEW DELHI] Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections resulted in more than 1.2 million deaths worldwide in 2019, exceeding the number caused by HIV/AIDS and malaria, says a study spanning 204 countries and territories. In Sub-Saharan Africa, deaths attributable to AMR mainly resulted from Streptococcus pneumoniae (16 per cent) or Klebsiella pneumoniae (20 per cent), while in high-income countries nearly 50 per cent of the deaths attributable to AMR were due to Escherichia coli (23 per cent) or Staphylococcus aureus (26 per cent). According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “improving antibiotic prescribing and use is critical to effectively treat infections, protect patients from harms caused by unnecessary antibiotic use, and combat antibiotic resistance.”

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